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Full text of "Arabic-Englsih Dictionary_Part3"

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867 



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to allow, make possible (a to do s.th., 
e.g., of a technical device); to obey (j* 
a.o.), yield, give in (<> to s.o.), sub- 
mit to s.o.'s (j>.) command; — qabila 

a and qabala u i (*)\J qabdla) to guar- 
antee, vouch, be surety (^ for) | JJ 
j» ^UJJI (dahdba) he was willing to go 
with me; qabila with ace. of a masdar 
frequently corresponds to an English 
adjective in -able, -ible, -ive, -al, e.g., 
♦Uill JJb *li (sifaa) a curable disease, 
v l^JVl JJu ^UiJ (highly) combustible 
merchandise; 4J-I^il J-JaJ V jU I (mw 
zahamata) prices that are beyond com- 
petition; ISvi JJ (sakkan) to admit doubt 
II to kiss (a, * s.o., s.th.); {eg.) to. go 
south(ward) III to be or stand exactly 
opposite s.o. or s.th. (a, o), be face to 
face (a, o with); to confront, face, 
counter (» s.o.; cj a s.th. with, e.g., a 
situation with caution); to meet (» s.o.; 
iji a s.th., e.g., a danger, with, by); to 
encounter (» s.o.), run across s.o. (*); 
to visit {» s.o.), call on s.o. (»); to meet, 
get together, have a talk or interview 
( 6 with s.o.); to interview (» s.o.); to 
receive (in audience) (« s.o.), grant an 
audience (* to s.o.) ; to receive (<-j a, » s.o., 
s.th. with, e.g., a news with joy); to 
repay, return, requite (<-> a s.th. with); 
to compare, collate (J* or u * s.th. 
with) | 4*Jlj <^J\ Jp iLU; (rahb, sa'a) to 
welcome s.o. or s.th.; JiiU «LU (bi-l-mitl) 
to return like for like IV to turn forward; 
to draw near, come close to s.o. or to a 
place (Jp), approach (Jp s.o., a place); 
to advance (Jp to, toward); to turn 
(J* to, toward); to embark, enter (Jp 
upon s.th.), engage (J* in); to give one's 
attention, devote o.s. (Jp to s.o., to 
s.th.), dedicate o.s., apply o.s., attend 
(Jp to s.th.), occupy o.s. (Jp with); to 
take an interest, become or be interested 
(Jp in); to go, come (Jl to); to be abun- 
dant (crop); (with foil, imperf.) to begin 
to do | jXj}\ «Up JJ! (dahru) or <u!p cJLJl 



LJoJl (dunyd) luck is on his side, fortune 
smiles on him V to accept, receive (a 
s.th.); to hear, grant (o»Ui du'a'ahu 
s.o.'s prayer; of God); to suffer, bear, 
endure (a s.th. adverse), submit (a to), 
put up with (a) VI to be opposite each 
other, face each other; to meet (e.g., 
two persons); to get together, have 
a meeting, meet (^ with); to be com- 
pared, be collated VIII to receive (a, » 
s.o., s.th.); to apply o.s. gladly and 
willingly (a to s.th.) X to turn one's face 
(a, a to s.o., toward s.th.); to go to meet, 
to meet (* s.o.); to move towards, step 
or go up to (a s.th.); to face, confront, 
meet (a, » s.o., s*.th.); to take upon o.s., 
assume (a s.th.); to receive (* a visitor, 
a guest; a s.th., e.g., a radio broadcast) | 
jijai\ J-ii-l to get on one's way, set out; 
to go straight forward 

JJ qablu (adv.) or Jj j* min qablu 
and ^J qablan previously, formerly, 
earlier, before; JJ ^ i j* (qablu), JJ <^i je- 
(after a comparative) ...than before; — 
qabla (prep.) before, prior to | • (5 S J£* JJ 
qabla kulli saiin first of all, above all; 
JJ j* min qabli before, prior to; ol JJ 
(conj.) before; Jl^Ul JJ (niWl) next to 
the last one, last but one; not final, in- 
terim (in compounds), tentative 

JJ qabll aphoristic, a priori (in com- 
pounds) 

AxLi qablaidin previously, formerly, 
once, in former times 

J^J quballa (prep.) shortly before, prior 
to; <jl J-J (conj.) shortly before 

JJ qubl, qubul fore part, front part, 
front, face | JJ j* (qubulin) in front; 
from the front, from in front 

JJ qibal power, ability; — qibala (prep.) 
in the presence of,, before, near; in the 
direction of, toward | <u <d JJ V (qibala) 
he has no power over it, it is not in his 



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868 



power; he is incapable of accomplishing 
it; he cannot prevail against him; ^ 
JJ min qibali on the part of, from, 
by; 4— ju JJ ^ by himself (or itself), of 
his {or its) own accord; jo 4J J U 
qibalahu dain he owes me a debt, he is 
indebted to me 

UJ qubla pi. qubldt, qubuldt, JJ qubal 
kiss 

SiJ qibla kiblah, direction to which 
Muslims turn in praying {toward the 
Kaaba); recess in a mosque indicating 
the direction of the Kaaba, prayer niche | 
^iLiJI Jjl uld l-qiblatain the first of the 
two kiblahs, i.e., Jerusalem; jliij^l 5JL» 
q. al-anzdr focus of attention, target of 
all eyes, ideal, goal sought after and 
aspired to; fl^ftVt *Lj object of widespread 
interest, focus of attention 

JJ qibll southern, south | JJtJi 4^1 
(wajk) Upper Egypt 

J^J qabul, qubul (friendly) reception; 
welcome; acceptance; concurrence, con- 
sent, assent, approval; receiving, receipt; 
admission (e.g., for university study), ad- 
mittance; with foil. ma§dar correspond- 
ing to English abstract nouns in -ability, 
-ibility, -ivity, -ality, e.g., "<&y>~h J^J j»jlp 
'adam q. at-tafriqa indivisibility 

J~i qabll guarantor, bailsman), surety; 
kind, specimen, species, sort; tribe | 
J-jJoJI lift j* of this kind, like this, such; 
in this respect; ^-UajVI J~* j- {q- il-ldah) 
by way of illustration, as an explanation ; 
jjij J^J J£* ,y* (dablr) of every origin 
(whatsoever) ; jyi Vj JgJ j ^Vl II* ^ ^ 
he is not in the least involved in this 
affair, he has absolutely nothing to do 
with this affair 

ILJ qablla pi. JjL* qabail z tribe; pi, 
Jj'UJI Kabylia | ^^1 JJLiJI (kubra) 
greater Kabylia 



Jjf qabali tribal 

JJU qaba'ill Kabyle (adj. and n.}, pi, 
j^JjLiJI the Kabyles 

ilLS qabala bail, guaranty, suretyship, 
liability, responsibility; contract, agree- 
ment 

<JIJ qibdla midwifery, obstetrics 

4JIJ qubalata (prep.) opposite, face to 
face with, vis-a-vis, in front of 

J~ij taqbil kissing 

<JL* qibdla (prep.) opposite, face to 
face with, vis-a-vis, in front of 

iLli. muqdbala pi. -at encounter; meet- 
ing; match (between two teams; sports) 
conversation, talk, discussion; interview 
audience; reception; comparison, col- 
lation I ciili aLUI* muqabalata d. oriLU* j 
villi in return for that, in exchange for 
that, in compensation for that, as an 
equivalent for that, for that, therefor; 
iijLiil fij^S comparative anatomy; iijUi I 
JzILj (bi-l-mitl) requital; retaliation, 
reprisal; iLUiLj JUI to return like for 
like; v^*^' SJbUL. m. al-iyab return match, 
4jij &U. (widdiya) friendly match 
(sport) 

J Li! iqbdl drawing near, advance, 
approach; coming, arrival, advent; turn- 
ing, application, attention, response, 
responsiveness (J* to), concern ( Jp for), 
interest (J* in), demand; good fortune, 
prosperity, welfare | Ijlolj VUH iqbalan 
wa-idbdran back and forth, to and fro, 
up and down 

JJij taqabbul acceptance, sufferance, 
bearing; tolerance; receptivity, suscepti- 
bility 

JLiSI iqtibdl reception 

jLiL-l istiqbdl pi. -at reception; oppo- 
sition {astron.); full moon (as an astro- 



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J? 



nomical aspect); the future; VLJfc-*l istiq* 
balan in the future | J Liz- VI II T receiving 
set, receiver; JLiiw VI **j£ gurfat al-ist. re- 
ception room, parlor; -OLiu-l j <jlf he was 
present to greet him, he had come to 
meet him 

JjU qdbil obstetrician, accoucheur; 
coming, next (e.g., month); subject, 
liable, susceptible, disposed (J to s.th.); 
O receiver (radio) ; with foil. J and mas* 
dar corresponding to English adjectives 
in -able, -ible, -ive, -al | ^j**^ J>U con- 
vertible; transferable (fin.); jl^a-^U JjU 
combustible; J«Jd! JjU washable; JjU 
CjjJt (li'l-maut) mortal; »U±il JjU cur- 
able; *-jLp^U JjU (highly) combustible, 
inflammable; J-^jxil JjU conductive (el,): 
f\yrJ^ d^ S* irrevocable; jJlJ\ jl_^>- Oj& 
C>\j* *jjI AjJUj^I ^jU (jawdz as-safar, 
arba'a marratiri) the passport can be 
renewed four times 

SLU qdbila pi. -at, Jjl^ qawdbiP mid- 
wife, accoucheuse; — (pi. JjI^ qawabil 1 ) 
receptacle, container; — pi. Jjljj be- 
ginnings 

^JLjU qdbillya faculty, power, capacity, 
capability, ability; aptitude, fitness; 
tendency, disposition, liability, suscepti- 
bility, sensibility, receptivity (& to); 
appetite | J~-*>JJ 4JLU conductivity (el.); 
~A**J&\ aJjU q. al-qisma divisibility; <^U 
Jj.>*£Ji aJUaJI (q. al- r umla) convertibility of 
currency (Jin.); cf. JjU 

JjJL* maqbul acceptable, reasonable; 
satisfactory (as an examination grade; 
Eg.); pleasing, obliging, complaisant, 
amiable; well-liked, likable, popular, 
welcome; admitted (e.g., for university 
study) 

O^Ll* muqabbildt appetizers, hors 
d'oeuvres 

JjUu muqabil facing, opposite; counter- 
fin compounds); equivalent, wages, re- 



muneration, recompense; (pi. -un) inter- 
viewer; — muqabila (prep.) opposite, in 
front of; for, instead of, in exchange for | 
JjUHj as an equivalent, in compensation; 
dlli JjLi* (muqabila) or dlli JjU. j in 
return for that, in exchange for that, in 
compensation for that, as an equivalent 
for that, for that, therefor; x*-Uj J>li* 
Cjtji$\ upon presentation of the coupon; 
JjU! /uJI j t>-~*- JjLS* 4Lji- 4jL. (mi' at 
safina m. kamsin) 100 ships as compared 
with 50 the previous year; JjU. jj-b or 
JjLL. j>J- j» without compensation, for 
nothing, gratis; Jo-aa Jj # U- i_>Ij>I f (ha- 
dafain) 3 goals to 2, 3:2 (as a score ; 
sport) 

JJL« muqbil coming, next (e.g., month, 
year) 

J~u* muqtabal: ^**jl J~i* j jl m. il- r umr 
in the prime of life; JJJI J^a. (muqtabala 
l-lail) at the beginning of the night, early 
at night 

J-iu— mustaqbil receiving set, receiver 
(radio) 

J r ii— mustaqbal front part, front, face ; 
future (adj.); the future; ">Uku». mustaq- 
balan in the future | J.«r...H 1p '#m aZ-m. 
futurology 

J,Jaz., « mustaqbali future (adj.), futur- 
ologic 

aJlJix^w. mustaqballya futurism 

j>i II to weigh (with a steelyard) (a s.th.) 

OLi qabbdn steelyard; scale beam; 
platform scale, weighbridge 

Vv-i qabd* pi. 4-Ji aqbiya an outer garment 
with full-length sleeves 

2 (_jJ) LJ go&a u to vault, arch (a s.th.) II do. 

jj qabw pi. iLJl aqbiya vault; vaulted 
or arched ceiling; room or hall with vault - 



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870 



ed or arched ceiling; cellar; tunnel, gal- 
lery, drift, adit (mining) ; O prompt box | 
<oUjJ1 jt> <?. al-wiqdya underground shel- 
ter (against air raids) 

ZjJ qabwa vault 

»li qiba interval, interspace, distance 

^JL. maqbuw vaulted, arched, domed 

Ol-s^J qabuddn captain 

cJ qatta u (qatt) to render falsely, mis- 
represent, depreciate, belittle, minimize 
(* s.th.); to lie VIII to uproot, root out, 
extirpate (a, « s.o., s.th.) 

^Ua qattdt slanderer, calumniator 

i_^:i qatab pi. L->Lil aqtdb {eg.) hunch, hump 
iJSjaa muqautab hunchbacked 

ilj qatad tragacanth (Astragalus; bot.) \ 
.sbi Jp ^jJU- he was sitting on a bed of 
thorns 

j\S qatara u i (qatr, jj£ qutur) and II to be 
stingy, tightfisted, niggardly, parsi- 
monious ( Jp toward s.o.), keep (J* s.o.) 
short, stint (Jp s.o.) IV do.; to live in 
straitened circumstances, be or become 
poor 

JS qatr stinginess, niggardliness, par- 
simony ( Jp toward) 

IJS qatara dust 

j Li qutdr aroma, smell (of s.th. fried 
or cooked) 

j£j£ taqtlr stinginess, niggardliness, 
parsimony ( Jp toward) 

JM qdtir stingy, tightfisted, miserly, 
niggardly, parsimonious ( Jp toward) 

JuU muqattir, muqtir stingy, tight- 



fisted, miserly, niggardly, parsimonious 
( Jp toward) 

Ja qatala u (qatl) to kill, slay, murder, 
assassinate (» s.o.); to mitigate, alleviate 
(a s.th., e.g., *ji\ al-barda the cold, 
£ji~! al-jua the hunger); to mix, dilute 
(i^» * s.th. with, e.g., wine with water); 
to know, master (a s.th., e.g., a skill) | 
(Li* or) \jj- &S (kubran, 'ilman) or 4a 
li*tj Ujj (darsan wa-bahtan) to know or 
master s.th. (e.g., a skill, a field of study) 
thoroughly; lis- fj^J^ J^ (bahtan) to 
study a topic mo3t thoroughly, treat a 
subject exhaustively; lj*~ y>Jdl J^ (dahra 
kibratan) to have long experience with 
life, be worldly wise II to kill, massacre 
( j> people), cause carnage (j» among 
people) III to combat, battle (o s.o,), 
fight (» s.o., with s.o., or against s.o.) | 
<ui I 4JUIS lit.: may God fight him! i.e., 
approx. : damned bastard! VI and VIII 
to fight with one another, combat each 
other VIII to fight (^ with) | ^ Jsil 
^piJI to be fighting with oneself, have an 
inner conflict X to risk one's life, defy 
death 

Jx* qatl killing; manslaughter, homi- 
cide; murder, assassination | i_~uj Ja 
(bi-sdbabin) indirect killing (IsU Law); 
tkJ-1 JxiJl (katdu) involuntary man- 
slaughter, unintentional homicide (jur,)\ 
JU*)I JsiJI ('avid) or ^.UjJI JxxJl {'andi) or 
\xf- JxJUl (amdan) (intentional) murder; 
jlys^^l J-** £* JUjJI JxiJI (sabqi I4§rar) 
premeditated murder; IjUoS J^J! (qasdan) 
or ^aS jp JzaJI voluntary manslaughter, 
homicidium ex voluntate 

Jss gttZ pi. Jbil agtfaZ enemy, foe, ad- 
versary, opponent 

Jwji gafJZ pi. JJ gaf/a killed; killed in 
battle, fallen; one killed in battle, 
casualty | ^ji- i J-xS q. al-harb man 
killed in war 



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871 



Ja*J 



JUS qattal murderous, deadly, lethal 

J3I aqtaP deadlier, more lethal in 
effect 

Jza* maqtal murder j killing; massacre, 
slaughter, butchery; murderous battle; 
(pi. JjUL. maqatil 2 ) vital part of the 
body (the injury of which will bring 
about death), mortal spot, mortal organ; 
Achilles' heel, vulnerable spot | j 4;^ 
4ljli, (darabahu) or J^iil *c* u-jL^I (as&ba) 
he hit him at his most vulnerable spot 

&!• maqtala pi. -af butchery, slaughter, 
carnage, massacre 

J~aJ butchery, slaughter, carnage, 
massacre 

JUS qital fight, struggle, contention 
(against); combat, strife, battle | 4*~L* 
J lull battlefield 

JUS qiiall fighting, battle (in com- 
pounds) I SJUS ^U? fighting strength 

aL'La. muqdtala fight, struggle, con- 
tention (against) ; combat, strife 

JjUj taqdtul mutual struggle 

J; IS qdtil killing, murdering; deadly, 
lethal, mortal, fatal; (pi. JUS quttal, *US 
qatala) killer, manslayer; murderer, as- 
sassin 

0*&lS qdtildt lethal agents (J against) 

jil. muqattal experienced, practiced, 
tried, tested 

JJlii muqdtil fighter, combatant, war- 
rior; fighting, combat-, battle- (in com- 
pounds) 

&LL. muqdtila (coll.) combatants, war- 
riors, fighting forces 

4uU* muqdtila pi. -at combat plane, 
light bomber 



J^u* muqtatal battlefield, battle- 
ground 

J^U— mustaqtil death -defying, heroic 

IS qatama u Uj& qutum) to rise (dust) IX to 
be dark(-colored), blackish 

i*xS qutw,a y qatama dark or blackish 
color, darkness, gloom 

a US qatdm dark or blackish color, 
darkness, gloom 

jji aqtam 2 dark- colored, blackish, 
dark 

/r\S qatim pi. rly </awa£tm 2 black, 
dark | rlS i^»1 pitch-black 



1 *li ga|to tt (grt||) and VIII to pull out, tear 
out, uproot (a s.th.) 

3 fUS qitta , qutta (coll.; n. un. I) cucumber 

zjii qattara pi. j\£ qatatir 2 — SjUiS 

S^kiS qattara pl.^US qatatir 2 catheter (med.) 

1 «S ^aA^ « (*.'/*■•, pal* < r\ ahha) to cough 

2 ,J quhh pi. r^i-i ag/wA pure, sheer, un- 
mixed, unadulterated; genuine 

S 4**S qiha see ^j 

L3- qahba pi. c-jU- gj^afc whore, harlot, 
prostitute 

Ja5- qahata a (qaM, J»ji- quhut) and qahita a 
(qahat) to be withheld, fail to set in 
(rains); active and pass, quhita to be 
rainless (year) II to pollinate (^JUmJl an- 
naklala the palm tree); (eg.) to scratch 
off, scrape off (* s.th.) IV to be rainless 
(year) 

j*i- qaht want of rain, rainlessness; 



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872 



drought, dryness; famine; dearth, lack, 
want, scarcity 

JUJ- qatyan 2 legendary ancestor of the 
South Arabians 

ijii- qahafa a (qahf) to swallow, gulp down 
(a s.th.); to sweep away, carry away 
(a s.th.; of a river) VIII = I 

tjJ- qikf pi. <J»^ quhuf, JsLM aqhdf, 
4A>o qikafa skull; cranium, brainpan 

J>J- g"«M/ torrential (river) 

J*- gaAifo a {qahal) and pass. ^wA^a to be or 
become dry or arid, dry up, wither 

Ji- qahal dryness, aridity 

Jl- qahil dry, arid 

iljj- quhukt dryness, aridity 

**&■ qahla 2 f. dry 

J^IS g^M dry, arid 

*i- IV to push, drag ( j t> s.o. into s.th.), 
involve (j o s.o. in); to introduce for- 
cibly, cram (J a s.th. into) | *~Ju JU 
i g ■ : j ; (nafsaku) he squeezed himself 
between them VIII to plunge, rush, 
hurtle (a into s.th.); to break (a into s.th.), 
intrude, invade (a s.th.); to burst (a into 
a room) ; to jump, leap, dive (a into s.th.) ; 
to rush, dart (a at); to storm, take by 
storm (a s.th.); to embark boldly (a 
upon s.th.); to defy (a danger, hardships, 
etc.) 

i«i- quhma pi. *i- quham danger one 
rushes into, hazardous undertaking 

fUJu miqhdm pi. *>-U* maqahim? one 
who plunges heedlessly into danger, 
reckless, daring, foolhardy 

fli-l iqhdm dragging in, implicating, 
involvement 



fLjSl iqtiham breaking in, inrush, 
irruption, intrusion, obtrusion; inroad, 
invasion, incursion; storming, capture 
by storm 

oiji-l uqhuwdn pi. ^-Ul aqahin, ,y-Ul agoAi^ 
camomile (6of.); daisy (60/.) 

jlj^J quhwdn = o\j*S\ 

l J& qad (particle) with foil, perf . indicates the 
termination of an action; sometimes 
corresponding to English "already"; 
with foil, imperf. : sometimes, at times; 
perhaps, or English "may", "might" 

2 a5 qadda u (qadd) to cut lengthwise, cut into 
strips (a s.th.); to cut off (a s.th.); to 
chop off {a s.th.); to cut out, carve out 
(a s.th.) ; pass, qvdda to be formed, shaped 
or made {^ of a material) | J3= ^ <Ji J 
qudda qalbuhu min kajarin to have a 
heart of stone II to cut into strips and dry 
(a s.th., e.g., meat, fruits); to jerk (* 
meat); to cut off (a s.th.) VII to split, 
burst (also, e.g., with laughter) VIU - 
qadda 

As qidd pi. JS\ aqudd strip (of leather), 
strap, thong 

» j£ qidda pi. jA» qidad rail; ruler | 
b-jj JS\J? \j*j£ tafarraqu faraiqa qidadan 
to split into many parts or groups, 
break up, dissolve 

JbA* qadid meat cut into strips and 
dried, jerked meat 

Ji qadd pi. ijX* qudud shape, build, 
frame, physique, stature, height, figure; 
(eg.) size, bulk, volume, quantity | »jG Jp 
of the same size, of equal size, just as 
(large) 

3 -tf qudd cod, codfish (zool.) 

£-A5 qadaka a {qadk) to bore, pierce ( j s.th.); 



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873 



J* 



to slander, defame, malign, vilify 
(j 8.0.) ; to rebuke, censure, blame 
(j s.o.); to reprove, reproach, chide 
(j s.o.); to reject as objectionable (j a 
witness, a testimony); to impair, de- 
preciate, belittle, lessen, dimmish, degrade 
{i_> or j s.th.), detract (^ or j from); 
to violate, infringe ( j s.th.), offend ( j 
against) ; to strike fire (with a flint) (also 
with jbJI an-ndra) \ J&iW jUJ ^X* (z. 
al-fihr) to ponder, think hard, rack one's 
brain; a^So -j* (fikrahu) to think hard; 
Ij^J ~oS (sararan) to strike or emit 
sparks VIII to strike fire {with a flint), 
also jbJI £.Jial ; to weigh, consider (a s.th.) 

7-oS gatfA slander, calumniation, cal- 
umny, defamation, vilification, asper- 
sion; censure, rebuke, reproof, reproach; 
depreciation, detraction (cj or j from), 
impairment 

*-0j qidh, pi. *\jS qiddh, ^jS\ aqduh, 
^IaiI aqddh, £jl*l aqddlh 2 arrow shaft; 
arrow; divining arrow, arrow used for 
oracles | J*i1 ^-JLcJI {mu'alld) the seventh 
of the divining arrows used in the 
ancient Arabian game of maisir, i.e., 
the best of them which won seven 
shares of the slaughtered camel, hence: 
j J*ll *-a£JI 4 to be the principal agent 
in, have a major impact on, exert 
decisive influence on, be of crucial 
importance for 

ptf qadah pi. v-IjlSI aqddh drinking 
bowl ; (drinking) cup ; goblet ; glass, 
tumbler; tea glass; keddah, a dry 
measure {Eg. = 1 j w ^oj' ardabb — 
2.062 1) 

J 4* qaddah and iU-l-tf qadddha pi. 
•at flint; fire steel, fire iron (for striking 
sparks from flint); flint and steel; 
lighter (e.g., for cigarettes) 

*»-JLJu mtqdaha fire steel, fire iron (for 
striking sparks from flint) 



j A* qadara u i (qadr) to decree, ordain, 
decide (a s.th.; of God) ■ — • qadara i 
(ej^S qudra t IjJju maqdura, maqdara, 
maqdira) and qadira a (qadar) to possess 
strength, power, or ability; to have 
power (Jp over s.th.), be master (J* of 
s.th.), be equal { Jp to s.th.), be up to s.th. 
(Jp); to have the possibility to do (J* 
s.th.), be in a position to do s.th. (ul or 
Jp), be able to do s.th. (jl or Jp), be 
capable (ui or Jp of) II to appoint, 
assign, determine, ordain, decree (a 
s.th., Jp for s.o.; of God); to predeter- 
mine, foreordain, (pre)destine (a s.th.; 
of God); to appraise (a s.th.; with 
respect to its worth and amount), assess, 
estimate, calculate, tax, evaluate, value, 
rate ( ^ a s.th. at) ; to anticipate, foresee (a 
s.th.); to surmise, guess, presume, sup- 
pose, believe, think, be of the opinion ( jl 
that); to esteem highly, value, treasure, 
prize, cherish {« s.o., a s.th., J a s.th. in 
s.o., because of s.th. s.o.); to appreciate 
(a s.th.); to enable (Jp * s.o. to do s.th.), 
put (a s.o.) in a position (Jp to do s.th.); 
(gram.) to imply in an expression (J or 
a) another (<^ or a) as virtually existing | 
*mI j>te V (which) God forbid! olSCi jjj 
(quddira) the inevitable happened I J*- »jJL* 
ajji {haqqa qadrihi) to attach the proper 
value to s.o. or s.th., fully appreciate the 
value of s.o. or s.th.; jJLaj V la yuqaddaru 
inestimable, invaluable, immeasurable, 
immense, huge, enormous, tremendous 

IV to enable (Jp 6 s.o. to do s.th.), put 
(o s.o.) in a position (Jp to do s.th.) 

V to be appointed, assigned, determined, 
ordained, destined, fated, decreed VIII = I 
qadara i X to ask {* God) for strength or 
ability 

j4i qadr pi. j\jS\ aqddr extent, scope, 
quantity, amount, scale, rate, measure, 
number; sum, amount; degree, grade; 
worth, value, standing, rank; divine 
decree | jJJUI <iJ lailat ahq. the night in 



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which, according to sura 97, the Koran 
was revealed, celebrated during the 
night between the 2(jth and 27th of 
Ramadan; ^ jJS a certain extent of, a 
certain degree of; jAs qadra, jJUb bi-qadri, 
jji Jp commensurate with, correspond- 
ing to, according to, in proportion to; 
I* jJLaj bi-qadri ma in the same measure 
as, to the same extent as, as much as, 
as large as; U jJS Jp T ald qadrin ma to a 
certain extent, relatively; p-lkuJJ jS*qad* 
ra l-mustata, f-l kul l j^aj, p Lkr-JLl jA* Jp, 
iSUaJ] j£ qadra t-L, oi£*VI j-la qadra l- 
imkdn, jl£L.Vl j-l*j and 0&.VI j£ Jt as 
far as possible, as much as possible, in 
the best way possible, to the best of 
one's abilities; Cjj^ *jU UjJI* ^J^' 
aglabiya qadruha mi'atu sautin a majority 
of a hundred votes ; jJS jj'i dawu q. people 
of distinction, important people 

jj£ qadar pi. jloSl aqddr divine fore- 
ordainment, predestination; fate, destiny, 

lot | jJuJI > ft-l. madhab al-q. fatalism; 

jjullj *L^iJI (qada) fate and divine de- 
cree; IjJij *Ua5 qada an wa-qadaran or 
jJLaJIj oLaJaJlj by fate and divine decree; 
jOj Jp *U- he arrived just at the right time 

,jjJ3 qadarl fate (in compounds) ; fatal- 
istic | (JjJS /"A-JUt submission to fate, 
fatalism 

SjjJLaJi al-qadariya a theological school 
of early Islam asserting man's free will 

jSs> qidr m. and f., pi. jj^5 qudur 
cooking pot; kettle 

Sj-tf qidra pi. jA* qidar pot ; jug 

SjJlJ qudra faculty (Jp of), power, 
strength (Jp for), potency; capacity, 
ability, capability, aptitude; omnip- 
otence (of God) | O J**J1 Jp SjJuJi 
( r amal) power, capacity (teckn., phys.); 
O »Us*V' J^ SjjUI selectivity (radio); 
^^Ul ^IjAs qud(u)rat al-b. (pi.) produc- 
tive potential of a country 



j jS qadir possessing power or strength, 
powerful, potent; having mastery (Jp 
over s.th.), capable (Jp of s.th.); omnip. 
otent, almighty, all-powerful (God) 

j oil aqdar 2 mightier, more powerful; 
more capable (Jp of), abler (Jp to do 
s.th.) 

IjjJu maqdura, maqdara, maqdira fac- 
ulty ( Jp of), power, strength (J* for), 
potency; capacity, ability, capability, 
aptitude | O *^^' Sj-tfil (harbiya) mili- 
tary resources, military potential 

j I -La* miqdar pi. j slX* maqddir* measure; 
extent in space and time; scope, extent, 
scale, rate, range; quantity; amount | 
Jjl jlaJL. (adnd) a minimum; ^-Jl jIj& 
(aqsd) a maximum; U jl-tlc bi-miqddri ma 
to the same extent or degree as . . ., as 
much as ...; jl-Gli IJL^ to such an extent 
or degree, so much; jIjux to a certain 
extent or degree, somewhat, a little 

jX£ taqdlr pi. -at, joUj taqddlr* 
estimation, appraisal, assessment, tax- 
ation, rating; calculation, estimate, 
valuation; appreciation; esteem; as- 
sumption, surmise, supposition, prop- 
osition; implication of a missing syn- 
tactical part (gram.); (pi. -at) grading, 
evaluation (of achievement; school, uni- 
versity); \jXej taqdiran by implication, 
implicitly, virtually | li^J I jXti in appre- 
ciation of this; j-Juu Jsl Jp 'aid aqalli t 
at least ; j JUj jo I Jp at most ; ,j j X& iL. ^ 
r an mablagi taqdiri as far as I can judge 
for myself | i$j>& J in my opinion, ac- 
cording to my judgment; J^-oJl o^ j& 
t. d. ad-dakl assessment of income tax; 
3u*iJI jXej t. al-qima valuation, estima- 
tion of value 

<j j JLisJ taqdirl estimated 

j\jcs\ iqtiddr might, power, strength, 
potency; ability, capability, faculty, 
capacity, efficiency, aptitude 



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875 



j^U qddir possessing power or strength, 
powerful, potent; having mastery (Jp 
over s.th.), being equal (J* to s.th.); 
capable (J* of s.th.), able (J* to do 
s.th.); efficient, capable, talented; in a 
strong position (econ.,fin., etc.) 

jjJLi. maqdur decreed {J* against, by 
fate), predestined, fated (J* for s.o.); 
(pi joliu maqadir 2 ) destiny, fate; (pi. 
-at) faculty, capability, ability; po- 
tential, resources | o\ ajjXk* j to be able 
to..., be capable of.... be in a position 
to . . ., have the possibility to . . . 

jjUL. muqaddir estimator, appraiser, 
assessor, taxer 

j-Uu muqaddar decreed, foreordained, 
predestined; implied, implicit, virtual; 
oijJti. fates, destinies; estimates, pre- 
liminary calculations 

jJsJu muqtadir possessing power or 
strength, powerful, potent; having mas- 
tery (J* over s.th.), being equal (J* to 
s.th.); able (J* to do s.th.), capable (Jp 
of); efficient capable, talented 

l ^Ji qadusa u (quds, qudus) to be holy, be 
pure II to hallow, sanctify (*, » s.o., 
s.th.); to dedicate, consecrate (a s.th.); 
to declare to be holy, glorify (*ul God); to 
hold sacred, venerate, revere, reverence, 
worship (a, b s.o., s.th.) ; (Chr.) to canonize 
(• s.o.); {Ckr.) to say Mass, celebrate | 

V ^ u*^ {sirrahu) may God sanctify 
his secret ! (eulogy used when mentioning 
the name of a deceased Muslim saint) 

V to be hallowed, be sacred or sanctified 

j*o» quds, qudus holiness, sacredness, 
sanctity; (pi. ^-l-iSl aqdds) sanctuary, 
shrine; ^J^JI al-quds Jerusalem | ^-J* 
^UiVI the holy of holies (Chr.> Jud.); 
^AaII t-jj, jj-JUUl rjj\ (ar-)ruh al-qudus 
the Holy Ghost (Chr.) 



^45 qudsl holy, sacred; saintly; 
saint 

A--A* qudslya holiness, sacredness * 
sanctity; saintliness 

)JB -la5 quddds pi. -at, ^^1^5 qadadis 2 
Mass (Chr.) 

<JjS qaddsa holiness, sacredness, 
sanctity; saintliness | LLJI 3UluS His 
Holiness the Pope 

^jX* qaddus, quddus most holy ; 
^jJiJt the Most Holy, the All-Holy (God) 

^-6 qiddis pi. -tin holy, saintly; 
Christian saint | ,y«jJiJl JT -Lt c td 
bull al-q. All Saints' Day (Chr.) 

^oSl aqdas 2 more hallowed, more 
sacred, holier 

^XaII c^j &«*£ al-maqdis Jerusalem 

■ t-j-Uj taqdis sanctifi cation, hallowing; 
dedication, consecretion; celebration 
(Chr.); Consecration (as part of the 
Roman Catholic Mass; Chr.); reverence, 
veneration, worship; glorification 

^jJu rmiqaddis reverent, reverential, 
venerative 

^JLi. muqaddas hallowed, sanctified, 
dedicated, consecrated; holy, sacred; 
pi. -at sacred things, sacrosanct things | 
i-aJLU (i^UI) (j-*jV (ard) the Holy Land, 
Palestine; ^^JLSJLI £*jJi (bait) Jerusalem; 
^oJLLI ^>b&\ the Holy Scriptures, the 
Holy Bible (Chr.) 

fjtXic* vmtaqaddis hallowed, sanc- 
tified, dedicated, consecrated; holy, sa- 
cred 

2 a -iU qadis 2 Cadiz (seaport in SW Spain) 

s ( j*j^ P 1 - u~i^J* ]ook U P alphabetically 
*JlS qadama u (qadm, pjJi qudum) to precede 



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(» s.o.); — qadima a ((•j-tf qudum, jLiS 
qidmdn, f-DU maqdam) to arrive (a at a 
place); to come; to get (Jf or J* or « 
to s.o.; * to a place), reach (Jl or Jp, * 
s.o. ; a a place) ; to have the audacity to 
do s.th. (J*); — qaduma u (qidam) to 
be old, be ancient II to make or let 
(a, « s.o., s.th.) precede, go before, or 
lead the way; to send forward, send 
ahead, send off, dispatch, send on in 
advance (a, » s.o., s.th.); to set forth 
beforehand, premise (J a s.th. as 
introductory to s.th., e.g., a preface to 
a book); to place (a, t> s.o., s.th.) at the 
head; to set forward, set ahead (a a 
clock); to do earlier, do beforehand, do 
before s.th. else (a s.th.); to give pre- 
cedence ( Jp a, « to s.o., to s.th. before), 
give priority (J* a to s.th. over); to 
prefer (Jp a, a s.o., s.th. to s.o. or s.th. 
else), give preference (J* a, * to s.o., 
to s.th. over); (Tun.) to appoint as 
legal guardian (Jp * s.o. for); to pre- 
pare, ready, keep ready, provide, set 
aside, earmark (J a s.th. for) ; to provide, 
make provisions (J for); to offer, proffer, 
tender, extend, present, produce, ex- 
hibit, display (a s.th., Jl or J to s.o.); 
to hand over, deliver (a s.th., Jl or J 
to s.o.); to submit, refer (a s.th., Jf or 
J to s.o.), lay s.th. (a) before s.o. (Jl or 
J); to give as a present {a s.th., Jl or J 
to s.o.), offer up, present (Jl or J *, * 
s.o., s.th. to s.o., to s.th.); to give (a a 
performance); to serve (a food and 
drink); to offer (a aid, help), grant, render 
(a support, J to s.o., for s.th.) ; to dedicate 
(Jl or J a s.th., e.g., a book, to s.o.); to 
file, turn in (a s.th., e.g., a report), send 
in, submit (a s.th., e.g., an application, 
Jl or J to), lodge (a e.g., a complaint, Jl 
or J before); to give (a an answer); to 
take (a an examination); to bring s.o. 
(o) before a proper authority, esp., before 
a tribunal (#L1 or Jl), arraign s.o.; to 
introduce, present (J or Jf o s.o. to s.o. 



else), make (* s.o.) acquainted (J or Jl 
with s.o. else); (intr.) to precede; to be 
fast (clock) [ 4j0j <ju <*j5 (baina yadaihtj 
to send s.th. ahead of s.th. else, let s.th. 
precede s.th. else; j*i)l <d aOj (tamam) to 
pay the price to s.o. in advance, advance 
the price to s.o. ; Z*JJ- ajS {kidmatan) to 
render a service; ijb>~ *Js (kufivatan) 
to make a step forward; 4 ^SCiJI «j£ (hikra) 
to extend one's thanks to s.o., thank 
s.o.; t^l^ll pO» (lil-kitdb) to preface a 
book; (j~J>J1 Jl *uwij f-tf to give o.s. up 
to the police; o^l Lj £**£ U (akkartu) 
what I have ever committed; ill ju cji L, 
(yaddka) what you have committed or 
perpetrated; <jjJ~\ j*-Ju tA>-j fJii yuqad> 
dimu rijlan wa-yu'akkiru ukrd to hesitate, 
waver, be undecided; *ji5j V jj^ ji 
j^-J* ^J farqu suhurin la tuqaddimit 
wa-la tu'akkiru a difference of a few 
months which is of no consequence IV to 
be bold, audacious, daring; to make bold, 
have the audacity to do s.th. (J*); to 
venture, risk, undertake, tackle (J* 
s.th.), set about s.th. (Jp); to brave 
( Jp s.th.), embark boldly ( Jp upon), dare 
to engage (Jp in), venture upon s.th, 
(Jp); to attack (Jp s.o., s.th.) V to 
precede (^ or Jp or a, * s.o., s.th., in 
space and time), go before s.o. or s.th. 
((>» J*t *» «); to head (Jp or f a group 
of people), be at the head (Jp or j* of 
a group of people) ; to belong to an earlier, 
older time; to go forward, move (for, 
ward), proceed (yi. toward), advance- 
march (j^. against, toward) ; to progress, 
make progress; to come on, come closer, 
move nearer (Jl to); to approach (Jl 
or £* s.o. or s.th.), accost (Jl or j- s.o.); 
to step up (j-., Jl otj& to s.o.), head [^ t 
Jlor_^i for s.o.); to present o.s. (4jJU jv 
or Jl to), step before (4j4j ,>j or Jl); O to 
meet, face (J or J I an opposing team, in 
sports); to turn, apply (<_> J or Jl to 
s.o. with a request); to submit (J or Jl 



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r 



■JU 



to s.o. l-> s.th., e.g., a request); to order, 
direct, commission (^ J! s.o. to do, to 
bring, etc., s.th.) | <o fOJoj to further, 
advance, promote, improve s.th.; £~.Oaj 
^yji <u (sinnu) to get older, be advanced 
in years; ^1 J *»& (sinri) do.; to age, 
have aged; >jlaj l^as already mention- 



i\i Uj <Ji 



*> f 



jJu U aJ *i)1 



y* 



[danbihi, ta'akkara) God has forgiven all 
his sins; cJj ^ j^U >>aiu ^1:Uu cij 
Ja-^jl Ljjl waqtu bagddda mutaqaddimun 
sa'ataini r an waqti urubbd l-wustd Baghdad 
time is two hours ahead of Central Euro- 
pean time; <*Jb> <o fOJu (talab) to ap- 
proach s.o. with a request; jl^utAJ ^Jju 
to submit o.s. to an examination VI to be- 
come antiquated, grow obsolete, become 
outdated; to become old, age | j^jjl ajUj 
(zamanu) much time has gone by (since) ; 
aJL$t >j>Uj i^ahduhu) it happened long ago, 
it belongs to the past, it is of early date 
X to ask (o s.o.) to come, send (* for 
s.o.), summon (« s.o.) 

(•As qidm time long since past, old 
times; Los qidman in old(en) times, in 
former times, once, of old, of yore 

aJ3 qidam time long since past, old 
times; remote antiquity, time imme- 
morial; oldness; ancientness; infinite 
pre-existence, sempiternity, timelessness 
(of God); seniority | |*-LaJI al* from times 
of old, by long tradition, of long stand- 
ing; «_-» aX$c *jls (qidamu'ahdihi) hia long- 
standing familiarity with 

S-^aS qidamlya great age, ancientness 

pJii qadam (usually f.) pi. Jail aqddm 
foot (also as a measure of length) ; step [ 
ifSL j-oj (muka"aba) cubic foot; c-f 
aOaJI smnt al-q. nadir (astron.); aJLaJI ** r &\ 
isba" al-q. toe; ^o? Jp (qadamaihi) on 
foot (of several : JjJ^I J*): 4->os Jst^i J& 
on tiptoe; jJU-1 |*aJ J* (g. al-hadar) 
anxious, timid, fearful; i^^l *aS J*. 
iloA^V'j (g. iUuhba) in a state of extreme 



alertness; jL-j >jS J* Uts) (j^ (wa-^ag'm) 
to become fully effective, be in full 
progress, be in full swing; <u.aS ^ (qa* 
damaihi) in front of him ; j pO* J tr jJ he 
has no part in . . ., he is not involved 
in ... 

j»a5 qudum: UoS (jU) ^a* (qnduman) 
to go straight ahead or forward; to go 
ahead, proceed, move forward; to make 
progress; to be in progress, be under way 

<•& qadim pi. *L.oS qudamd' 2 , t/lo* 
quddmd, floS qadd'im 2 old, ancient; 
long-standing; old-time, former; antique; 
antiquated, outmoded, outdated; ar- 
chaic; existing from time immemorial, 
eternally pre-existent, sempiternal; fOJiJl 
the Infinitely Pre-existent, the Sempi- 
ternal, the Eternal (as an attribute of 
God) | Uo> qadlman or jrjtfJI J in old(en) 
times, in ancient times, in former times, 
once, of old, of yore; sjS ,y or jrojjl JL. 
from times of old, by long tradition, of 
long standing; *_j JCf*Ji raS (q. al-ahd) of 
long familiarity or acquaintance with, 
long familiar or acquainted with; of 
long-standing experience in, long-ex- 
perienced in, (being) a long-time holder 
of; 4X03 oUlj.s classical studies 

/»jAs qudum coming, advent, arrival 

/»jrOi qadum pi. *o» qudum bold, 
audacious, daring, intrepid, undaunted, 
courageous, brave, valiant 

fjjtf qadum, qaddum pi. ^ioS qadd'im 2 , 
l*Oi qudum adz 

l»1o5 quddam fore part, front part; 
qudddma (prep.) in front of 

f jOJ qaidum prow, bow of a ship 

/•oil aqdam 2 older, more ancient; 
having seniority in service (public ser- 
vant); jj^oSVl the ancients 

4^*0^1 aqdamiya seniority 



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>jju maqdam coming, advent; arrival 

/*I-Lli miqdam bold, audacious, daring, 
intrepid, undaunted, courageous, brave, 
valiant 

ejj& taqdlm sending forward, sending 
off, dispatching, etc., see II; presentation; 
submission, turning in, filing; offering 
up, oblation; dedication; — (pi. -at) offer, 
proffer, tender, bid; memorial; (pi. 
fi\jS taqadim 2 ) officially established 
guardianship (Tun.) ; pi. olx-tfj offered or 
assured services 

4>jlaj taqdima offer, proffer, tender, 
bid; dedication; (social) introduction, 
presentation; offering up, oblation, of- 
fertory (Chr,); (pi. -at, +*[£ taqadim 2 ) 
present, gift 

f IasI iqdam boldness, audacity, daring, 
intrepidity, fearlessness, undauntedness, 
stoutheartedness, pluck, courage, enter- 
prise, initiative 

aJJu taqaddum precedence, priority; 
(ad) vantage, lead; advance, drive, push; 
advancement, progression, progress 

tjJutj taqaddumi progressive; progres- 
sionist 

Zj*jJu taqaddumiya faith in progress, 
progressiveness ; progressivism 

,oUj taqadum: (,>•_>'') -V*" (°^ *■ a ^' 
r ahd (az-zaman) progression or lapse of 
time; j^jJ' /oUj ** in the course of time 

|olS qddim pi. -un, pj-tS qudum, *\js 
qudddm one arriving, arriver, arrival, 
newcomer; — coming, next (e.g., year, 
month, and the like) 



donor j ^^IkJI aJJL. 



pJLi. muqaddim offerer, tenderer, pre- 
senter, giver, 
at-talab applicant 

fjJL muqaddam put before s.th. (Jt), 
prefixed, prefaced (J^ to s.th.), anteced- 



ing, preceding (J* s.th.); front, face; fore 
part, front part; prow, bow (of a ship); 
O nose (of an airplane, and the like); 
antecedent of a proportion (math,); 
— (pi. -un) overseer, supervisor; foreman; 
lieutenant colonel (in most Arab coun- 
tries; mil.); major (Leb.; mil.); officially 
appointed legal guardian (Tun.); admin- 
istrator or trustee of a wakf estate 
(Tun.); <uip j»Jbl» a legal minor placed 
under officially established guardianship 
(Tun.); UoJU muqaddaman in advance, 
beforehand 

<uJiX. muqaddima, muqaddama pi. -at 
fore part, front part; front, face; prow, 
bow (of a ship); foreground; foremost 
rank or line, forefront, head, lead; 
advance guard, vanguard, van; foreword, 
preface, introduction, prologue, proem, 
preamble; prelude; premise (philos.) \ 
tl»L-UL» jji without introduction, direct- 
ly; U^ Z*Jl* musical prelude, signa- 
ture (tune); luJ&l t£*\ji first-class sport 
clubs, top clubs 

fOJii* mutaqaddim preceding, anteced- 
ent; moving forward, advancing; well- 
advanced; (being) in front, ahead, in the 
fore part; foremost; aforesaid, before- 
mentioned; advanced; senior (athlet.) \ 
*j$~i j*JLadLl (dikruhu) the aforesaid, the 
before- mentioned; j^JI j *£ku (or _,*J j) 
(sinn, e umr) advanced in age, well along 
in years, old; <JLI Jt *JLii. (ibbdnihi) 
premature, precipitate, untimely; j^JiHI 
Cjj>-IiI\j (vxt-l-muta akkirun) the earlier 
and the later = all 



(jJiii and <jj3) \j£ qadd u (qadw) and ^ui 
qadiya a (gXs qadan, oj\jS qadaioa) to 
be tasty, savory (food) VIII to imitate, 
copy (u-» s.o., s.th.), emulate (i_j s.o.), 
follow s.o.'s (<_j) model or example, be 
guided (^ by) 



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c-5A* 



SjOa qudwa, qidwa model, pattern, 
example, exemplar 

^a* qadly tasty, savory, palatable 
(food) 

»1juSI iqtidd' imitation, emulation; Ajcj\ 
cj iqtidd'an bi following the model or 
example of 

«4j qudda pi. iJii qudad, jUS gidad feather of 
an arrow | SJLdJlj SJiil j-U- (hadwa) exactly 
identical, deceptively alike 

jJii qadira a (qadar) and qadura u (lj\JS 
qaddra) to be or become dirty, unclean, 
filthy II to make dirty, soil, sully, 
contaminate, pollute, defile (a, o s.o., 
s.th.) X to find or deem (a, « s.o., s.th.) 
dirty, unclean, impure, filthy, squalid 

jJts qadar uncleanliness, impurity; 
(pi. j\J}\ aqddr) dirt, filth, squalor 

jJS qadir, qadr dirty, unclean, impure, 
filthy, squalid 

jjJj qadur dainty, fastidious, squeam- 
ish 

SjlJb qaddra dirtiness, uncleanliness, 
impurity, filthiness, squalidness 

SjjSIS qadura pi. -at dirt, filth, squalor; 
rubbish, garbage; (moral) defilement 

j ilia maqddir 2 dirty things, dirt, filth 

fii qada'a a {qad r ) to defame, malign, 
vilify (» s.o.), backbite, wag an evil 
tongue, make slanderous remarks IV = 



J*l» qadafa i {qadf) to throw, cast (^ or 
a s.th.); to throw away, discard (^ or 
a s.th.); to fling, hurl, toss (o> or * s.th.); 
to hurl down, toss down (i_j or a, « s.o., 
s.th,); to push, shove (<~> or a, a s.o., 
s.th.); to kick (^ or a, e.g., ball, stone); 
to row, oar (-j or a s.th.); to eject, emit, 



discharge (^ or a s.th.) ; to expel (uj or *, a 
s.o., s.th.); to evict, oust (t_j or * s.o.); to 
drop {t-» s.th.) ; to pelt (._-» a, o s.o. with); to 
defame, slander, calumniate (« s.o.); to 
accuse ( v * s.o. of), charge (^ » s.o. with) ; 
to vomit | JjUiJL 4*JLS to bomb s.th,, strafe 
s.th. with bombs; XliiJl «tJU v_i-U to hurl 
abusive language at s.o. II to row, oar 
VI to pelt one another (t-» with); to throw 
to each other, throw back and forth (a 
s.th.); to kick back and forth (a ball); 
to shove around, push around (» or <_j 
s.o.) | r'j-»VI 4j ciiUj (amivaju) to 
be tossed about by the waves VII to be 
thrown, be cast, be flung, be hurled, be 
tossed, be flung off 

Js-LS qadf defamation; calumny, slan- 
der, false accusation (esp., of forni- 
cation; 14. Law); rowing, oaring | JsJUUi 
JjUJjJIj bombing, bombardment ; JsAi 5/lL 
JjLaJI bomber 

liXt qadfa pi. qadafdt shot, kick (soccer) 

(jAS qadfi slanderous, libelous, defam- 
atory | O j-tf •***-* (nwfad) ejection seat 

J? I IS qadddf: *»\M 2jU» (tayydra) 
bomber 

U^JS qadlfa pi. (JulJii qadaif 2 projectile; 
missile; bomb; shell | iiLJ *ijA» (nassdfa) 
torpedo; *4*-j+ iJJiJIS {muwajjaha) guided 
missiles; 4jjJj UjJI* (yadaiviya) hand gre- 
nade 

JsJu* miqdaf pi, JjiUL. maqddif 2 oar, 
paddle 

lJIjuL* miqdaf pi. kJuJU* maqddif 2 oar, 
paddle 

^j-Uj taqdif rowing, oaring 

4JiU» qddifa pi. -a( bomber (also «Jitf 
JjLaII) I i_^Ul SaiLJ <?. al'lahab or SiiU 
jUl flame thrower; pUJl uSlS g. algdm 
mine thrower 



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OjJLa. maqduf pi. ^m iU* maqddif 2 and 
SijJLi. maqdufa pi. -a( missile ; projectile 

JIoj g'ac&iZ pi. JJS qudul, ^iJS\ aqdila oc- 
ciput 

^JLii IV: <c~p -^JUI {'ainahu) to vex, annoy, 
gall s.o,, cause s.o. worry 

^oi qadan {coll.; n. un. 3 ( J15 qaddh) s.th. 
that gets in one's eye or into a beverage, 
a floating impurity, mote, speck; foreign 
body in the eye | <~t J ^aS ( f ainihl) an 
odious thing, approx.: an eyesore, a 
thorn in the flesh; ^-UJI Jp ^^l (agdd) 
to bear annoyance patiently, grin and 
bear it, swallow the bitter pill; i _ y kf 
(^-uJl Jp tjjji*- (gamwada jufunahu) do. 

<jX$ gufom pi. •IJIS I a#da fine dust; pi. 
•I Jul particles floating in the air 

y qarra (1st pers. perf. qarartu) i, (1st pers. 
perf. qarirtu) a {j\j> qarar) to settle 
down, establish o.s., become settled or 
sedentary, take up one's residence, rest, 
abide, dwell, live, reside, remain, stay, 
linger (<-> or j in, at a place) | Jp J\J\ y 
(ra'yu) it was decided to . . ., the decision 
was reached to..., a resolution was 
passed on s.th. or to the effect that; 
J* *Jj j* {ra'yuhii) to resolve, determine 
on s.th., make up one's mind to (do 
s.th.), decide, make a decision for or on 
or to do s.th. ; JU- <d yu V to be flighty, be 
of unstable temperament; jly J jh V 
(qarar) to be restless, restive, uneasy, 
wavering, undecided; — qarra a i (qarr) 
to be cold, chilly, coo] j L~c. y ( r ainan) 
to be of good cheer ; <u-c Oys ('ainuku) to 
be glad, be delighted («-> at) II to settle, 
make sedentary (j » s.o. in, at a place), 
establish (j a s.th. in); to fix, settle, 
appoint, assign, schedule, determine, stip- 
ulate, regulate (a s.th.); to decide (a 
s.th.); to determine, resolve, decide (a on 
a.th.^-to confirm, establish, affirm, aver (a 



s.th.); to report, relate, tell (a s.th.); to 
make a report, give a paper (jt on); to 
make a statement; to force s.o. («) to 
confess or acknowledge s.th. ( Jp or u), 
make s.o. {*) confess or acknowledge s.th. 
(Jp or ._j) IV to settle, make seden- 
tary (j * s.o. in, at a place), establish 
(j a s.th. in); to safeguard (a s.th.); to 
have (» s.o.) sit down, seat (« s.o., j in, in 
a seat); to set up, institute, found, estab- 
lish (a s.th.); to consolidate (a peace); to 
install, instate ( j t> s.o. in an office); to 
confirm, affirm, aver (a s.th.); to agree, 
consent (^ or a to); to acknowledge, own 
(v or a s.th.); to confess, avow, admit 
(<-> s.th.), own (<_j to s.th,); to concede, 
grant (a or w J to s.o. s.th.) | 4ix J\ 
( T ainahu) (to cool s.o.'s eye =) to gladden, 
delight s.o. V to be fixed, be settled, be 
appointed, be scheduled, be determined, 
be regulated, be stipulated, be decided; 
to resolve itself (situation) X to settle 
down, establish o.s., become settled or 
sedentary, take up one's residence (y 
or j in, at a place) ; to come to rest (<_j 
or J in, at a place) ; to rest, abide, dwell, 
live, reside, remain, stay, linger (lj or 
J in, at a place, J! with s.o.); to be 
firmly embedded, get stuck, get lodged 
(j in); to be firm, solid, enduring, du- 
rable, lasting, stable; to become stabi- 
lized, stabilize, be consolidated (situation, 
conditions); ultimately to attain ( Jp a state 
or condition), finally find a firm position 
(Jp in); to become finally (Jp s.th.), ulti- 
mately turn into s.th. (Jp); to be estab- 
lished, settled, fixed; to be stationary ] 
Jp a^LU- Jo\ {katiruhu) his mind dwelled 
on . . . ; Jp JiJ\ jjc*i\ {ra'yu) it was decided 
to..., the decision was reached to...; 
a resolution was passed on s.th. or to the 
effect that; ^ aAj jj£**\ (ra'yuhu) to 
resolve, determine on s.th., make up 
one's mind to (do s.th.), decide, make 
a decision for or on or to do s.th. ; JcJ 
jja^\ <J his situation had stabilized; 



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jiy <! jj£~«i V [qardrun) to be restless, 
restive, uneasy, wavering, undecided; 
JU- J*- Jju yb-J i (6a r du) we haven't yet 
arrived at a lasting solution, we haven't 
yet attained a definitive position; JjcJ\ 
Jp <>ja\ he finally became ..., he ended 
up as ...; <uuJ j ^^iu-l to be a positive 
fact with s.o., be beyond doubt for s.o.; 
{ jt£U or) f 1211 <u jisJ (muqdmu, makanu) 
to settle down permanently; to sit down; 
not to move from one's seat ; j-JUM <o jix^l 
(majlisu) to sit down, get seated, take a 
seat; <u«l^ j^^s^-l (majlisihi) to sit down, 
take a seat; to sit, remain seated; ^i>l 
<c-JU- j (/a&atfAi) to remain seated, 
maintain one's sitting position; *j jkj*\ 
JU*I to be firmly established, be settled; 
to be in a secure position 

^5 qarr cold, chilly, cool 

J qurr cold, coldness, chilliness, cool- 



ij qirra cold, coldness, chilliness, 
coolness 

(>a1I a J) qurrat cd-'ain consolation for 
the eye, delight of the eye; joy, pleasure, 
delight; darling; {hot.) cress 

jl^a qardr sedentariness, settledness, 
stationariness, sedentation; fixedness, fixi- 
ty; firmness, solidity; steadiness, constan- 
cy, continuance, permanency, stability; 
repose, rest, stillness; duration; abode, 
dwelling, habitation; residence; resting 
place; bottom (e.g., of a receptacle); 
depth (of the sea) ; (pi. -at) decision, reso- 
lution | *J j\J$ "V (la qardra) inconstant, 
changeable, unstable; bottomless, un- 
fathomable, immeasurable; j\y&\ j\* the 
hereafter, the world to come; O **r^' j'y 
q, al-mauja wave trough (teckn.); oljiy 
JjJUdl modifying regulations 

SjljS qardra bottom; low ground, 
depression, depth | ^Jd\ Sjly J (g. in- 



na/.?) in the depth of the heart; *j\j* j 
<u*»- (g. jaibihi) deep in one's pocket 

j- J qarlr : «>*Jl y J q. al-'ain happy, 
gratified, delighted, glad 

IjjjS qdrura pi. j j\j& qawdrir 2 long- 
necked bottle; flagon; vial, flask 

Jju maqarr pi. jU* maqdrr* abode, 
dwelling, habitation; residence; storage 
place; seat, center; site, place; station; 
position (at sea) | J**JI yu m. al- r amal 
place of employment; oLiJIyL. head- 
quarters; iiJ^Jl jju official seat, seat of 
office 

j jj£ taqrlr establishment, settlement ; 
fixation; appointment, assignment, reg- 
ulation, arrangement, stipulation; de- 
termination; decision; (pi. j j\X> taqdrlr 2 ) 
report, account | jwa-ll j j-a3 self-de- 
termination [poL); j jj£ J <^>jjJii\ J*- 
U/a. {haqq as-$.) tKe right of peoples to 
self-determination; k^jJ-\ aJU-1 J^j*-* 
(gawviya) weather report; iL^JJl ;^j 
t. aS-surta police report; ^U j^JZ (Hbbl) 
medical report, medical certification 

tjj ja taqrlrl reporting, reportorial 

j\J\ iqrdr settling, settlement (of 
nomads); setting up, institution, estab- 
lishment; foundation; installation; con- 
solidation; delivery of a confirmation or 
assurance; confirmation, affirmation, 
averment; assurance; acknowledgment; 
confession, avowal, admission 

j\jli^\ istiqrdr sedentariness, settled- 
ness, stationariness, sedentation; re- 
maining, abiding, lingering, stay, sojourn; 
settling, settlement, establishment; 
steadiness, constancy, continuance, per- 
manency; strengthening, consolidation, 
stabilization, stability; repose, rest, 
stillness 

jll qarr sedentary, settled, resident; 
standing, permanent; fixed, stationary; 



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cold, chilly, cool | SjUJl (j£) oUb^i 
(adaat) (in)direct taxes [magr.); Sjls ii- 
(lajna) permanent committee, standing 
committee; jl5 J^--i* fixed income, iLkj 
•jU regular job (Alg., Tun.) 

SjU qdrra pi. -at continent, mainland 

^jU qarri continental 

jyu> muqarrir pi. -fm reporter (in 
general and of a newspaper) 

jjJL. muqarrar established, settled; 
fixed, determined, decided, appointed, 
assigned, scheduled, regulated, stipulated, 
decreed; (pi. -at) curriculum; clj yu, 
decisions | aJ1>1! jJl. m. al-mizaniya the 
proposed budget; "*jy^> ' 4 ^^~ accom- 
plished fact; Sj^a. Jlj-i direct taxes 

jJc^a mustaqirr sedentary, settled, 
resident; firmly established, deep-seated, 
deep-rooted; fixed, immobile, stationary; 
firm, solid, enduring, durable, lasting, 
stable 

jjc^A mustaqarr abode, dwelling, habi- 
tation; residence; seat; resting place 

\j5 qara'a a {**\js qiraa) to declaim, recite 
(a s.th., esp. the Koran; a J* to s.o. 
s.th.); to read (a s.th.; a J or Jp s.o. 
s.th.); to peruse (a s.th.); to study (a Jp 
under s.o. s.th.) | W-Jl <tJL \J (saldma) 
to greet, salute s.o. ; to extend greetings 
to s.o.; l3 ajU>- \j to reckon with s.th., 
take s.th. into account; uL^ .JoJl *J \Js 
(alja h.) to have a thousand apprehensions 
about s.th.; ^jJl j \j (gaib) to give 
occult readings; tell fortunes; to prophesy 
(a s.th.) IV to make or have (« s.o.) 
read (a s.th.); to teach (• s.o.) the art of 
reciting (a s.th.); to teach (• s.o.) how to 
read (a s.th.) | W-Jl J<J\ {saldma) to 
extend greetings to s.o. X to ask s.o.(e) 
to recite or read ; to investigate, examine, 
explore (a s.th.), search (a into s.th,); 
to study thoroughly (a s.th.) 



*j quf pi. *jj> quru menses, menstrua- 
tion 

lt\J> qiraa pi. -at recitation, recital 
(esp. of the Koran); reading (also, e.g., 
of measuring instruments; pari.); man- 
ner of recitation, punctuation and 
vocalization of the Koranic text; pi. 
£j\*\js readings; lections | jU*iiJi 3»ly g, 
al-finjdn fortune telling from tea leaves 
or coffee grounds; »Ja53l l*\js q. alkaff 
chiromancy, palmistry 

t)TyUl al-qurdn the Koran 

{j\Js qur'dni Koranic, of or pertaining 
to the Koran 

•iyL-l istiqra pi. -at investigation, 
examination, exploration; see also under 

tj\jkj*\ istiqra % see under jj 

l$j\i qdri pi. -un, *\y qurrd' reciter 
(esp. of the Koran); reader | J&\ jjlj 
q, al-kaff chiromancer, palmist 

*jJj>* maqru' read (past part.); legible, 
readable; worth reading; widely read 
(e.g., magazine) 

\sJa* muqri' reciter of the Koran 

r-\J$ gardz pi. -at (Saudi Arabian spelling) 
garage 

V*ly qardsiya, L*J^5 qardsiyd {eg. also 
L-ly) prunes {eg.); small, black plums 
{syr.) 

^^SljS qaraqos {eg.) chief character in a 
puppet show, approx.: Punch 

Uly qardniyd dogwood (tree of the family 
Cornaceae; hot.) 

1 t _jy qaruba u {qurb, ~4±jA* maqraba) to t>e near 
(Jl or j- to s.o., to s.th.); to come near, 
get close (Jl or j^ to s.o., to s.th.), close 



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^J 



in (Jl or ^a on s.o., on s.th.), approach 
(Jl or j* s.o., s.th.); to approximate (Jl 
or j* s.th.); — qariba a to be near (a, * 
to s.o., to s.th.); to come near, get close 
(a, o to s.o., to s.th.), close in (a, « on 
s.o. , on s.th.), approach (a, * s.o., s.th.); 
to approximate (a s.th.); to draw near, be 
coming on, approach | ,y *~>J*i \* (yaqrubu) 
(with foil, figure) approximately, about, 
some, circa II to cause or allow (a, » s.o., 
s.th.) to come near or get close (Jl or j- 
to s.th.), make or let (a, 6 s.o., s.th.) 
approach {Jl or j- s.th.), bring close (a, * 
s.o., s.th.; Jl or ^ to s.th.), advance, 
move (a, * s.o., s.th.; Jl or j- toward 
s.th.), approximate (a s.th.; Jl or <> to); 
to bring home (a ^ or Jl to s.o. s.th., 
e.g., an idea); to take as associate or 
companion (^ o s.o. for o.s.); to bring 
closer to comprehension, reveal more 
fully (a s.th.), clarify the concept, 
facilitate the understanding (a of s.th.); 
to offer up, present (a J to God as 
sacrifice) ; {Chr.) to administer Commun- 
ion (» to s.o.); to sheathe, put into the 
scabbard (a the sword) | ^fM ^>J to 
bring people closer together, make peace 
among people, reconcile people III to 
be near (a, » to s.o., to s.th.); to come 
near, come close, get close (a, » to s.o., 
to s.th.), close in (a, * on s.o., on s.th.), 
approach (a, » s.o., s.th.); to approximate 
(a s.th.); to be almost equivalent (a 
with s.th.), amount to almost the same 
thing (a as s.th.); to be on the point 
(ul of doing s.th.), be about (ul to do 
s.th,); to bring (close) together (j — Jy 
different things) V to approach (j- or 
Jl s.o., s.th.), come or get near s.o., 
near s.th. (j- or Jl), come close, get 
close (^ or Jl to s.o.), gain access (^> or 
Jl to s.o.); to come to a close relationship 
(j- to s.o.) ; to seek to gain s.o.'s ( Jl) favor, 
curry favor (Jl with s.o.); {Chr.) to re- 
ceive Communion VI to be or come near 
each other, approach one another, ap- 



proximate each other; to approach (Jl, 
j^ s.o.), come nearer (Jl, jd to s.o.) 
VIII to approach (j* s.o., s.th.), come, 
advance, or get near s.o. or s.th. (j-»), 
come close, get close (^ to) X to find 
near, regard as near (a s.th.) 

<_>J qurb nearness, closeness, proximity, 
vicinity; imminence (of s.th.); qurba 
(prep.) in the vicinity of, near, toward | 
SpLJI l-j^ imminence of the end of the 
world; ^^1 <-jJ> qurba z-zuhr toward 
noon; ^jAj or ^ ^/Jl; in the vicinity 
of, near, close to; uy jt from a short 
distance, from close up 

<jy qirba pi. -at, <_->y qirab waterskin; 
— (pi. L_jy> qirab) bagpipe 

hj qurba pi. qurubat act pleasing to 
God, pious deed 

^J qurba relation, relationship, kin- 
ship [ Jjdl ji pi. ujji\ j/* dawu l-q. 
relative, relation 

<^lj> qarib near (in place and time), 
nearby, close at hand; in the neighbor- 
hood or vicinity (Jl or j* of s.o., of 
s.th.), close (Jl or ^ to s.o., to s.th.), 
adjacent (Jl or ^ to s.th.); easily under- 
stood, simple; (pi. »ljy>i aqriba' 2 ) relative, 
relation; Uy qariban soon, before long, 
shortly, in the near future; recently, 
lately, not long ago, the other day | 
Tij* Cj* an( * <rij* ^ fawOTNZ q.) soon, 
before long, shortly, in the near future; 
-Uu j\ ^jj j* — "V not — in the least, 
not by a far cry; J>-WI *_-j^JI J in the 
immediate future; ,j~J-i j- <-f±J> [hasan) 
fair, fairly good (as a school-report grade) ; 
JL^jJl ujy q. al- r ahd recent, new, young; 
i_^j$ xp. j* since recently, of late, of a 
recent date; recently, lately, not long ago, 
the other day; ^ J^aJI ^jy having adopt- 
ed or acquired s.th. very recently; not 
long familiar or acquainted with s.th., 
inexperienced at s.th., a novice in s.th. ; 



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*_-j^j £jj ^-{waqtin) until very recently; 
lJ^LxJ! t^ijiq. at-tanaioul easy to under- 
stand 

*-j^ qarlba pi. -at female relative 

c->ly qirdb pi. »->y qurub, 4^*1 aqriba 
sheath, scabbard (of a sword) ; receptacle, 
container, case, etui, covering 

ii!y qaraba relation, relationship, 
kinship 

ZAji quraba: f\j*\ *j*^j <t\Js qurabata 
taldtati a'wdm almost three years 

dlijS qurban pi. (>j^ qardbin? sacrifice, 
offering, immolation, oblation; Mass 
(Chr.); Eucharist {Chr.) \ ^Jl1\ jby q. 
a$-htkr thank offering; ub^l -Lt r ld al-q. 
Corpus Christi {Chr.); oI^aI! JjU; (fcma* 
waZa) to receive Communion {Chr.); 
^ ol^Ul *ij or ^ ob^iJI j»Ji {qaddama) to 
read Mass for s.o. {Chr.) 

^uUy qurbana Host; Communion (CAr.) 

cj^I aqrab 2 nearer, nearest, next; 
more probable, more likely; probable, 
likely; pi. OyJi\ aqrabun, vjUi aqdrib 2 
relations, relatives | f^ill Jf i_-»Jil {fahm) 
easier to understand, more comprehen- 
sible; {^\j^ai\ or) i^Mall Jl ^>js\ y> {sihha, 
§aicab) it is quite probable, it is fairly 
correct, it is rather exact, it comes fairly 
close to the truth; (j&) cJj t^JJl j fi 
aqrabi waqtin {mumkhnn) or J*Lc^ I. <_j_/Ij 
{yumkinu) as soon as possible, in the 
shortest time possible 

i_^l* maqrab pi. <~>j ] -jl* maqdrib 2 nearest 
or shortest way, short cut 

"<ijju niaqraba, maqruba nearness, close- 
ness, proximity, vicinity; (pi. <-jj^* 
maqdrib 2 ) nearest or shortest way, short 
cut | «uyl» J* nearby, close at hand; 
j* <l>jju J* in the vicinity of, near, close 
to 

>~*ijZ> taqrib approximation | Lj^aj 



taqriban, ^ytdu, ^--j^hcJI **rji bi-wajhit-l 
or <_-; jjd\ J* approximately, almost, near- 
ly, roughly, about; \~ij£> ^j-**- just bare- 
ly perceptible 

^Jii taqribi approximate, approxi- 
mative 

i->jAi taqarrub approach; approximation 
(>to) 

<_jjUj taqdrub mutual approach; mutual 
approximation ; rapprochement 

<~>\j$\ iqtirdb approach; approximation 

L-tjA* muqarrab pi. -un close companion, 
favorite, protege, intimate 

«_^jLi* muqdrib approximate, approxi- 
mative; approximating (J s.th.), almost 
equal; roughly suitable 

^«jL!b. mutaqdrib close together, follow- 
ing in close intervals, consecutive, 
successive, subsequent; approximately 
equal; <_*jUdLI name of a poetical meter 

<->jj>j> muqtarib being near or close to 
each other, dense 

2 <-»jtf qdrib pi. <^>J\y qawdrib 2 boat, skiff; 
{eg.) sauceboat; {eg.) oblong porcelain 
serving tray | oJbjJi <->jU q. az-zubda [eg.) 
sauceboat for melted butter; «L— y*jU 
{musallah) gunboat; ^j^ t->jU {Ura'%) 
sailboat; SL^jJi ^jU q. an-najdh lifeboat; 
fUJ^I ^ ^JUI ljjU (obs.) minesweeper; 
e£J^» VJ^ motorboat 

uJjIjS qawdribi boatman 

a"jij* qarabus {qarbus) pi. ^^j* qardbls 1 
saddlebow 

ijuy qarablna pi. -at carbine 

£ji qaraha a {qarh) to wound (« s.o.); — 
qariha a {qarah) to ulcerate, fester; to be 
covered with ulcers, be ulcerous II to 



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wound (« s.o.) V to ulcerate, fester; to 
be covered with ulcers, be ulcerous VIH to 
invent, originate, think up (a s.th.); 
to improvise, extemporize, deliver off- 
hand (a a speech); to demand in a 
brash or imperious manner (* or u Jp 
of s.o. s.th.); to propose, suggest (a J* 
to s.o. s.th.) 

£j> qarh pi. *yy quruk wound; ulcer, 
sore 

rji qarih covered with ulcers, ulcerous, 
ulcerated; ulcerating, festering 

<>-j» qarha pi. ~Ji qirak ulcer, sore; 
abscess, boil | *j>-J\ 4*-jill (rahwa) soft 
chancre, chancroid {med.) 



water) 



pure, limpid, clear {esp. 



£js qarih pure, limpid, clear (esp. 
water) 

"&J qariha pi. £\J qardHh 2 ingenious 
gift (artistically and intellectually), gen- 
ius, great talent 

fjju taqarruh ulceration 

7-ljv»1 iqtirdh invention, improvisation; 
(pi. -at) proposition, proposal, suggestion; 
motion 

rpu muqarrah covered with ulcers, 
ulcerous, ulcerated 

tjJCa mutaqarrih covered with ulcers, 
ulcerous, ulcerated; ulcerating, festering 

tJjl* muqtarah pi. -at proposition, 
, suggestion; motion 



Jji qird pi. S^y qirada, s 3 J* qurud ape, mon- 
key 

Jliji quraddtl pi. -lya (eg.) showman 
with performing monkeys 

sj qurd (coll.; n. un. S) tick (zool.) 

s\j qurdd (coll.; n. un. a) pi. jby 



qirdan tick, ticks [zool.) | jby jjl a&w g. 
(eg.) white egret (zool.) 

sjjju maqrud exhausted 

^JbJI quraidis (coll.; n. un. 5) shrimps (zooZ.) 

1 { j*J? qarisa a (qaras) to be severe, fierce, 
biting, grim (the cold) II to freeze, make 
torpid, (be)numb, nip (a, * s.o., s.th.; of 
the cold) 

^j IS qdris severe, fierce, biting, grim 
(of the cold); very cold, bitterly cold, 
freezing, frozen 

2 *j J * qarils and ^-jjli (eg.) sea bass (zool.) 

3 L-1j* see v^ly (alphabetically) 

,J.J> qarasa i u (qar$) to gnash, grind (one's 
teeth); to nibble, crunch, chew (a s.th.); 
— qarasa i (qars), II and VIII to earn 
money, make a living (4JLJ U-'iydlihi 
for one's family) 

J^J qirs shark (zool.); (pi. Jijjt qurus) 
piaster | j-U J>J (eg., = V100 Eg. pound) 
standard piaster; *ij^*j <^y (eg., = J /a 
f\~e J^ji) little piaster 

^b y qarais Koreish, name of an 
Arab tribe in ancient Mecca 

^iy qurasi of, pertaining to, or 
belonging to the Koreish tribe; Koreish- 
ite 

<_£>_? qaris: ^y Cf^r (gibn; eg.) a kind 
of cottage cheese 

J*/** muqris rich, well-to-do, pros- 
perous, wealthy, moneyed 

l o*J* qarasa u (qars) to pinch, nip, tweak 
(a, * s.o., s.th.); to scratch (a, » s.o., 
s.th.); to bite, sting (<. s.o.; of a gnat, 
ilea, and the like) | ajLJj 4-^S (bi- lisdnihi) 
to hurt s.o. with words II to pinch or 



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nip sharply, tweak (a, & s.o., s.th,); to 
scratch all over (a, * s.o., s.th.); to shape 
into round, flat loaves ((>^J1 the dough) 

ij+ji qurs pi. ^Ijl aqras round, flat loaf 
of bread; (flat, circular) plate, disk, 
discus; phonograph record, disc; sheave, 
pulley (meek.); tablet, pastille, lozenge, 
troche | pUjVl ^J dial (of a telephone); 
»>£ ^lyl a. f ajwa a pastry made of rich 
dough with almonds and date paste {syr.) ; 
J-*^ o*J ?• fasa l honeycomb; ,y ^Jl 
jJ-l (jw&») a whole round cheese; ^J 
iJ ~Jd\ q. as-Sams solar disk; ^JJd\ ^J 
{eg.) practice target (mil.); t^js J| jbJl jr 
(/arra n-nara) to secure advantages for 
o.s., feather one's nest; <u*^xj jUJl ^ T JU- 
do. 

(S ^ J i qursi: Jjdji ^^ q. ai-sakl disk- 
like, disk-shaped, discoid, discous 

a^s gwrsa pi. ^y quras round, flat 
loaf of bread 

Z^ji qarsa pi. qarasdt pinch, nip, 
tweak; bite, sting (of a gnat, flea, and 
the like) ; crowbar, pinch bar, handspike, 
lever 

^sziji qurrais stinging nettle (Urtica 
urens L.; hot.) 

<**\j3 qarrasa pincers, nippers 

^jli qari$ biting; stinging; painful, 
nipping, tormenting (e.g., cold) | ^*j\Js 
oUSsIl q. al-kalimat biting words 

2 4~*\J and Lv*ly look up alphabetically 

4^»y qarsana piracy, robbery on the high 
seas, freebooting 

ol**j£ qursan pi. ^Ijs qarasin 1 , ^^>\J» 
qardsin 2 corsair, pirate, freebooter 

^y qarada i (qard) to cut, sever, cut off, 
clip (a s.th,); to gnaw (a s.th. or on 
s.th.), nibble (a s.th. or at s.th.), bite, 



champ (a s.th.), eat (a into s.th,), corrode 
(a s.th.) | 4.bj ^J (ribdfahu) to die; 
j*£}\ ^J (si'ra) to write poetry, make 
verses II to gnaw at, chew up, corrode 
(a s.th.); to gnaw (a s.th. or on s.th.), 
nibble, etc. (see qarada) III to take a 
loan, borrow (a, « from) IV to loan, lend, 
or advance, money (a to s.o.); to lend 
(a o to s.o. s.th.) VI to borrow from one 
another, exchange with one another | 
»UiJI I^jUj (tana a) they showered each 
other with praise VII to die out; to be- 
come extinct; to perish VIII to raise a 
loan ( j- with), borrow (^ from) X to ask 
for a loan (j* s.o.) 

^J qard (qird) pi. ^jj qurud loan | 
i>**" u*J* {hasan) interest-free loan with 
unstipulated due date; JU ^J (mall) 
(monetary) loan; ^J&\ **-i ashum al-q. 
bonds 

tjjiijs qarid poetry 

lj>\J qurdda pi. -at chips, shreds, 
parings, shavings, scraps; iron filings 

(j-ily qarrdd (n. un. 5) clothes moths 

^IjJL miqrad pi. (J- ajjli. maqdrid 2 scis- 
sors 

,j*Jl.^Jl inqirdd dying out, gradual 
disappearance ; extinction 

^Jil iqtirdd loan 

(J *\ J h^\ istiqrad raising of a loan; loan 

^jl^iJl al-qawdrid the rodents 

,y>jA* muqrid pi. -un moneylender; 
lender 

^y^ munqarid extinct ; exterminated, 
perished 

1 \>J qarata u (qart) to cut into small pieces, 
chop, mince (* s.th.) II do.; to snuff, 
trim (a a candle, a wick); to squeeze 
(J* s.th.); (eg.) to urge, ply (J* s.o.); to 



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be stern, be strict {J* with s.o.) ; to beset, 
harass, press hard (Jp s.o.); to give little 
(J* to s.o.), be illiberal, be stingy (J* 
with s.o.), scrimp ( Jp s.o.) 

i»y qurt pi. J?lyi aqrat, J?iy qirat, \>jj> 
qurut earring; eardrop, pendant for the 
ear 

aLj^ taqrlta pi. iajjUJ taqarit 2 wrapper 
worn by women (tun.) 

a J?!j^j pi. iajjly look up alphabetically 

g\bj qartaf Carthage 

jr\bj* qartaji Carthaginian (adj.); (pi. 
•un) a Carthaginian 

i>-U^> see "<*>bj* 

t/ 1 ^*j> qirtds, pi. ^^jJs. \J> qaratis 2 paper ; sheet of 
paper; paper bag 

4A*ji qurtuba 2 Cordova (city in Spain) 

"<^J qartajanna 2 , t^-W^J Cartagena (city 
in Spain); Carthage 

^J qartas paper; sheet of paper 

fS^J) see above (alphabetically) 

*i»Js qartama to cut off, clip (a s.th.) 

A>J> qirtim, qurtum safflower (Carthamus 
tinctorius; hot.) 

OLkjS qurtuman oats 

kji II to praise, commend, laud, extol, 
acclaim ( e s.o.); to eulogize (a s.th.), 
lavish praise (a on) 

&J qaraz pods of a species of sant tree 
(Acacia nilotica; hot.) 

Jijy qarlz eulogy, encomium, panegyric 



SzijZ) taqrlz pi. -at, iaJjUj taqariz 1 
eulogy, encomium, panegyric 

^J qara'a a (qar f ) to knock, rap (a at s.th.); 
to hit, bump (a s.th. or against s.th.); to 
strike, beat, thump (a against s.th.; 
«-> a, « s.o., s.th. with; Jp <~> with s.th. 
on or s.th. else); to thrash, spank (<_j * 
s.o. with); to clink, touch (a glasses); to 
ring, sound (a s.th.); — qari'a (qarcf) 
to be or become b aid (headed) ; to be 
empty, bare, stark (place) | ^j^S 5-ji 
(jarasa) to ring the bell; A-»sr 9js 
(sam'ahu) to reach s.o.'s ear; <c- fji 
(sinndhu) to gnash one's teeth; j^ 9Ja 
(Jp or) J >»Jdl (sinna n-nadam) to repent 
s.th.; 6j£* *cj» (damiruhu) his conscience 
tormented or smote him, he had a 
guilty conscience, he felt grave com- 
punctions; ^tSOi fjs (kasa) to touch 
glasses, drink to s.o.'s (J) health II to 
scold, chide, upbraid (a s.o.), snap (s at 
s.o.); to rebuke, blame, censure (» s.o.) 
Ill to fight, come to blows (* with s.o.); 
to battle, fight (• s.o.); to contend by 
force of arms (jc & with s.o. for s.th.); 
to cast or draw lots (« with s.o.) VI to 
bump against each other, clash; to 
cast lots among each other (Jp for) 
VIII to cast lots among each other 
(Jp for); to vote, take a vote (Jp on); to 
draw lots (« for s.o.), choose by lot (* 
s.o.); to muster, recruit (« s.o.; mil.)-, to 
elect (a, » s.o., s.th.) 

9-ji gar' knock (ing), rap(ping), beat- 
ing, striking, thumping; ring(ing) 

9j qar' (coll.; n. un. 1) gourd, pump- 
kin j ^jUL fji (baladi) and J-~p f-Ji 
( r asali) common yellow gourd (Eg.); fji 
<-^jJ* i^9-) bottle gourd, calabash (Lage- 
naria vulgaris Ser. ; hot.) ; ^j? 9j q. Icusa 
(eg., syr.) zucchini (hot.) 

9j> qara" baldness, baldheadedness ; 
emptiness, bareness, starkness 



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Spy qar r a (n. vie.) knock, rap, blow, 
stroke, thump; — (n. un.) gourd, pump- 
kin; skull, head 

^J qar'i gourd-, pumpkin- (in com- 
pounds), cucurbitaceous 

Spy qur e a pL 9 Js qura e lot; ballot; 
lot-casting; choosing by lot; (mil.) con- 
scription, recruitment^by lot), balloting | 
aj^SL* <py ( f askarlya) enlistment, draft, 
recruitment (mil.); ap^I jUi! drafted 
recruits 

9 \j» qurd\ 9 \j2i\ ^j* marad al-qurd* a 
skin disease, ringworm (med.) 

■jy qari* exquisite, select ] ^a-iII *jy 
q. ad-dahr the greatest hero of his time 

fj\ aqra' 2 bald; baldheaded; empty, 
bare, stark; scabby, scurfy 

~4&jju miqra'a pi. pjll» maqdrV 2 knocker, 
rapper (of a door); whip, switch; cudgel, 
club 

pjjj£ taqri f chiding, scolding, reproof, 
rebuke, censure 

ipjU. muqara'a fight, struggle (with 
genit. = against) 

f-lj^l iqtirc? pi. -at balloting, recruit- 
ment, draft {mil.); vote (Jp on); election 

4pjti qarfa pi. fj\J* qawari 2 (sudden) 
misfortune, catastrophe; heavy blow; 
ipjUJI the hour of the Last Judgment j 
Jj^l ipjU middle of tht- road, roadway; 
road, highway; 3J^\ ^j'j ^ (turuq) on 
the open roads 

tjsy qarafa i {qarf) to peel, pare, bark, derind 
(a s.th.); — qarifa a (qaraf) to loathe 
(a s.th.), feel disgust (a for), be nauseated 
{a by) II to peel, pare, bark, derind 
(a s.th.); to be loathsome, arouse disgust 
III to let o.s. be tempted (a to a sin), 
yield (a to a desire) VIII to commit, 
perpetrate (a a crime) 



Jsy qaraf loathing, disgust, detestation ] 

4iy qirfa pi. <Jsy> qiraf rind, bark, skin, 
crust; scab, scurf; cinnamon; (eg.) drinl 
of cinnamon, sugar and water 

«i \jS qarafa {eg.) cemetery, specif,, 
graveyard below the Mokattam Hills 
near Cairo 

itijy qarifa ill humor, ill temper 

OUy qarf an {eg.) disgusted, nauseated, 
sick and tired 

ijslj^l iqtirdf commission, perpetration 
(of a crime) 

JsjAa muqrif loathsome, disgusting, 
nauseating, repulsive, detestable 

<J» Jl* muqtarif perpetrator (of a crime) 

as_£ qarfasa to squat on the ground (with 
thighs against the stomach and arms 
enfolding the legs) 

*Laiy qurfusa" 2 squatting, squatting 
position | *LJ^JiJi (juj or) iJ J^~ (qurfusa 1 a) 
to squat on one's heels 

Jliy qarfdl (coll.; n. un. S) vetch 

3j> qaraqa u (qarq) to cluck (hen) 

jiJUy qarqaddn squirrel 

J J qarqara (»JJ qarqara) to make a rum- 
bling noise, rumble (e.g., stomach); to 
rattle ; to crackle ; to gurgle (liquid) ; to coo 
(pigeon); to grumble, growl; (with 15^ U 
ddhikan) to guffaw, laugh continuously 
and loudly; to purr (cat) 

'JJ qarqara pl.yly qardqir* rumbling 
noise, rumble; rattle ; gurgle, etc. ; see J J 

J j* J qarqur pi. j$\ J qaraqir* (saud.-ar) 
large hemispherical fish trap woven of 



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u*jV ( l ar 9.^ pl« uri*'v* ffawKj^ 2 cartilage 

^yy qarqusa pi. ^ly qaraqis* {eg.) 
a kind of crisp cookies 

^yu muqarqa§ (eg.) crisp (ed) 

^y qarqada (eg.) to gnaw, bite (a on s.th.) | 
<0 b-— 1 J* (j-aiy to gnash one's teeth 

a»j* qarqa'a to creak, grate (wheel, car); to 
rumble ; to crackle ; to crack (whip, shots) ; 
to snap | (dU-^JL» or) 1&-U* ^SJ (dahk) 
to burst into loud laughter, laugh noisily, 
guffaw; A?j~* *5y (bi-sautihi) to crack 
the whip ; *uo L^y *sj* to snap one's 
fingers 

■ujy qarqcfa creaking or grating sound ; 
rumble; crackling; crack, pop; snapping 
sound 



jyj yaraqoz (from Turk, karagoz) chief char- 
acter of the Turkish shadow play 

Jyy see Jy ay 

jjfj qaragoz see jj*/ 

Vy qarama i (qarm) to gnaw (a on s.th.), 
nibble (a at s.th.) 

f jj garm pi. *jj» qurum studhorse; lord, 
master 

*\Js qirdm blanket, carpet, curtain 

*Jk* miqram pi. j»jli* maqarim 2 bed- 
cover, bedspread 

2 i»y qurma pi. >y quram (eg.) tree stump; 
log, block of wood ; chopping block 

V^JI al-qirim und irytfl al-qirim the Crimea 

Lji qarmada to plaster, coat with plaster 
(a s.th.); to tile, cover with tile (a s.th.) 



Juy qarmad (coll.) plaster; plaster of 
Paris 

_u-y qirmid (coll.; n. un. S) pi, •V'J* 
qaramid 2 (fired) bricks, roof tiles; plaster 
of Paris 

ij^S qarmud (mor.; coll.; n. un. «) 
bricks, roofing tiles 

y_p qirmiz kermes (the dried bodies of the 
female kermes insect, coccus ilicis, which 
yield a red dyestuff ) 

<£j*j* qirmizl crimson, carmine; scarlet | 
Sj yj&\ ^L\ (humma) scarlet fever (med.) 

^j* qarmasa (eg.) to eat s.th. dry (a), 
crunch, nibble 

J^jJl* muqarmas dry, crisp 

1 < JhaJi qarmatl Karmathian (adj. and n.); pi. 
ik.lj» quramita Karmathians 

^^yJ qarwtut pi. -1^'y qcirdmit 2 a variety of 
sheatfish (Silurus anguillaris L.; zool.) 

l bji qarana i (qarn) to connect, link, join, 
unite, combine, associate (Jl or uj a 
s.th. with); to add (Jl a s.th. to); to 
couple, yoke together, hitch together, 
put together, bind together (a s.th.) 
Ill to unite, join forces, associate (* with 
s.o.) ; to be simultaneous, go hand in 
hand (a with s.th.); to compare (<^» a, » 
or ,juj — <Vj s.o., s.th. with; j&£ <jy 
two things with one another), draw a paral- 
lel (,>jj — o^. between — and; J£±Z ^JH 
between two things) IV to combine, 
interrelate (j^ u\i tw0 things) VIII to 
be connected, be linked, be joined, be 
united, be combined, be associated (c-» 
with); to combine, associate, unite (<_j 
with); to get married, be married (<-j to), 
marry (^ s.o.); to be coupled, be inter- 
connected, be yoked together, be tied 
together, be bound together; to become 



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interlinked, become concatenate X to 
ripen, suppurate, come to a head (of a 
furuncle) 

Oj3 qarn pi. OjJ* qurun horn (of an 
animal; as a wind instrument); feeler, 
tentacle, antenna; top, summit, peak 
(of a mountain); the first visible part of 
the rising sun; capsule, pod (bot.); 
century | OjiJi A umm al-q. rhinoceros; 
O j jA\ -JLs-j do.; <jvyd\ j'i du l-qarnain the 
two-horned (an epithet given to Alexan- 
der the Great); j^J\ bjs q. al-bahr coral; 
^c bj> {sanCi) ear trumpet (— Fr, cornet 
acoustique) ; Jp**J\ bjj2}\ (wusta) the 
Middle Ages 

Ojs qarni horny, corneous, of horn, 
hornlike; leguminous, pertaining to, or 
of the nature of, legumes; centennial, 
centenary 

<Jy qarniya cornea (anat.) 

Oy qirn pi. b\Js\ aqran (matched) 
opponent in battle; an equal, a peer, a 
match; companion, mate, fellow, associ- 
ate; equal, like 

*J^ qurna pi. by quran corner; pro- 
jecting angle; salient part; cusp (arch.); 
spearhead 

j> Js qarln pi. »Uy qurana 2 connected, 
joined, linked, combined, united, as- 
sociated, affiliated; companion, mate, 
fellow, associate, comrade; husband, 
spouse, consort; qarlna (prep.) in con- 
nection with, in conjunction with, upon, 
at | if jjti\ JaiL. munqati' al-q. matchless, 
peerless, unrivaled, incomparable, unique, 
singular 

o^ qarlna pi. -at wife, spouse, 
consort; female demon haunting women, 
specif., a childbed demon; eclampsia 
(med.); — (pi, £>\j* qarain 2 ) connection, 
conjunction, union, relation, affiliation, 
association, linkage; (semantic or syn- 



tactical) coherence, context; evidence, 
indication, indicium |oo J» Sjl^J! (sayyida) 
his wife (formal style); Jij»-Vl ^lythe 
concatenation of circumstances, the 
indicia, factual evidence; oy J I 
(damm) combination 



^ij f* 



Oyl aqran 2 , f. ?\}J qarna 2 horned, 
horny; one with eyebrows grown to- 
gether | *Uy "L>- (hayya) cerastes, horned 
viper 

b\j3 qirdn close union, close connec- 
tion; conjunction (astron.); marriage, 
wedding | jl^Jail Xa* e aqd al-q. contraction 
of marriage, wedding 

SjjUu muqdrana pi. -at comparison | 
oUUI 4JjU, m. al-lugat comparative lin- 
guistics 

oljSi iqtiran connection, conjunction, 
union, association, affiliation; link, con- 
nectedness, simultaneous interaction ; con- 
junction (astron.); new moon (as an 
astronomical aspect); marriage, wed- 
ding 

bj jju maqrun connected, joined, linked, 
combined, united, associated, affiliated 
(c-> with) | jvfW-UU bjjl* m. al-hdjibain 
having joined eyebrows 

bjMumuqdrin comparative (science) 

2 LjljJ look up alphabetically 

3 JjjU look up alphabetically 

.LjAJjs qarnablt cauliflower 

Jijy qaranful carnation; clove 

jj>-"j3 (Eg. spelling; pronounced "aragoz) 
Karagoz, chief character of the shadow 
play; approx.: Punch 

jy»j* and jjf»J qaragoz = jj*-*J 



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Jjiey qaraqol pi. -a( police station; guard 
(military, police) | Jj^iJ! Jy«y q. as-Saraf 
guard of honor 

{jji) V to follow up, investigate {a s.th.), in- 
quire (a into); to check, verify (a s.th.) 
X to follow (a s.th.); to pursue (a s.th., 
e.g., a problem); to examine, study, 
investigate (a s.th.); to explore (a s.th.) 

j J qarw pi. jji quruw watering trough | 
j J «_^i^- kasab q. oak (wood) 

*\jjo\ istiqra? study (of s.th.), investi- 
gation, exploration; induction {philos.); 
see also under ]j* 

tj\jkJ\ istiqrai inductive (philos.) 

\b\jj qaruwdtiyd Croatia 

^UjjS qaruwati Croatian 

tfjj see ^J 

tSj qard i {^Js qiran) to receive hospitably, 
entertain (e s.o.) VIII = I 

^y qiran hospitable reception, enter- 
tainment (of a guest) ; meal served to a 
guest 

hjs qarya pi. ,jjs quran village 
hamlet; small town; rural community 
ob^l al-qaryatan Mecca and Taif; 
Mecca and Medina j <jyiJi A umm al-qura 
Mecca 

&J qarawi village-, country- (in 
compounds), rustic, rural; peasant (adj.); 
{pi. Qjtjji qarawlyuri) villager, rustic, 
countryman, inhabitant of the country; 
from Kairouan, Kairouan (adj.), an 
inhabitant of Kairouan; a member of 
al Qarawiya College in Fes (Morocco) | 
jijjjDl **U- mosque and college in Fes 
(Morocco); \jy^j SjaLH OjJJLSI *j'jj 
{baladlya) Ministry of Municipal and 
Rural Affairs {Eg.) 



ajjJs qarawiya countrywoman, peasant 
woman 

4j ji qarlya pi. tly qardyd yard (naut.) 

^Jk* miqran very hospitable 

AJju miqrd* very hospitable 

j Is qdrin villager 

^JUy quraidis (coll.; n. un. 3) shrimps (zool.) 

£ qazza (1st pers. perf. qazaztu) u to loathe, 
detest (jp or a, * s.o., s.th.) II to vitrify 
(a s.th.); to glaze (a s.th.) V to feel 
disgust (^ or ^ at), be nauseated {^ 
or j* by), loathe, detest, abhor (^ or 
j* s.o,, s.th.), have an aversion (jp or 
> to) 

Jd qazz pi. jjji quzuz silk; raw 
silk 

jlji qizaz {eg.) glass 

jijS qazzdz silk merchant 

Sjlji ^izaza pi. -a£, 'j\ji qazd'iz 2 {eg,) 
bottle 

Jj j jU look up alphabetically 

j^iJ taqazzuz loathing, disgust, de- 
testation, abhorrence, aversion 

uljS (Turk, kazan) qazdn pi, -ai kettle, large 
boiler 

rjs II to embellish (a one's speech) 

rj? tfjfi qausu quzahin or qausu quzaha 
rainbow 

4~»j3 quzahlya iris (ana£.) 

pj5 gaza f (coll.; n. un. «) wind-driven, 
tattered clouds, scud; tuft of hair 

ac-Js {eg.) quz'a dwarf, midget, pygmy 

i*j js qazVa tuft of hair 



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892 



JaJ» qazqaza (eg.) to crack (* nuts, shells) 

JjS qazal limp(ing) 

pjS qazam pi. *lj5l aqzdm dwarf, midget, 
pygmy; Lilliputian; little fellow, shrimp, 
hop-o'-my-thumb, whippersnapper; — 
dwarfism (med.), stunted growth 

Z*j» qazama pi. -at dwarf, midget (fern.) 

^J* qazaml stunted, dwarfish; arrested 
in growth, dwarfed 

f j* qazim stunted, dwarfish ; tiny 

y„A**J* quzmugrafiya cosmography 

jly^.jj quzmugrdfi cosmographic(al) 

jlj* look up alphabetically 

Ifjj* qazvnn % Kazvin (city in NW Iran) | 
lj jji j£ bahr q. the Caspian Sea 

,j*3 qassa u (qass) to seek, pursue (a s.th.), 
strive (* for), aspire (* to) V do, 

u^J qass, qiss pi. ^j^J qusils, ( j~Js qusus 
priest, presbyter, clergyman, minister, 
parson, vicar, curate, pastor (Chr.); 
— qass (= ( _ r .a3) sternum, breastbone 

^Li qassds slanderer 

^^juJ qissls pi. -un t HL^Li qasdwisa, OLi 
qussan, LJl aqissa, (Copt. -Chr.) »Li qussa 
priest, presbyter, clergyman, minister, 
parson, vicar, curate, pastor (Chr.) 

Z*j~2 qususa ministry, priesthood, 
presbyterate (Chr.) 

<L-j-«i LU-j risama qususiya ordination 
(of a priest; Chr.) 

jJi qasara i (qasr) to force, compel, coerce, 
constrain (J*, c s.o. to do s.th.); to 
conquer, subdue, subjugate (*, « s.o., 
s.th.) VIII = I 



jJa qasr force, compulsion, coercion, 
constraint; 1^-J qasran compulsed?, 
forcibly, by force; of necessity, neces. | 
sarily, inevitably, perforce 

jLlal iqtisdr conquest, subdual, 
jugation 

Ja-J II to distribute (a s.th.); to pay in 
installments (a s.th.) IV to act justly, 
in fairness, equitably 

JauJ qist justice, fairness, equity, 
equitableness, fair-mindedness, rightneaa, 
correctness; (for sg. and pi.) just, fair, 
equitable, fair-minded, right, correct; — 
(pi. J* Li I aqsdt) part; share, allotment; 
portion; installment; quantity, amount, 
measure, extent | J* LSI Jp by install- 
ments, gradually; j* jS J»j; J* jK* to 
possess s.th. (a quality, a characteristic) 
to a large extent, have a great deal of...; 
4s- \)\ j* «tkJ jji*1 (istaufd) to find one'fl 
full measure of rest, get a complete rest 

Ja— i gasaf stiffness of a joint, ankylosis 
(med.) 

Ja-JJl aqsat 2 juster, fairer; more correct 



taqsit payment in installments | 
}a 1r Jd[j in installments, gradually 



muqsit acting justly or with 
fairness, doing right; just, fair 

y*-J qastara to test the genuineness (a of 
coins) 

*iJ,uJ qastara (= ~*Jo&) and JaJ$ qastar. 
catheter (med.) 

^-IkJJ qustds, qistas pi. ^-xWLi qamtifi 
balance, scales 

1 Jia-J #as/a£ pi. JkLi qasdtil 2 water pipe, 
water main 

2 Jkj; ^asfaZ (c^.) chestnut 



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aILLuJI i"^j bilad al-qaadtila Castile, Spain 

LLkJa-JiJl al-qustantiniya Constantinople 

--J qasama i (qasm) to divide, part, split 
(a s.th.); to distribute, deal out, parcel 
out (Jp a s.th. to, among), divide (Jp * 
s.th. among); to let s.o. (J) share (j 
s.th.), give s.o. (J) a share of s.th. ( j), 
allot (j J to s.o. s.th.); to divide, sub- 
divide, partition, portion, break up 
(Jl * s.th. into), arrange, classify (Jl * 
s.th. in); to partition, to compartment 
(a s.th.); to assign, apportion, decree, 
destine, foreordain (a Jp or J to s.o. 
s.th.; of God or of fate); to divide (Jp a 
a number by another) II to divide, part, 
split (a s.th.); to distribute, deal out, 
parcel out, divide (&t a s.th. among); to 
divide, subdivide, partition, portion, 
break up (a s.th,, a or J( into), section 
{a s.th.), arrange, classify (a s.th., a 
or Jl in); to partition, to compartment 
(a s.th.); (Ckr.) to consecrate, ordain 
(s s.o.); to exorcise a devil or demon (Jp 
from s.o., by adjuration) III to share 
(a « with s.o. s.th.) ; to bind o.s. by oath 
(Jp e to s.o. to do s.th.) IV to take an 
oath, swear («-> by; Jp J to s.o. s.th.; 
jl Jp to do s.th.) | <dLj )}\ «uip ~il (ilia 
fa f alahu) to adjure or entreat s.o. to do 
s.th.; (%-^lcl -l$»- lj,»..jn (jahda aimanihim) 
they swore by all that is right and holy, 
they swore the most solemn oaths; 
4jL-oix ,^JI (muqaddasatihi) to swear 
by all that's holy V to be divided, be 
parted, be split; to be distributed, be 
parceled out; to share (a, a a possession), 
divide among themselves (n s.o., a s.th.); 
to scatter, disperse (a s.th.); to drive 
away, dispel (a s.th.) ; to beset grievously, 
harass or torment jointly (• s.o.) | *^-Jtj 
U^-j Lj^i (darban) they took turns in 
dealing him painful blows, they gave 
him a severe beating VI to divide or 
distribute among themselves (a s.th.); 



to beset, harass, torment (o s.o. ; thoughts, 
worries, etc.) VII to be divided, be 
parted, be split; to be distributed, be 
dispersed, be separated; to be divided, 
be subdivided, be portioned, be broken 
up (Jl into) [ 4~iJ Jp p-JsJl to be divided 
within itself, be of differing opinions 
(group of people) VIII to divide or distrib- 
ute among themselves (a s.th.); to share 
(«> a s.th. with) X to seek an oracle from 
the deity, cast lots 

~i qism pi. j»LS! aqsdm part, share, 
allotment; portion; division, compart- 
ment; section; department; group, class; 
district, precinct; police precinct, police 
station (Eg.); administrative subdivision 
of a muhdfaza (Eg.); subcommittee; 
kind, sort, specimen, species | JjV *-i)l 
(adabi) humanities division (higher educa- 
tion); oLLJ-1 —i accounting depart- 
ment, bookkeeping division; ^^ak -*S 
special group or class; * J ~*±S\ ~J}\ (Eg.) 
political secret police; coU*Jl ~J q. as- 
sijilldt registry, record office; Si-JUJi ~i 
q. al-falsafa department of philosophy 
(at a university); JUj -~j (vxitani; Mor.) 
national league (soccer) 

Z+~S qisma dividing, division, distri- 
bution, allotment, apportionment; (math.) 
division (J* by); (pi. ~J qisam) part, 
portion, share, allotment; lot, destiny, 
fate (foreordained by God) 

-Jf qasam pi. aL3\ aqsdm oath; |p«j 
qasaman I swear ! «-> J^J I swear by ... ! 

lu*i qasama, qasima pi. -at feature, lin- 
eament (of the face) 

pLi qasam and SuLi qasama beauty, 
elegance 

*J qaslm pi. *\J* qusama' 2 , ^Ic-il 
aqsima' 2 sharer, partner, copartner, par- 
ticipant) ; — (pi. ►| c Ji aqsimd' 2 ) other part 
(of s.th.), second half; duplicate; counter- 
part 



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qasima pi. fLi qasaim 2 coupon; 
counterfoil, stub; receipt; perfume box; 
— oath 

***ȣ> taqsim exorcism; (pi. -at) divid- 
ing, division, partition, parting, splitting, 
sectioning, portioning; distribution, al- 
lotment; division (arith.); pi. ~*Uj taqa* 
sim 2 structure, build, proportions (e.g., 
of the body); — solo recital (mus.) 



qsima pi. ~-Iaj taqdslm 2 short 
solo piece for an instrument (mus.) 

4s"\ju muqasama partnership, partic- 
ipation, sharing 

f LJul inqisdm division, split, disruption, 
breakup; schism 

* LJSl iqtisdm dividing, division, distri- 
bution (among themselves) 

-*m qdsim divider; distributor; divisor, 
denominator [math,) 

{j~Jl* maqsum dividend (math.); *j~Ju 
4~L divisor (math.) 

*-JL. muqassim divider; distributor 
(techn.); — mvqassam divided, having a 
scale (measuring instrument) 

*-lit muqdsim sharer, partner, co- 
partner, participant 

munqasim divisible; fissionable 



qusantina 2 Const antine (city in NE 
Algeria) 

(j~2) Li qasa u (Zj~S qa^wa, SjLi qasdwa) 
to be harsh, stern, cruel, merciless, 
remorseless (J* toward s.o.); to handle 
roughly, treat harshly, severely, cruelly, 
without mercy (J* s.o.) II to harden, 
indurate, render obdurate or impenitent 
(a the heart) III to suffer (j^ from, under) ; 
to endure, sustain, bear, stand (* s.th.), 
bear up (* against s.th.) IV = II 



j~J qasw hardness, harshness, grimness, 
sternness, severity, rigor, austerity 

S_j*J qaswa hardness, harshness, grim- 
ness, sternness, severity, rigor, austerity; 
cruelty, mercilessness, remorselessness 

ojLJ qasawa hardness, harshness, grim- 
ness, sternness, severity, rigor, austerity; 
cruelty, mercilessness, remorselessness 

^-i qasiy hard, solid, firm 

^£-51 aqsa harder, harsher, sterner, 
severer; more cruel; more difficult 

#LIL> muqdsdh undergoing, suffering, 
enduring, sustaining, bearing, standing 

^U qasin pi. oLi qusah hard, harsh, 
grim, stern, severe, austere, rough; 
cruel, inexorable, relentless, merciless, 
remorseless; difficult 

1 lS J qasiy see j*J 

2 ( 3~s qusly, qisly pi. of ^jS qaus 

J£ qaUa i u (qass) to collect, gather (up), 
pick up (a s.th.); to pick up from here 
and there (a s.th.); to become dry, dry 
up, shrivel up, wither (esp., of a plant) 
II to take of this and that 

jti qass' straw; matches; (syr.-leb., 
pronounced q9U) kind of rush (for weav- 
ing mats, wicker chairs or tables) | jii 
Jb-U-I steel wool; jtiJl ^jh hummd l-q. 
hay fever 



(n. un.) a straw | »_->Uj <tj 
match, matchstick; i*J jU^ (eg.) gher- 
kins 

J^Jj qasls sweepings, rubbish, garbage, 
trash, refuse; offal, waste, scrap 

^ilii qa$$ds and ^Li jUJ (qitar; eg.) 
local train, slow train 

"itX* miqassa (eg.) broom, besom 



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i^Jii #t£&, jasafe pi. i^Ltil a^sd6 poison 

<-*$£* ga<si& pi. i_*t» qu$ub new; clean; 
polished, burnished 

*Jbij qatstdla 2 Castile 

JLii qa$tdli Castilian 



JJtS qasada u 
cream) 



to skim, take off (a the 

ixiS qisda cream 

j!£ qasara i u (qasr) to peel, pare, shell, 
derind, bark, skin, scale, shave off, husk, 
shuck (a s.th.) II = I; Y to be peeled, 
be pared, be shelled, be derinded, be 
barked, be skinned, be scaled, be shaved 
off, be husked, be shucked; to come off 
in scales, scale off, flake off, peel off 
{skin, coating, paint, color) VII — V 

jj£ qisr pi. jj£s qusur cover(ing), in- 
tegument, envelope; shell; peel; rind, 
bark; skin, crust; scab; scurf; hull, 
husk, shuck; scales (of fish); slough 
(of a snake); pi. jytS trash, garbage, 
refuse; trivialities, banalities; externals, 
superficialities, formalities; dandruff | 
(j-l^Jl j£$ q> ar-rcCs dandruff 

lji3> qisra peel, rind (e.g., of a fruit), 
shell (of an egg, of a nut); bark; skin; 
crust; scab; scurf; hull, husk, shuck; 
scale; slough (of a snake) | ^jV »jt* <?• 
al-ard (or ^J>j\ *jJ£) the earth's crust; ij£& 
J-UaJI q. ad-dimdg cerebral cortex (anat.) 

^j^ qisrl scaly, scurfy, scabrous, 
squamous; crustaceous j aj^^I ^j5*Vl 
psoriasis (med.); Cj\jjJlH\ and C->Ul^J-l 
hj^jd] (hayawdndt) crustaceans {zool.) 

>ixj taqHr peeling, paring, shelling; 
derinding, barking; skinning; scaling; 
shaving off, scraping off; husking, shuck- 
ing 



J*ij qaSata i (qast) to take off, strip (off), 
remove (jp a s.th. from); to skim (a 
cream) ; to scratch off, scrape off, abrade 
(a s.th.) II to take off (a s.th.); to strip 
off (a s.th.) ; to rob (a, a s.o., s.th.), plunder, 
strip of his belongings (» s.o.) 

SktS {eg.) qista, (syr.) qasta cream; (eg.) 
sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.; &of.), 
custard apple 

X'Jti qisdt (leather) strap, thong; 
whiplash; drive belt, transmission belt 

J? US qusdt (eg.) pi. -at jetton, chip, 
counter; piece, man (checkers, back- 
gammon) 

C -LiJu miqsat pi. J*^U» maqdHt 2 eraser, 
erasing knife 

O "4% La* miqsata pi. -kill. maqdHp 2 
milling machine, miller 

<JlLii qastdla?, JILiS qastali = 5JUJL?, JLJti 

m£2 qasa'a a (qas r ) to scatter, disperse, drive 
away, chase away (a, a s.o., s.th.), dispel 
(a s.th.) IV to scatter, disperse, drive 
away, chase away (a, & s.o., s.th.), dispel 
(a s.th.); to scatter, disperse, break up 
(crowd), lift, dissolve (clouds, darkness) 
V and VII to be scattered, be dispersed, 
be driven away, be chased away; to 
scatter, disperse, break up (crowd), 
lift, dissolve (clouds, darkness) 

(j^tl) IV ^*Jl»\ iqMarra to shudder, shiver, 
tremble, quake, shake, have goose flesh 
(with cold, with fright) | jjU-1 <c* yJLJu ^ 
(jl-b VI or) sai'un taqsa'irru minhu l-jvlu* 
du a bloodcurdling thing, a horrible, 
ghastly thing 

o j jJii qusa'rlra shudder , tremor , 
trembling, shakes; shiver(ing); ague 

-jJti qaSam pi. ~pUj> qasd'im 2 lion [ *jJJ pi 
umm q. hyena; calamity, disaster 



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Jti qasifa a (qasaf) and qasufa u (iiLti 
qasaf a) to live in squalor and misery; to 
have a dirty skin ; to pay no attention to 
cleanliness II (eg.) to become rough and 
chapped, to chap (hands) V = I; to 
lead an ascetic life, mortify the bodily 
appetites; to be abstemious, moderate; 
(eg.) to become rough and chapped, to 
chap (skin) 

iiij qiija (eg.) pi. .JaiJ qisaf crust (of 
bread) 

iJaJiJu taqassuf asceticism, mortification 
of the flesh ; abstemiousness, abstinence, 
moderation; simple, primitive way of 
life 



tJ» ,*.<:» mutaqassif ascetic(al) ; 
roughened, chapped (hands) 
mutaqassifa the ascetics 



(eg-) 
I ah 



Jtxlj qasqasa to cure (,y o s.o. of scabies, of 
smallpox); to sweep out, 8 weep away (a 
s.th.) 

1 J-ti qa-sila (qasal) (eg.) to be poor, penniless, 
without means 

2 Uii (Turk. Jasla) qasla pi. J-ii qisal (mil- 
itary) barracks (syr.); hospital (eg.) 



i $'&£ (Turk. kislak) quslaq pi. 
barracks 



-at (military) 



i ±+Jlj qismis a variety of currants (— 
seedless raisins) 

(jliU look up alphabetically 



{ y& qassa u (qass) to cut, cut off, clip (a 
s.th.); to shear, shear oil (a s.th.); to 
trim, curtail, dock, crop, lop (a s.th.); — 
(qass, ^^i qasas): *J\ ^ (atarahu) 
to follow s.o.'s tracks, track s.o.; — 
( iJ A+as qasas) to relate, narrate, tell 
(a Jt to s.o. s.th.) II to cut off, shear off, 



clip, curtail, dock, trim, crop, lop (a 
s.th.) Ill to retaliate (o upon s.o,), 
return like for like (a to s.o.); to avenge 
o.s., revenge o.s,, take vengeance (» on 
s.o.); to punish, castigate, chastise {* 
s.o.); (com.) to settle accounts (o with 
s.o.); to be quits, be even {* with s.o.) 
V tj\ (j^vaAj (atarahu) to follow s.o.'s 
tracks, track s.o. VIII = V; to tell ac- 
curately, relate exactly (a s.th.); to re- 
taliate (,y* upon s.o.), return like for like 
(,y> to s.o.); to avenge o.s., revenge o.s., 
take vengeance (j- on s.o.); to punish, 
castigate, chastise (^* s.o.) 

^^ajt qass clippings, cuttings, chips, 
snips, shreds, scraps; sternum, breastbone 

i*«S qassa pi, -at cut (e.g., of a dress, 
of hair) 

XJi qussa pi. ^-a-vfli qusas f ^LaJ qisds 
forelock ; lock of hair 

A*ai qissa manner of cutting; cut; 
(pi. ,j-a«a5 qisas) narrative, tale, story | 
2usl^ ivfiS (h&rdfiya) fairy story, fabu- 
lous or legendary tale; Ij^Ja "<^ short 
story; jt f^l IJIa a^os the matter is so 
that . . ., the thing is best described by 
saying that . . . 

^+0* qasas clippings, cuttings, chipa, 
snips, shreds; narrative literature; nar- 
rative, tale, story | ^d^ ^a^zJUI (Sa'bl) 
folktale, popular novel (genre); {Jt A^ai 
ljcs> q. T antara the romance of Antar 

(S *~ai qasasi, qisasl narrative, epic(al); 
fictional; (pi. bj^M^as) storyteller, writer 
of fiction, novelist, romancer | S*j*£ 
S^^^aS collection of stories; iS a^ajL>\ jj&\ 
(si'r) epic poetry 

4**Lo» qusdsa (coll. ^UJ qusas and 
i^L^J qusasa) pi. -at cutting, chip, snip, 
shred; scrap (of paper); slip (of paper); 
(newspaper) clipping 

(j^Ua* qassds pi. -un shearer; tracker, 



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X*aA 



tracer of tracks; writer of fiction, novel- 
ist, romancer; popular storyteller, also 
^ ^Ims (sa'bi) 

4^j^a3\ uqsusa pi. ^^a^lsi aqdsl^ narra- 
tive, tale, novella, novel; short story 

ijaju miqass pi. ^Aju maqdss 2 {pair of) 
scissors, {pair of) shears; (syr.) springs 
{of an automobile, of a coach) | ^^a* jj I 
abu m. earwig; skimmer, scissorbill 
(Rhynchops; zool.) 

^UJ qisds requital, reprisal, retalia- 
tion; punishment, castigation, chastise- 
ment; accounting, clearing, settlement 
of accounts 

ivtfU. muqassa accounting, clearing, 
settlement of accounts; balancing, ad- 
justment, setoff; compensation (com.) j 
4^UU 4&j£- gurfat al-m. clearing house 
(fin.) 

^15 qdss pi. ^UaS qussds writer of 
fiction, novelist, romancer; popular story- 
teller 

^y^al* maqsus pi. ^a-^U. maqasis 2 
(eg.) lovelock, earlock 

'i^ay^ju maqsusa skimming ladle, skim- 
mer 

^Uj qusdj pi. -at pliers, pincers, nippers 

*ai qasaba i (qasb) to cut up, carve up (a 
a slaughtered animal) II to curl (a the 
hair); to brocade, embroider with gold 
and silver thread (a s.th.) 



(coll.) cane{s), reed(s); 
sugar cane; stalks (of cereal grasses); 
gold and silver thread, gold and silver 
embroidery; brocade | *^-aaJI <^di q. 
ad-dahab gold brocade; _ / S^JI ^.aj q. as- 
wkkar sugar cane; t^-UjJI ^^oi\ (hindi) 
bamboo; (^JUJlj) J~J1 «_— ** jj>~\ ahraza 
qa§aba ssabq (wa-l-galb) to come through 



with flying colors, carry the day, score 

a great success 

4~v<ai qasaba (n. un.) pi. -at cane, reed; 
pipe, tube; pipestem, pipe tube; writing 
pen; windpipe, trachea; shaft (of a well); 
a wind instrument resembling the reed 
pipe; kassabah, a linear measure (Eg. — 
3,55 m); (— J»-JI \.,^ q. ar-rijl, IL^i 
(jUI) shin bone; (Syr.) capital of a dis- 
trict, county seat (= Brit, county town); 
— (magr.) qasba pi. □ ijLas qsdbl casbah, 
fortified area and citadel of cities in NW 
Africa | ZJ\ IJ q. ar-ri*a and wl 
*J\j* (hawaiya) windpipe, trachea; *«** 
*,jj.\ q. al-marf gullet, esophagus 

*jUa5 qisdba butcher's trade, butchery 

<£«*$ qusaiba (tun.) oats 

^Ui3 qassab butcher, slaughterer; (eg.) 
land surveyor 

4jUa3 qussaba (reed) pipe 

,_wtL» muqassab embroidered with gold 
and silver thread, brocaded, trimmed 
with brocade 

r-l^ai look up alphabetically 

JUtS qasada i (qasd) to go or proceed straight- 
away (J[ or a, » to s.o., to s.th.), make 
a beeline (Jl or a, t> for), walk up to s.o. 
or s.th. (Jl or a, e); to go to see (Jl, » 
s.o.), call (Jl, 6 on s.o.); to betake o.s., 
repair, go (Jl, a to a place; Jl, » to s.o.), 
be headed, be bound (Jl, a for a place); 
to seek, pursue (Jl, a s.th.), strive (Jf, a 
for), aspire (Jl, a to), intend, have in 
mind {Jl, a s.th.; ^ or u a s.th. with 
s.th. else); to aim (Jl, a at s.th.); to have 
in view, contemplate, consider, purpose 
(a s.th.); to mean, try to say (a <~> or ^ 
by s.th. s.th.) ; to adopt a middle course 
(j in, at); to be economical, frugal, 
thrifty, provident; to economize, save | 
oJUaii x^i (qasdaku) to walk up to s.o., go 



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898 



toward s.o. ; to follow, imitate s.o. IV to 
induce to go (Jl to s.o., to a place; « 
s.o.); to compose kasidas V to intend, 
have in mind (a s.th.); to be broken, 
break; (eg.) to be angry (« with s.o.), 
be mad ( e at s.o.) VII to be broken, 
break VIII to adopt a middle course (J 
in, at; ,>j between); to assume a media- 
tory position (<>j between), act as me- 
diator; to be economical, frugal, thrifty, 
provident, economize (<j with); to save 
(* money, etc.), put aside {* an amount 
of money) ; to compose kasidas 

JUaS qasd endeavor, aspiration, in- 
tention, intent; design, purpose, res- 
olution; object, goal, aim, end; frugality; 
thrift, economy; (prep.) qasda ( — J^aX> 
with genit.) with intent to, in an effort 
toward | IjUsS qasdan, x^> ^ intention- 
ally, purposely, advisedly, on purpose; 
deliberately; -UaS ^ je and x^ bj* 
unintentionally, inadvertently; -UaaJI j~*~ 
husn al-q. good intention; -UaHl »j-- su 
al-q. evil intention 6x^ y> {qasdaka, 
qasduka) he is in front of you, before 
you, opposite you; JU<aUI Jj^I the right 
way 

i£-U<ai> qasdi intentional; intended 

jU*5 qusad (prep.) in front of, before, 
opposite {eg.) 

\~~a$ qasld aspired, desired, aimed at, 
intended; faultless, without defects (of 
a poem); kasida (generic term and coll. of 
S^-yaS, see below) | JL~aJiJI c-jj bait al-q. 
(the essential, principal verse of the 
kasida, i.e.) the main point, the principal 
part, the essence, the core, the gist, the 
best, the hit, the climax of s.th., that 
which stands out from the rest, the right 
thing 

aJL-^aii qasida pi. JtfL^J qasaid 2 kasida, 
an ancient Arabic poem , mostly tripartite, 



with a fixed thematic sequence; (nowa- 
days also generally) poem | oX r ali\ c^> = 
-UdiJI c-u, see under jl*** 

JUa*l aqsad 2 directer, directest 



. maqsid pi. ju*Uu maqasid 2 (place 
of) destination; intention, intent; design, 
purpose, resolution; object, goal, aim, 
end; sense, meaning, import, purport, 
significance | jl*U1I ^ sayyi al-m. 
malevolent, malicious 

JUaaj laqassud intention, striving 

jL^dil iqtisad saving, economization, 
retrenchment; thriftiness, thrift, prov- 
idence; economy | jUaxJVl Jk "ilmal-iqt,, 
t^LJI ^Ua^iV! [^) (siydsi) economies, 
political economy; c3J\ j bL^ul iqtisa* 
dan ft l-waqt in order to save time ; iLsa^! 
tSJ^\ {qaumi) national economy 

^.sLfld!! iqtisadi economical; saving, 
thrifty, provident; economic; (pi. -tin) 
economist, political economist; oLoLaxiVI 
the economy 

-U<?lS qasid direct, straight (way); 
easy, smooth, pleasant, short (of travel) | 
J^-j -L^li (rasuli) (pi. jUs5 qussad) apos- 
tolic delegate 

<J^-j oLu" qisdda rasuliya papal 
legation 

sj~ojL» maqsud aimed at, intended; 
intentional, designed, deliberate; meant 

jJUaS qasdara to tin (a s.th.) 
j JU-aS qasdlr tin 

1 J ^*s qasura u (qisar, qasr, SjU-aS qasara) 
to be or become short, too short, or 
shorter; to be insufficient, be inadequate; 
— qasara u {jj^ qusur) to miss, fail 
to reach (j& s.th., e.g., a target), fall 
short (j^ of); to be incapable (^ of), 
be unable (jc to do s.th.), fail to reach, 



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j*> 



attain, accomplish, or achieve (^ s.th.); 
not to be equal (^ to s.th.), not to be 
up to s.th. (jA be unable to cope with 
s.th. (je); to desist, cease, refrain, 
abstain (j* from); — qasara i u [qasr) 
to make short or shorter, shorten, cut 
short, curtail, abridge, reduce, lessen 
(a s.th.); — qasara u {qasr) to hold back, 
restrain, check, curb (a, t> s.o., s.th.); to 
keep under supervision or control (a, * 
s.o., s.th.); to lock up (a, » s.o., s.th.); 
to limit, restrict, confine (Jp a, « s.o., 
s.th, to); — qasara u (qasr, IJlJs qisara) 
to full, whiten, bleach, blanch (a s.th.) 
II to make short or shorter, shorten, cut 
short, curtail, abridge, reduce, lessen 
(a s.th.); to miss, fail to reach (jp s.th., 
e.g., a target), fall short (j* of); to be 
incapable (j* of), be unable (^ to do 
s.th.); to fail to accomplish, achieve, 
reach, or attain (^ s.th.) ; not to be equal 
(jfr to s.th.), not to be up to s.th. {^), 
be unable to cope with s.th. (y>); to be 
inadequate, insufficient, inferior; to be 
remiss (j in, at, in some work), be 
derelict (J to), fall behind, lag behind 
(j in); to be negligent, careless; to 
be lax, negligent, neglectful (j in), 
neglect {j s.th.) ; to desist, cease, refrain, 
abstain (^ from) | j jM \ he spared no 
pains or expense in or with ..., he left 
nothing undone to . . ., he did not fail 
to . . . IV to make short or shorter, 
shorten, cut short, curtail, abridge, 
reduce, lessen (a s.th.); to desist, cease, 
refrain, abstain (^ from) VI to contract, 
shrink, dwindle, become smaller; to be 
incapable {^ of); to desist, cease (^ 
from) ; to refrain, abstain ( jc from) VIII to 
limit o.s. , restrict o.s., confine o.s. , 
be limited, restricted, or confined (Jp 
to); to content o.s., be content <Jp 
with) X to find short, regard as deficient 
or inadequate (a s.th.) 

j^s qasr shortness, brevity; smallness; 



incapability, inability; insufficiency, in- 
adequacy; laxity, slackness, negligence, 
neglectfulness; indolence, inertness, lazi- 
ness; shortening, curtailment, abridg- 
ment, reduction, diminution; limitation, 
restriction, confinement (J* to); the 
utmost that is in s.o.'s power, e.g., 
\X» [*J6 o\ iiy^5 (qasruka) the most 
you can hope to accomplish is to do 
this; you must limit yourself to doing 
this 

^J qasr pi. j j~a3 qusur castle ; palace ; 
palais | JjuJI j«as q. ol-'adl, J^ j** 
{'mill) and (Mogr.) y -u)1 ^ q. aVadllya 
palace of justice 

ij^ai qasrlya pi. jLaS qasarin pot; 
flowerpot; chamber pot 

jjs qisar shortness, brevity ; smallness | 
J^i\ ^ q. an-nazar nearsightedness, 
sh ortsightedness 

jj» qaswr slackness, laxity, negligence, 
neglectfulness; indolence, inertness, lazi- 



jUai qasdr, qusdr: !aa J*ij ol iijUas — 
iJU ^Ju ol diljU^ (see ^jUJ) 

jLas qassdr fuller, bleacher 

j_j^a5 qusur incapability, inability; 
insufficiency, inadequacy; deficiency, 
shortcoming, lack; reduction, diminution, 
decrease; slackness, laxity, negligence, 
neglectfulness; indolence, inertness, lazi- 
ness; legal minority, nonage | £Ul jj^ 
powerlessness, impotence, helplessness, 
weakness, incapability, inability (^ of, 
to do s.th.); J^JI jj-^JI (adall) muscu- 
lar atrophy (med.) 

j^sZ qasir pi. jLaS qisar short; small, 
short (of stature), low | J^-V jwJ q. 
al-ajal short-term(ed), short-dated, short- 
lived; 9\J\ jy^i powerless, impotent, help- 
loss, weak, incapable, unable; parsi- 



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900 



monious, niggardly; jlJI j^as q. al-yad 
do. 

SjUaS qisdra trade of the fuller or 
bleacher 

t^jUaS qusdrd the utmost, the limit (o) 
s.o.'s power) | \S& J*ij" jl fJijLai (qusdrdkaf 
the most you can accomplish is to do 
this; you must limit yourself to doing 
this; o IjUaa JAj or j^A- I ^jUJ JJb (5. l-jahd) 
to exert every conceivable effort (J to, 
in order to; ^ on, for), go to great 
lengths, go out of one's way, do one's 
best, do all in one's power, leave no 
stone unturned (J to, in order to); ^jLzi 
ja^\ q. l-amr, J^Dl ^jUJ g. /-^aW in 
short, in brief, to make a long story short 

j^\ aqsar 2 shorter 

^^aJiVi al-uqsur Luxor (town in Upper 
Egypt) 

j-wii^ taqslr shortening, curtailment, 
abridgment, reduction, diminution, lim- 
itation , restriction , confinement ; in- 
capability, incapacity, inability; in- 
sufficiency, inadequacy, inferiority; neg- 
lect, derr iction (J of ), remissness (j in); 
slackness, laxity, negligence, neglect- 
fulness; defect, fault, failing, deficiency, 
shortcoming 

^>li qasir incapable (jt of), unable 
(^ to do s.th.); limited, restricted, 
confined (J* to); reserved (Je for); 
intransitive (gram,); (pi. -un, jji qussar) 
legally minor, under age; a legal minor j 
<Js^4aJl S^U q. at -tar f (of a woman) chaste- 
eyed, chaste, demure, modest; jlJI _ / ^>li 
q. al-yad powerless, impotent, helpless, 
weak, incapable, unable; parsimonious, 
niggardly 

jj^ai* maqsur confined (Jp to); re- 
stricted, limited | Js iaJl Ijj^aJu m. at-tarf 
(woman) chaste-eyed, chaste, demure, 
modest; Ijj^aX* ,JJI (alif) the alif that can 



be shortened, i.e., final ^, pronounced -0 
(e.g., (jj rama) and I, without following 
hamza [gram.) 

IjyM* maqsura pi. -at, j^U. maqafir* 
palace; cabinet, closet; compartment; 
box or stall in a mosque near the mihrab, 
reserved for the ruler; (theater, cinema) 
box, loge; the detached portion of a 
mosque set aside for the communal 
prayer, and frequently enclosing the 
tomb of the patron saint; (prisoner's) 
dock; chapel (in a church) 

j*aa* muqassir slack, negligent, neglect- 
ful 

j^oza* muqtasir limited, restricted, con- 
fined (J* to) 

j^aiJu muqtasar short, brief, concise, 
terse, succinct, summary 

2 / ^J look up alphabetically 

Jv-i qusurmill ashes used as building mate- 
rial, esp. those derived from heating of 
bath-houses, burning of dung 

£s«S qasa'a a (qas r ) to drink in avid gulps, 
gulp down, pour down, toss down (« 
water); to slake, quench (a the thirst); to 
grind, crush, bruise, squash, mash (a s.th.) 
V (eg.) to writhe seductively (woman) 

iwi* qas r a pi. qasa'at, *^J qisa', f LJ 
qisd' large bowl (made of wood or cop- 
per); (ir.) kettle 

O £U«* qusd' cretinism (med.) 



qasafa i (qasf) to break, shatter, 
smash (a s.th.); to beset, harass, press 
hard, oppress (» s.o.), bear down (a 
upon s.o.); to bomb (a s.th.); to thunder, 
roar (esp., of cannon); to roll, rumble, 
grumble, peal (of thunder); — u {qasf, 
Jtj^zi qusuj) to feast, revel, carouse; to 
lead a life of opulence; — qasifa a 



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901 



J*** 



(qasaf) to break; to be frail, delicate, 
brittle, fragile V and VII to be broken, 
break, snap 



qasf thunder, roar (e.g., of 
cannon); bombardment; revelry, carousal 



I qasf a (n. vie.) pi. qasaf at thunder 



clap 



JuaS qasif frail, delicate, brittle, 
fragile; broken 



<J»-*«S qasif frail, delicate, brittle, 
fragile; broken 

(J»j^a5 qusuf revelry, carousal 



qsaf pi. tJw»Li. maqdsif 2 bar; 
buffet; snack bar; canteen; casino 

j-ai-as qasqasa to break, shatter (a s.th.); 
{eg.) to snip off the ends (a of s.th.), clip, 
trim, crop (a s.th.) 

J**» qamla i [qasl) to cut off, mow (off) (a 
s.th.) VIII to cut off (a s.th.) 

J-^aS qasal chaff, husks, shucks, awns 
(of grain) ; (n. un. I) stalks 

J LaS qassal sharp, cutting, sharp- 
pointed 

J~*oi qasil (eg.) winter barley 

J**a* miqsal sharp, cutting, sharp - 
pointed 

iLai* miqsala pi. -at, J-^U* maqasil 2 
guillotine 

J-^U qasil sharp, cutting 

*ai qasama i (qasm) to break, shatter {a 
s.th.) | t>j$> ~oj (zahraku) (to break s.o.'s 
back -) to be a mortal blow to s.o. 
V to be broken, break, snap VII — V 

«*3 qasim easily broken, brittle, fragile 

g*ai qasim easily broken, brittle, 



^\j qasim pi. #*>\j» qatmsim 2 breaking | 
j^a}\ 4£^li qdsimat az-zahr mortal blow, 
catastrophe, disaster; ^j» <~>\is* (4^ 
rabdt) mortal blows, crushing blows 

(j~*Z and lS aj) Ua5 qasd u (j*** qasw, qu&uw, 
fLai qasd) and t5 ^* qasiya a (LaS, (J ^ai 
qasan) to be far away, be far removed, 
be at a great distance (jc from), be 
remote, distant; to go far away (jp 
from) IV to take far away, send far 
away (^ a, » s.o., s.th. from); to remove 
(je o s.o. from); to drive away (jp » s.o. 
from); to drag away (^ » s.o. from); 
to dismiss (s s.o., ltj£i ^ from a job); to 
reach the utmost limit (a of s.th.) | 
^v-aJi t^^z^i V Id yuqsihi l-basaru out of 
sight, not within view, invisible V to go 
far away (j* from); to penetrate deeply, 
inquire (a into a problem, and the like), 
examine, study, investigate (a s.th.), go 
to the root (a of s.th.); to follow out, 
follow to a conclusion (a s.th.); to ex- 
amine, feel out, palpate (a s.th.) X to 
penetrate deeply, inquire (a into a prob- 
lem, and the like), examine, study, in- 
vestigate (a s.th.), go to the root (a of 
s.th.); to seek to fathom (a s.th.), try to 
get to the bottom (a of); to inquire, 
make inquiries (^p about) 

UJ qasan and »L*J qasd' distance, 

remoteness 

^a! qasiy pi. *L^3l aqsa far (away), 
distant, remote 

^s^\ a<{sd> f. i£j-** quswd, pi. ^1*1 aqdsin 
more distant, remoter, farther (away); 
most distant, remotest, farthest; ut- 
most, extreme, ultimate; maximal, 
maximum; the farthermost part; the 
utmost, extreme, extremity; end j -U.-JU 
(^"iM {masjid) name of a mosque on the 
Temple Square in Jerusalem; iS aJ?$\ JyJ^l 
(sarq) the Far East; (S ^ S ^\ ^j&\ {magrib) 
(the extreme west — ) Morocco; SjUJI 



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j^aA 



902 



j. jij^axll the utmost degree of, the 
maximum of; ^ j^l ^tfl aqdsl l-ard the 
remotest parts of the earth, the ends 
of the world; ^^aaII Sjj^AJI JU* {darura) in 
case of dire necessity, when worst comes 
to worst ; Jb~ j^ail J I ild aqsd haddin to the 
extreme limit, to the utmost; as far as 
possible; 0L2SI Ji oL*ail j* or J! oUil j* 
«L*5l (adndhu) from one end to the 
other, throughout, everything without 
exception; »Las1 j at the extreme end, 
at the very back (of a room, etc.) ; {S a*\ J I 
jwJI at the extreme right 

t yaij taqassin thorough examination, 
close study, minute investigation 



*-l istiqsci thorough examination, 
close study, minute investigation; fath- 
oming; exploration; inquiry (^p into) 



jLaJc*-! istiqsal thorough, penetrating, 
going to the root; probing, exploratory 

^U qdsin pi. Uj-^l* qdsun, »Ua*l aqsd 3 
distant, remote, far (away) | Jlallj ^UJ! 
(lit. : the distant one and the near one = ) 
everybody, all people; ijfjJIj i-^UUl j 
near and far; v'^J V*»^ «>Jj* {qdsiyahu, 
ddniyahu) to know s.th. inside out, know 
every nook and cranny of it (e.g., of a 
town) 

ij^s qadda u {qadd) to pierce, bore, perforate 
(a s.th.); to break into pieces, crush, 
bray, bruise, pulverize (a s.th.); to tear 
down, demolish (a a wall); to pull 
out, tear out (a a peg or stake); — a 
{^JiJx qadad) to be rough, crude, hard 
(bed) IV to be rough, crude, hard (bed) ; 
to make rough, crude or hard (a the bed) | 
<u>«^i* Lf i5\ (madja'ahu) or *>*, Ail «Up U J^\ 
to rob s.o.'s sleep VII to swoop down, 
pounce down, dive down, descend; to 
strike (Jp s.th.; of lightning) ; to pounce, 
fall, rush, hurl o.s. ( Jp upon), storm, rush 
(Jp against), charge, attack, assail (Jp 



s.o.) ; to be broken, cracked, threaten to 
collapse; to fall, tumble 

(J J^ qadd (coll.) pebbles; gravel | »U- 
*_fjjj fjDl jd'a l-qaumu qaddukum 
(qaddahum) all the people came 

Xjis qulda pebbles ; gravel 

( _ r a--^5 qadid pebbles; gravel | a^JI »L>- 
(p^Jk-vah or) ^Jt^Ja (qaum) all the people 
came 

^Uail inqiddd swooping down, 
pouncing down, dive, downrush; onrush, 

onslaught, storm, assault | ^LAajVI *iJU 
midfa" al-inq. (pi. £*l.u maddfi') self- 
propelled assault gun (mil.); lJW» 
^LaJsJVI dive bomber 

•jfU» \aira munqadda dive 



bomber 

v*S qadaba i [qadb) to cut off (a s.th.); to 
lop, prune, trim (a trees) II = I; VIII = I; 
to abridge (a s.th.), give a condensed 
extract, make a digest (a of s.th.); to 
extemporize, improvise (a s.th.), quote 
extempore (a verses, and the like), 
deliver offhand (a a speech) 

qadb edible herbs 



qadlb pi. oLja qudbdn cut-off 
branch, twig, switch; stick, rod, staff, 
wand; bar (of a grate); male organ of 
generation, penis, phallus; rail (railroad); 
guide, guide rail, guideway (techn.); pi. 
oUitS fence (of iron bars) | l)L-aaJI *\jj 
behind bars, in prison 

4jUi* quddba that which is lopped or 
cut off; lops, prunings, trimmings (of 



^JtA* miqdab pruning hook; pruning 
shears, pruning knife 

^LatJjI iqtiddb abridgment; digest; 
extract; precis, summary (of content); 



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903 



<S** 



conciseness, terseness, brevity; improvi- 
sation 

^JcJu muqtadab short, brief, concise, 
terse; improvised, extemporaneous, off- 
hand, unprepared; <_*^i«il name of a 
poetic meter; pi. ol^^u* short news 
items, news in brief {journ.) 

*J* qad' gripes, colic 

pLaj qudW gripes, colic 



qadujau to be or become slender, slim, 
thin, narrow 

.cwoj qadima a and qadama i (qadm) to gnaw 
(a s.th., on s.th.); to nibble (a s.th., at 
s.th.) 

4*~*i» qadma snack, a bite 

*uU^5 (pronounced qdame; syr.) 
roasted and salted chick-peas; assorted 
nuts, peanuts, pistachios, etc.; birdseed 

^UJl oliljjJ-l al-hayawanat al-qadima 
the rodents 

i^Ju qadd i (»LaS qada)to settle (a s.th.); to 
finish, terminate, conclude, end, close, 
wind up, complete, consummate, ac- 
complish, achieve (a s.th.); to carry out, 
execute, perform, effectuate (a s.th.); 
to fullfill (» a request), comply (a with); 
to do, perform (a one's duty); to gratify 
(a a wish), provide (a for a need), satisfy, 
meet, answer, discharge (a a demand, a 
claim); to pay, settle (a a debt); to 
spend, pass (a time); to die (— 4JUI j^); 
to fix, appoint, determine, decree, decide, 
rule (cj s.th., ub that); (of God) to 
foreordain, predestine; to judge, act as 
judge, decide judicially (^j between two 
litigants); to pass or pronounce judg- 
ment (J in favor of s.o.; J* against s.o.); 
to sentence, condemn (cj Jp s.o. to), 
impose, inflict (<_-> Jp upon s.o. a penalty); 



to impose or enjoin as a duty (^ Jp upon 
s.o. s.th.); to make necessary or req- 
uisite (<_j J* for s.o. s.th.), require s.o. 
(Jp) to do s.th. (1^), compel, force (Jp 
s.o. c^ to do s.th.); to demand, require, 
necessitate (o s.th.), call for s.th. (<_>); 
to root out, extirpate, annihilate, ex- 
terminate (Jp s.o., s.th.); to kill, do in 
(Jp s.o.), do away (Jp with s.o., with 
s.th.), put an end (Jp to s.th.); to thwart, 
foil, frustrate (Jp s.th.) | <dU-l iS £s (aja* 
lahu) to pass away, die; ^ <-r*»**N <s** 
{'ajaba) to be full of amazement at, be 
very astonished at; <u^ (S ^s (Tiahbahu) 
to fulfill one's vow; to pass away, die; 
*J?j ^^3 {watardhu) to attain one's aim 
or end, see one's wish fulfilled; j*$\ ^t 
qudiya l-amru the matter is decided and 
done with, the die is cast; »ja\ ^^H 
qudiya amruhu and aJp l? AS qudiya 'alaiki 
it's all over with him, he's a goner II to 
carry out, execute, perform, effectuate 
(a s.th.) Ill to summon before a judge, 
bring before a court of justice, arraign 
(0 s.o.); to prosecute, sue (o s.o.), take 
legal action, bring suit (* against s.o.); 
to demand (<_j » from s.o. payment of 
s.th.), call in (^ « from s.o. s.th.) V to be 
finished, completed; to pass, go by, 
elapse, expire, run out (time) VI to 
litigate, carry on a lawsuit; to demand 
(a s.th.; a j* or * from s.o. payment 
of s.th.; from s.o, s.th.), call in (a s.th., 
^ or « from s.o.), claim (a Jp for s.th. 
remuneration), lay claim (a to s.th.); 
to get, receive (a * from s.o. s.th., also 
&, a s.th. from, esp. money owed, 
emolument) VII to be completed, be 
finished, be done, be terminated, be 
concluded, come to an end, cease, stop; 
to pass, go by, elapse, expire, run out 
(time); to have expired, have elapsed, 
be over, be past (time) VIII to demand, 
claim, exact, require (a * from s.o. s.th.); 
to make necessary, make requisite, 
necessitate, require (a s.th.) X to de- 



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mand, claim, exact, require (j» » from 
s.o. s.th.) 

lS J^ qadan judgment, sentence, (ju- 
dicial) decision, (cou t) ruling 

*Laj qadd* settling, finishing, ending, 
closing, termination, conclusion, windup, 
completion, accomplishment; carrying 
out, execution, performance, effectuation; 
fulfillment, satisfaction, gratification (of 
a wish, of a desire); provision (for a 
need); compliance (with a request); pay- 
ment, settlement, discharge (of a debt); 
passing, spending (of a period of time); 
divine decree, destiny, fate; judgment, 
sentence, (judicial) decision, (court) rul- 
ing, ordinance; administration of the 
law, judiciary, jurisprudence, justice; 
law; jurisdiction; office of judge, judge- 
ship, judicature; judging, rendering of 
judgment; sentencing, condemnation ( J* 
of s.o,); extermination, annihilation, 
extirpation (J* of s.o., of s.th.), killing 
( Jp of s.o.), thwarting, foiling frustration 
(Jp of s.th.); — (pi. '+~Jtf\ aqdiya) district, 
province (Syr., Ir., Leb., Saudi Ar., Yem* 
en) | *ii I *LiS death; ^y^ ^LaJiJi (sar f i) 
jurisdiction based on thefSharia; canonical 
law, Sharia law; *UaJiJt jta court of justice, 
tribunal; <_$ j ta^/l *Li2 ! i "<&.£- makkamat al-q. 
al-iddri administrative court; jJJiJIj *La2JI 
(tva-l-qadar) fate and divine decree ; ^LiU L 
j-UJIj (or \jJSj AJia qadaan wa-qadaran) by 
fate and divine decree; *LiUi t5 ^j (qudiya) 
the divine decree was fulfilled, i.e., death 
came with God's will; SUM Z~Jls\ acci- 
dents, occurrences, vicissitudes of life 

cJUiif qadai judicial, judicatory; fo- 
rensic, legal, judiciary, pertaining to 
courts of justice | JLA5 ^jU- pi. ^j>- 
Oj-JLij (hurras) legally appointed trustee 
or administrator, receiver in bankruptcy, 
liquidator, sequestrator 

^JLaJl <ij^-ii> qadawlyal as-sulh juris- 
diction of a justice of the peace 



^ii qadlya pi. LUia qaddyd lawsuit; 
litigation, judicial contest; action at 
law, suit; (legal) case, cause, legal affair; 
matter, affair; question, problem, issue; 
theorem, proposition (math.); premise (in 
a syllogism; philos.); assertion, thesis | 
^JLkJUJI Z~J^\ (fiktstlmya) the Palestine 
problem; i*LJl <L*i*Jl ('dmma) the com- 
mon cause 

oLjliu muqadah trial, hearing 

^Uj taqddin litigation 

»UaAjl inqida passing, elapsing, termi- 
nation, expiry, expiration, end (of a 
period of time); extinction (of an obli- 
gation) 

»UkS! iqtidd* necessity, need, exigency, 
requirement | sUaiSVi X& in case of need, 
if need be, when necessary 

^tf qadin decisive, conclusive; deadly, 
lethal; (pi. SUia qudah) judge, magistrate, 
justice, cadi; pi. ^Iji qawadin require- 
ments, exigencies | ^LS -, (samm) 
deadly poison; L^IS hjj (darba) de- 
cisive blow (Jp against); knockout 
(boxing); mortal or crushing blow, 
deathblow (J* to); ul <aJ&\ ^\y ,j* jj 
(q. d-dimm,a) to regard it as one's duty 
to ...; kt^Jl ^la q. l-baht (Tun,) exam- 
ining magistrate; jJU-dl ^U (Eg.) exam- 
ining magistrate; 2JU-VI ^U £. l-ihdla 
(Eg.) magistrate sitting at defendant's 
arraignment, trial judge; «L^Jl ^U q, 
s-sulh justice of the peace 

^JL* maqdty settled, finished, done, 
completed, accomplished, etc. | ^oaL\ ja^\ 
accomplished fact, fait accompli 

J>\j£j* mutaqddin pi. u^JUL* mutaqddm 
litigant; OL^UxIl al-mutaqadiyan the 
two litigants 

^{kLa mutaqddan subject to legal 
prosecution 



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> 



^Jcl* muqtadan required, necessary, 
requisite; (pi. oLJlta* muqtadaydt) re- 
quirement, exigency, necessity, need | 
iS oiaj: bi-muqtadd (prep.) according to, 
in accordance with, in conformity with, 
pursuant to, under; Jljp-'iM C* lw& i* -Up 
should the circumstances require it 

1 ]ai qatta u {qatt) to carve (a s.th.); to cut, 
trim, clip, pare (a s.th.); to mend the 
point (a of a pen), nib, sharpen (a a pen) 
II to carve, turn (a wood) VIII to sharp- 
en, nib (a a pen) 

Ja5 qatt short and curly (hair) 

Jsj qattu (chiefly with the past tense in 
negative sentences) never; ever, at all 

JcJti faqat look up alphabetically 

J*UJ qattut turner 

S JaJt qitt pi. JaLi gi?a^ i»Ua* ?tta£, ^JaiaS gf£aft* 

male cat, tomcat j jbjJl Jai £. az-zabdd 
civet cat 

&s giga female cat 

iiaJaj qutaita kitten 

Jta qataba i {qatb) to gather or concentrate 
at one point, draw together (a s.th.); — 
[qatb, ^Ja* qutub) to contract the eye- 
brows (also «t-»-U- v^* ?• hajibaihi), 
knit the brows, frown, scowl, glower I 
Ou>- «_JaJ [jdbinahu) to frown II to scowl, 
glower; to knit the brows, frown; {eg.) to 
sew together (a s.th.) V to become gloomy 
(countenance) X to polarize (a s.th., esp. 
phys.); to gather around oneself, unite 
(** people) ; to draw or attract to oneself 
exclusively (a s.o.'s attention, thoughts, 
gaze, the enthusiasm of a crowd, etc.) 

(_-ii5 qutb pi. t_jLUSl aqtab axis, axle; 
pole (aslron., geogr., el.); pivot; leader; 
authority, top-ranking person, leading 
figure, leading personality, celebrity 



(chiefly used in the pi.) | ,y-jJI t-J*» q. 
ar-rahd pivot (of s.th.; fig.); Oj^-) <-Sud\ 
(janubl) the South Pole; JUiJl u-k2Jl 
(Samdll) the North Pole; <_JU ^Xa nega- 
tive pole; cathode, <^>*rj* ^-k* (mujab) 
positive pole, anode; <*-LJl <_»>UJl the 
top figures of political life 

ygU qutbl polar | O J^ JiiJl {safaq) 
polar light 

SJai gut&a (eg.) stitch (in sewing) 

LJJ qutbl ya polarity (esp. el., phys.) 

^>JkS qatuh frowning, scowling, glower- 
ing 

4-JaSj taqftba (n. vie.) a quick frown, 
scowl, knitting of the brows 

(_jLki^l istiqtdb polarization (phys. and 
generally) 

i^U qdtibutan all together, all without 
exception, one and all 

jhl qatara u {jatr y ol^U qataran) to fall 
or flow in drops, drip, dribble, trickle; 
— (qatr) to tow (a ship, trailer, glider); 
qatara and II to let fall or flow in 
drops, drip, drop, dribble, infuse in drops 
or driblets (a s.th.) II to filter, filtrate 
(a s.th.); to refine (a s.th.); to distill 
(a s.th.) ; to line up camels (a) in single file 
and connect them with halters, form a 
train of camels; to couple (a vehicles) 
V to fall or flow in drops, drip, dribble, 
trickle; to soak, percolate (Jl into), 
trickle (Jl in) VI to come in successive 
groups, crowd, throng, flock (Jl or Jp 
to s.o., to a place) X to drip, drop, 
dribble (a ^.th.); to distill, extract by 
distillation (a s.th.) 

Jm qatr dripping, dribbling, dribble, 
trickling, triokle; — (pi. jliaS qitdr) drops, 
driblets; rain; — sirup 



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906 



J*s qatr pi. c>\jj& quturdt (eg.) (rail- 
road) train 

^grj& (eg.) qatargl pi. -%ya shunter, 
switchman (railroad) 

J& qutr pi. jLLSi ag/ar region, quarter; 
district, section ; tract of land; zone; 
country, land; diameter (of a circle); 
diagonal ; caliber, bore (of a tube) | Jej6\ 
(£s<ai\ (misri) Egypt; Ij Ul Ja* iJuoi nisj 
q. ad-d. radius (of the circle); jUaSl <*>j\ 
LJoJI arbtCat a. ad-dunya the four quar- 
ters of the world; *-j; ^y JJU-U JJl "<&jj\ 
^jUaSl (rau f a) the rapture which holds me 
completely enthralled, which pervades 
my heart through and through; c~dljUJl 
the whole interior of the house 

<£;LS qutrl regional; diametral, dia- 
metrical 

Ja3 qatar 2 Qatar (country in eastern 
Arabia; official name: J*i Hj* daulat Q. 
State of Qatar) 

JL*» qutr, qutur agalloch, aloeswood 

lj£ qatra (n. un. of Jas qatr) pi. qatardt 
drop (also as a medicine) 

sj^U qutaira pi. -at droplet, driblet 

jUaS qitdr pi. -at, Jka qutur, £j\Jai qutu? 
rat file, train (of camels); (railroad) train; 
single file (mil.); long series (e.g., of 
occurrences) [ apU^JI jlLa freight train, 
goods train; ^JbJb- jUJ (hadidi) railroad 
train; (^j^>. or ^j-^k) ^U- jlL* (kdss, 
kususl) special train; <—>T^' J^»* ?• ar ~ 
rulckab passenger train ; JL- jUJ (sabbdq) 
fast train, express train; m^* jlk* express 
train; Jslij jlL* (waqqdf) and (egr.) jUJ 
jjSUi (qa$&&$) slow train, local train 

SjUai qattdra dropping tube, pipette, 
dropper 

oi^Lis qatrdn (qitrdn, qatirdn) tar 

_^»a. miqtar pi. jkU. maqdtir 2 censer 



*^aju miqtara pi. jL»Li« maqdtir 2 censer; 
stocks (device for punishment) 

j^Llaj ta#*r filtering, nitration; re- 
fining; distilling, distillation 

jLk£>l istiqtdr distilling, distillation 

S^U gafira pi. -at locomotive, engine; 
tractor; tractor truck; subway car; rail 
car, diesel 

j^ki* maqtur: IjJlla* ajjs- ( f araba) = 

Sj^Li* maqtura pi. -a« trailer (e.g., of 
a streetcar, bus or truck) 

£*>\jhju muqattardt spirituous liquors, 
spirits; distillates (chem.) 



mustaqtar pi, -at distillate 



(chem.) 



}^J** qatramiz (large) glass bottle or jar 

bjhs qatrana to tar, smear or coat with tar 
(a s.th.) 

b\Jb$ qatrdn (qitrdn, qatirdn) tar 

^JJ qata'a a (qaf) to cut (a s.th.); to cut off 
(a s.th.); to chop off, lop off (a s.th.); to 
amputate (a s.th.); to cut through, cut 
in two, divide (a s.th.); to tear apart, 
disrupt, sunder, disjoin, separate (a 
s.th.); to fell (a a tree); to break off, 
sever (a s.th., e.g., relations); to break 
off one's friendship, break (* with s.o.); 
to cut, snub (* s.o.); to interrupt (a, e s.o., 
s.th.); to cut short, interrupt, silence (* 
s.o.); to turn off, switch off, disconnect 
(a electric current); to prevent, hinder 
(jp * s.o. from); to forbid (^ » to s.o. 
s.th.), prohibit (^ & s.o. from doing s.th.) ; 
to deprive (jc » s.o. of); (Chr.) to ex- 
communicate (« s.o.); to have a profound 
effect, have a considerable impact, be im- 
pressive (spiritually) ; to make a profound 
impression ( j on), impress greatl}', affect 



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907 



*kS 



deeply (j s.o.); to ford (a a river), cross 
(a a river, an ocean), traverse (a a coun- 
try), pass through or across s.th. (a); to 
cover (a a distance); to survive (a s.th., 
e.g., a danger), surmount, overcome (a 
s.th., e.g., a difficulty), get over s.th. (a); 
to spend, pass, while away (j a time 
with); to use up, consume (a food); to 
decide (a or <_j s.th.); to say with cer- 
tainty, assert, declare positively (<^> 
s.th.), affirm confidently, aver(otj that); 
to prove (otj that); pass, quti'a to break, 
break apart, be or get broken, be or 
become interrupted; to snap (rope, 
string of a musical instrument) | Jas 
(»WvN) J*^' ( aww ^» raja) to give up hope, 
to despair; l y*$\ JaS (taman) to fix the 
price, agree on the price; (*iiLkj) Zjfti Aa 
(tadkiratan) to buy a ticket; «&A>- <ulp A£ 
(haditahu) to interrupt s.o., cut s.o. 
short, cut in on s.o.'s talk; \jj± >Ja5 
(dauran) to pass through a phase or 
period, go through a stage; J\j Ja» 
(bi-ra'yin) to express a firm opinion; to 
decide in favor of an opinion; <ulj< *laS 
(bi-ra'yihl) to be guided in one's de- 
cisions by s.o., proceed in accordance 
with s.o.'s opinion or decision; .*-J\ *LS 
(rahim) to sever the bonds of kinship, 
break with one's relatives ; to violate the 
rules of consanguinity; ^Tljlil *L* to 
cancel or discontinue one's subscription 
(J to a paper); ILl^il jJa* (a£ivdtan) 
to make progress; (IjUj or) 1^/jTltjJS *LS 
(jji j or) f j&H j (sautan, taqaddwm, 
ruqly) and IW^il Jjl ul.^* j ^U* (maiddni 
r-r.) to make great progress, make 
great headway; Jj JJI *LIp *ial> to cut off 
s.o.'s way, intercept s.o.; to engage in 
highway robbery; to waylay s.o., commit 
highwajr robbery on s.o.; -dUt *k«j V 
('aqlahu) it won't get into his head, 
he can't understand or believe it; Ij^p As 
('ahdan) to make a contract; to make 
a promise, vow, or pledge (J to s.o.); 
juUjI *la* (anfasahu) to hold one's breath; 



^ Ij^p 4~J6 J* *U ( r ahdan) and ju^JI *]** 
uj 4*Ju Jp (w>a'ia) to vow s.th., pledge 
o.s. or bind o.s. to do s.th.; iil^XJI *U 
to discount the bill of exchange ; <j LJ *U 
(lisanahu) to silence s.o., seal s.o.'s 
lips, gag s.o.; cJj\ ^ {waqta) and 
«*j «L$ (tmqtahu) pi. *^Uj1 l^*L» to 
while away the time, kill time II to cut 
into pieces, cut up, dismember (a s.th); to 
carve (a meat); to tear apart, rend, rip 
apart, gash, slash, lacerate (* s.th.); to 
cut seriously, gash deeply (a one's 
hand); to interrupt; to scan (a a verse) | 
i_JUJI *k% (qalba) heart-rending III to 
dissociate, separate o.s. (* from), part 
company, break off one's friendship, 
break (* with s.o.); to cut, snub (* s.o.); 
to be on bad terms (» with s.o.); to 
boycott (a, » s.o., s.th.); to interrupt 
(a, o s.o., s.th.); to cut s.o. (e) short, cut 
in on s.o.'s (o) talk, also dj-U-l 4*1»U IV to 
make or let s.o. (*) cut or cut off (a 
s.th.); to make or let s.o. (*) cross or 
ford (a a river); to bestow as a fief (a a 
on s.o. s.th.); to grant, assign, allot 
(a » to s.o. s.th.); to separate o.s., dis- 
associate o.s. (a from s.o.), part company 
(* with s.o.); to break off one's friendship 
(jt with s.o.); to break (^ with s.o.) 
V to be cut off, be severed, be disrupted, 
be interrupted, be disconnected; to 
snap; to be cut up, be chopped up, be 
hacked to pieces, be dismembered; to 
be intermittent, flow discontinuously 
(current ; el.) ; to flash, come on and go off 
regularly (neon signs) ; to be disjointed, be 
jerky (words, style); to knock o.s. out 
(e.g., with eagerness) | J LA. I <o c^kaJ (hi* 
balu) to be at the end of one's resources, be 
utterly helpless ; <_jL- VI <4 c^At (asbabu) 
to be at one's wit's end, be at the end of 
one's tether; Jsb^Vl *Jj-> fkJi=j (JsAa 
(hadafun, dunaku) lit.: a goal on the 
way to which throats are slit, i.e., one 
which remains unattainable VI to sep- 
arate, part company, go apart; to get 



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908 



separated from each tether; to break 
off mutual relations, snub each other; 
to intersect {lines, roads, etc.; « s.th.), 
cut across, cross (of a Kne or road, «,« 
another) VII to be cu< off, be or get 
separated (jt or ^ from); to be chopped 
off, be lopped off, be nut through, be 
sundered, be severed, bo torn, apart, be 
disrupted, be broken, bo broken off; to 
be torn off; to come off (button); to 
be interrupted, be disconnected, be cut 
off, be shut off (als<>, e.g., electric 
current), be blocked, be stopped; to 
break, break apart, tear, snap (intr., e.g., 
a rope, a string); to cease, end, come to 
an end, run out, expire; to stay away, 
fail to arrive or appear (e.g., yield, success, 
supplies, etc.); to come to a halt, come 
to a standstill, be suspended, be dis- 
continued; to stop, tease (^* s.th., 
doing s.th.); to leave off (jp s.th.), 
desist, abstain, refrain (je- from); to 
suspend, discontinue, stay (•* s.th.); to 
withdraw, stay away, hold aloof {jc 
from); to devote o.s., dedicate o.s., give 
one's attention, apply o.s. (j or Jl to); 
to concentrate (J or J on); to occupy 
o.s. exclusively (J or J I with), give all 
one's time (<J or Jl to) VIII to take a 
part, a little (j- of s.th.); to take, 
borrow, cull, glean (^ a s.th. from, 
e.g., a story from a book); to tear out, 
take out, remove (a e.g.. a page, ,y from 
a book or notebook); to tear off, rip 
off, detach (a e.g., a coupon) ; to deduct 
(a an amount); to appropriate, acquire 
(a s.th.); to possess o.s., take possession 
(a of), seize (a on) X to request as a fief 
(a « of s.o. s.th.); (eg.) to deduct (a an 
amount) 

«U gap" cutting off; chopping off, de- 
truncation; amputation; cutting, scission, 
section; disruption, sunderance, dis- 
junction, disconnection, separation; fell- 
ing (of a tree); severance, rupture, 



breakoff (e.g., of relations); stoppage, 
blockage, embargo, ban, blackout, sus- 
pension; interruption, discontinuation; 
disconnection, turning off, switching off 
(of electric current); prevention, hin- 
drance (^ from); deprivation; ex- 
communication (Chr.); fording (of a 
river) ; crossing (of an ocean) ; travcrsion 
(of a country); covering (of a distance); 
spending, passing (of a span of time); 
consumption; deduction, rebate, dis- 
count; (pi. pUJi aqta) format, size (of a 
book) ; (pi. £_^La qutif) section (greom.); 
Ula5 gafan decidedly, definitely, positive- 
ly, for certain; with neg.: absolutely not, 
not at all, by no means, not in the least I 
obLJJ *Jaj settlement of accounts; 
ill jwV! <*U cancellation of a subscription; 
jj^yi JaJ highway robbery, brigandage; 
Jp JjjkJl aLS forcible prevention of s.th., 
radical stop to s.th.; LaII! J* q. al 
muhiya salary cut, wage deduction; 
( JaiJl (J-W. or) j*** sir (or mu'addal) 
al-q. discount rate, bank rate; *jj\ «U 
q. ar-rub" (ar-rubu f ) quarto format; *|J 
l^—M t_-iT q. kulub al-jaib pocket size 
(book) ; ]*jj£- ^ q. makrutin, J*jj£ «U 
(makrutl) conic section (geom.); oJjj J£ 
hyperbola {geom.); jlC ^U (mukSft) 
parabola (geom.); ^U JJ ellipse {gem.); 
cJji UkS qafan li-l-waqt as a pastime, 
just to kill time; ^ J*d\ AaJu (bi-q. 
in-nazari) irrespective of, regardless of, 
without regard to; aside from, apart 
from ; -UaJI IjP disjunctive hamza (gram.) 

^yJJ qaf l decided, definite, positive; 
final, definitive; L*l*i> qafiyan decidedly, 
definitely, emphatically, categorically 

ZA# qat'iya certainty, definiteness, 
positiveness 

i*laj qifa pi. Jai qitcf piece; fragment, 
lump, chunk; part, portion; section, 
division; segment (geom.); coin; naval 
unit; unit (mil.) | S/Ui i*US or 4*U1 



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*iJ\j&\ segment of a circle (geom.); 
<~Sj i4*5 part (of a machine, of an 
apparatus); O rL^jVl 5*1*3 coupling ele- 
ment (el.) ; <~>~j-* 4*L* (masrahiya) (stage) 
play; *TjIjL«< Ja5 q. say y drat auto parts; 
SJfU* 4*iJ (gina'lya) vocal piece, vocal 
composition; j^i\ <*k* or jLe- i*kl 
spare part; 4-jj i*k5 (fanniya) work of 
art; <»j^i <*LiJl (kurawiya) spherical 
segment (greom.); ^JU" **J*» (tamtlliya) 
(stage) play; <^>j* <*U piece of music, 
musical composition; 4JU **L5 (maliya) 
and ijSi 4*1**, ^jiJI ^ iaU coin; J**JI 
«LiJLj (*o??ic^) piecework, job work, task- 
work 

5*U qufa pi. qutu'dt, *L5 c^wfo' a piece 
cut off, a cut; stump; plot of land, patch 
of land, lot 

aaU* qata'a pi. -at, ^a qata* stump 

fUai) qitd% quid* pi. -at section; sector 
{geom.) | ^j* f-UaS fardi) cross section; 
^-JVl J- oULLS (ansija) tissue sections 
(bioL); i £j\jS\ 9-LkiJi (dairi) sector of a 
circle (geom.); i£jj&\ ?-lkaJi (kurawl) 
spherical sector (geom.); ^U-*1 fUaJaJl 
(ifcdss) the private economic sector, busi- 
ness enterprises in private hands; f-UaJaJl 
pUJI ( f dmm) the state-owned economic 
sector, enterprises under public control, 
state -owned property; pUJt ftLJiJI O"^ 
(mahalldt al-q.) state-owned shops; fUaS 
•Jp g, (/azza the Gaza strip 

9 UJ ga#a f (stone-, wood-) cutter 

^LLaIIj bi-l-qattd r t by retail, retail (adj.) 

*Ja5 qatV pi. flU g't&f", uULs qufdn, 
f ILs! cw#a r troop or group (of animals), 
drove, flock, herd 

jyJaS qatii: ^JaS °-/^ 
herd drive 



herd instinct. 



<UJaif qatia rupture of relations, break, 
breach, rift, alienation, estrangement, 
separation; enmity among relatives 



{short for j-jJi ^Ja* q. ar-rahim); (pi. 
ajUiS qata'i 2 ) fief, fee, feudal estate, land 
granted by feudal tenure 

»ksi aqta' 2 more convincing, more 
conclusive (evidence); (f. »UU qat r a 2 ) 
amputee; one-armed; dumb, mute 

^kl* maqta" pi. -J^U* maqdti" 2 crossing 
point, crossing, traverse, passage; ford; 
(point of J intersection; cross section; 
section, division; extract, excerpt; syl- 
lable; musical phrase; quarry; group of 
animals, drove; pi. *kLL. selections (j* 
from an opera or a literary work) j 
J\J\ aLjL. m. ar-ra*y decision, judgment 

L5 »ki. tnaqta f i cross -section (in com- 
pounds) I ^j&laa «-j (rasm) cross-section 
sketch, profile 

*ki^ mvjta* pi. *LliL. maqdti' 2 cutting 
instrument | jU^wJi n\^A cigar cutter; 
JjjJI fklaJL, m. al-waraq paper knife; paper 
cutter 

*JiiJ taijf fragmentation, dismember- 
ment, cutting up, division, partitioning; 
interruption, disruption, discontinuation; 
griper, colic; (pi. ,*J*Uj taqdt% 2 ) stature, 
figure; shape, form; pi. parts, portions, 
sections, members | ^Ji aJ*Uj t. al- 
wajh features, lineaments of the face 

LLU* maqdta'a separation; break (with 
s.o.); indifference, unfeelingness, un- 
loving ness ; boycott ; interruption ; (pi. -at) 
area, region, section, district [ 4*i?Uu 
ioUaxSl economic boycott 

9 lk» I iqf.d* and 4tUaSl iqtbVa pi. -at 
fief, fee, feudal estate, land granted by 
feudal tenure | 9-Uai^l ji liege lord, feudal 
lord ; 9 IL*V 1 *2J» tabaqat al-i. feudal class 

^Uail itft&'i liege, feudatory, feudal; 
(pi. ~~m) liege lord, feudal lord | ^IkJl 
^elkSVl the feudal system 



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910 



M^Uail iqtaiya feudalism; S^UasV' the 
feudal system; the feudal class 

*kaj taqattu' pi. -at interruptedness, 
interruption 

*i»Uj taqatu* severance of mutual 
relations; crossing; intersection, junc- 
tion 

fUaJul inqitd" separation, disjunction, 
severance; break, breach, rift, rupture, 
breakoff; interruption, disruption, dis- 
continuance; cessation, stop, termina- 
tion, expiration, extinction; stoppage, 
shutdown, blockage, suspension; end, 
close, conclusion; absence, withdrawal, 
aloofness (jp from) | jLJl f-U»Sjl inq. at- 
tayydr power shutdown (el); f-lkUi OjAj 
or ^LLajI j^c ^ incessantly, constantly, 
continually, without interruption 

Squall! inqita'iya separatism 

F-lkjl iqtita f deduction (of an amount) 

f-lkJbJ istiqta pi. -at cut, deduction 
(e.g., from salary) 

J»U ga|i f cutting; sharp; convincing, 
cogent, irrefutable, conclusive, decisive 
(e.g., evidence); decided; definite, pos- 
itive, unmistakable, unequivocal; final, 
definitive; sour (milk); secant (geom.); 
(pi. *Uj» qawdti™) partition, screen j 
Jj JaJI *L.U pi. Jj_^JI 9 Lias qutta* at-turuq (or 
JJaJl ^U qutta f at-t.) highway robber, 
holdup man, way layer, brigand; <i-A> 
aaLIj (bi-sifatin) unmistakably; luLU j^ 
(wm) incisor; «Llyl ^4? tairun qawati'u 
migratory birds ; ^TUbd! *LU ticket seller, 
conductor (streetcar, bus, etc.) 

O ^^ qdtVa interrupter, circuit 
breaker (el.) 

fJ^tA* maqtu* cut off, severed, chopped 
off, etc.; <o f^aAA decided, finished, 
settled, done with (matter, affair); (pi. 



^-Lli* maqdti' 2 ) short poem | _^kJI 9J^aa 
matchless, peerless, unrivaled, unequaled 

~*s>J*1a maqtlia pi. -at, *J»\ju maqati* 2 
piece (of music); short sung verse (e.g., 
of a street merchant) | 4j^*£ ipjki* 
(H'rlya) separate poem, piece of poetry 
(from the works of a poet) ; v*~-j- Izjhju 
piece of music, musical composition 

\pJoX* rmqtu'iya consumption; (eg,) 
piece work | Zs-Jalll (eg.) in the lump, 
for a lump sum; by the piece, for piece 
wages 

( *ki. muqatta* torn, shredded 

^ki* muqti* liege lord; — muqla* liege 
man, feudatory, feudal tenant, vassal 

*kiu mutaqatti' cut off, torn, ruptured, 
disrupted, interrupted; discontinuous, 
flowing intermittently (electric current); 
in stages (movement); staccato (voice); 
incoherent, disjointed (words) | *k£u jL" 
(tayydr) alternating current 

^Lliu mutaqati* intersecting (e.g., 
streets) | 4*LU^» oUiT (kalimdt) cross- 
word puzzle 

*kiu munqati* cut off; severed, dis- 
joined, separate(d), detached; chopped 
off, detruncated; cut, cut in two, sunder- 
ed, torn, ruptured, disrupted; broken; 
broken off; interrupted, discontinued, 
stopped, blocked; disconnected, turned 
off, switched off (electric current); halt- 
ing, discontinuous, intermittent, fitful; 
outlying, remote, out-of-the-way (region) ; 
devoted, dedicated (J or J I to), set aside 
exclusively, solely destined ( j or Jf for) | 
j^kJi JsJL. and {j jA& ^Li^ unmatched, 
matchless, peerless, unrivaled, un- 
equaled, incomparable, singular, unique; 
<UJl Jaii, m. as-sikc without contact, 
cut off from connection (iy with); j& 
<*J*JL» incessant, unceasing, continual, 
uninterrupted 



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^ 



fh*' mustaqta' cut, deduction (from 

salary) 

iJJx* qatafa i (qatf, Jr^j qutuf) to pick (a 
flowers, fruit); to gather, harvest {a 
fruit); to pluck off, pull off, tear off (a 
s.th., e.g., leaves); (eg.) to skim (a a 
liquid from the surface); — (qatf) to 
scratch, scratch up (a s.o.) II = I 
VIII to pick (a flowers, fruit); to gather, 
harvest (a fruit); to pluck off (a s.th.); 
to select, choose, pick out (j* a s.th. 
from among) 

jAai qatf (act or instance of) picking, 
etc. ; (pi. C>Je* qiduf) scratch [ C-jjJl <jJ*» 
q. az-zait (crude) oil production 

uiU qitf pi. u»^U qutuf bunch (of 
grapes); picked fruit 

hjdai qutaf (eg.) sideburns, side- whiskers 

(JslLS qitdf picking, gathering, harvest 
(of fruit); picking season, vintage, 
harvest time 

iJJauJI al-qatlf Qatif (large oasis in E 
Saudi Ar.) 

Jj^LaJI Jb dam l-qutuf within reach, 
at hand; easy to apply, easy to use, 
handy 

J>Ja£ qatuf pi. ^JJJ gicfra/ short-stepped, 
slow 

<Lla3 qatifa velvet ; plush 

•JulLS qataif, ,JuUJ qatdyif 2 (pi.) small, 
triangular doughnuts fried in melted 
butter and served with honey 

«JJa3* miqiaf pi. .JjLII* maqatif 2 imple- 
ment for picking fruit, fruit picker; vine 
knife 

<Jiki. maqtaf pi. <J&±\1* maqatif 2 bas- 
ket 

J»lkii iqtitaf picking, gathering, etc.; 



selection, choice, pick; compilation of 
selected readings, of an anthology 



. muqtataf pi. -at selected or select 
piece; selection; anthology 

iLjiU qatquta young girl 

JU qatala u % (qatl) to cut off (a s.th.) 
11 = I 

SLk* qatlla towel; floor rag 

piz* qatama i (qatm) to cut off (a s.th.); to 
break off (a s.th.) 

4ja* qatma piece; bite, morsel 

,*kail dl-muqattam a range of hills east 
of Cairo 

jr^JaS qitmlr pellicle enveloping a date pit j 
tj^JaU dlLc V (yamliku) he doesn't own a 
thing, he hasn't a red cent to his name 

1 jk5 qatana u (oj^ qutun) to live, dwell, 
reside (j or <_j or a in a place) ; to inhabit 
(j or u or a a place) II to make live, 
settle (lj o s.o. in) 

Jh* qatan small of the back 

Ja3 qutn, qutun pi. ulLSl aj/an cotton J 
fU- jLa raw cotton, cotton wool, un- 
ginned cotton; jtJSL* J£ (It. scaWo) (eg.) 
cotton waste; J& jLS (tibbl) absorbent 
cotton; «_-^L jiai (multahib) guncotton; 
O jttSJl v^ 5 - tyatab al-q. excelsior; ,Jj£ 
^jkaJl mihlaj al-q. cotton gin 

^LS qutm cotton (adj.) 

ijJa5 qutniya, qitnlya pi, (jLU qatdniy 
pulse, legumes (peas, beans, lentils) 

3JIL5 qutdnlya, qitaniya Indian corn, 
maize (tun.) 

JUal ?a£t£n cotton manufacturer, cotton 
merchant 



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cP- 



912 



j^kaj yaqtin (coll. ; n. un. I) a variety of 
squash 

ijai* maqtana cotton plantation 

Js-li ^a/in pi. 6LLJ qiffan resident, 
domiciled; inhabitant, dwe ler 

2 L)UaJ £t£an pi. (>i»L# qayath 2 cord, braid, 
lace 

lias gafcm (coll.; n. un. Sllal gate/t) sand grouse 
(Pterocles) 

ju5 qa'ada u {±j*$ qu'ud) to fit down, take 
a seat; to sit, be sittii .•*; to remain 
seated; to remain, stay, abide; to lie in 
wait (J for s.o.), waylay (J s.o.); to 
desist, abstain, refrain i jp from), re- 
nounce, waive (jp s.th.) | <u -US to make 
s.o. sit down, make s.o. sit, seat s.o., 
induce s.o. to stay; to han per, handicap, 
hamstring, disable, paral vze s.o.; oaJ 
s^zSj <u (rukbatdhu) his knees buckled 
under him; jp <u JUS to hole back, restrain, 
discourage, or prevent .o. iVom; -to 
^UJtfl £* {dahdb) he decried not to go; 
AaSj pis to be in a state oi great anxiety, 
be seriously upset, be very agitated; to 
be very alarmed (J by) II to serve (* s.o., 
* e.g., one's country) IV 10 make (a s.o.) 
sit down; to make {» s.o ) sit; to cause 
or induce (»s.o.) to stay; to seat («s.o.); 
to hold back, restrain, disc mragc, prevent 
(j,e & s.o. from); to decrease, diminish, 
reduce (j- 9 s.th.); to disable (0 s.o.); — ■ 
pass, uq'ida to be disabled; to be lame, 
be crippled | *ju*1j -utfl (aqamahu) to 
upset s.o. seriously, throw s.o. in a state 
of violent emotion; <c^ ^y ~usl (f/immatihi) 
to dampen s.o.'s zeal; J^Ji jp »«**J>' 
( r amal) to make s.o. an invalid, render 
s.o. incapable of work V not to desire 
{jp s.th.), not to be out for s.th, (jp); 
to desist, abstain, refrain (</,* from) 
VI = V; to remain aloof, refrain, stay 
away, withdraw (^p from); to be pen- 



sioned off, retire VIII to take or use as 
a seat (a s.th.); to sit down (a on s.th.); 
to be, remain (a in a state or condition) 

JkS qa'ad slackers, shirkers of military 
service in times of war; also, designation 
of the Khawarij 

S-uS qada sitting; backside, seat, 
buttocks, posteriors; space occupied 
while sitting, seating space | S^uJl ji 
name of the eleventh month of the 
Muslim year 

3-Uj qi'da manner of sitting, seat, pose, 
posture; space occupied while sitting, 
seating space 

a-Us qu'ada constantly or frequently 
sitting, sedentary; glued to the seat, not 
budging, seated firmly; lazy, inert, 
indolent 

(J-Las qiidl constantly or frequently 
sitting, sedentary; glued to the seat, not 
budging, firmly seated; lazy, inert, 
indolent 

2j>3 qaud pi. S-Usi aq'ida, JU» qu'ud, 
jl-JU* qi'ddn, ju*Us qa r aid z young camel 

jjjj qu r ud sitting; desistance, ab- 
stention, refraining (je from); renuncia- 
tion, abandonment, waiver { jp of) 

ju*5 qculd companion; one with whom 
one sits together; keeper, guardian, 
supervisor, superintendent; crippled, dis- 
abled, infirm | J jUI jl*S q. al-manzil con- 
fined to one's house or to one's quarters 

S-L*s qaida pi. o5U5 qa T aid 2 woman 
companion; wife, spouse 

jUa* maq'ad pi. JIpUL. maqaid 2 s.th. to 
sit on, space to sit in; seat {in general, 
in a theater, in parliament, etc.); chair; 
bench; sofa; armchair; box, driver's seat 
(of a carriage or coach) | Jj J*> JUJL* chaise 
longue; £j» jua* (murlh) easy chair, 
armchair 



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*JL*3 



«JL*JU maq'ada pi. J^UU maqaid 2 back- 
side, seat, buttocks, posteriors 

.jUjI iq'dd disability, incapacitation 

OpUj taqd r ud restraint, reticence, 
aloofness, reserve; retirement ] -uliJI ^U* 
ma'as at-t. retiring allowance, super- 
annuation, pension ; OpUxJI J! J^l {uhila) 
to be pensioned off, be superannuated, be 
retired 

AeU qd T id pi. ^*5 qv£ud 7 ^U5 qu tc ad, 
sitting, seated; inactive, idle, lazy, also 
J^jJl ^ Ocli ('arrcaZ); Uj-l^U qaidun slack- 
ers, shirkers of military service in times 
of war; — JLpU qd r id pi. Jiejj* qawaid 2 
woman who, because of her age, has 
ceased to bear children 

»Jlc.U qcfida pi. opl^S qawafid 2 founda- 
tion, groundwork; basis; fundament; 
base (geom.; mil.); support, base, socle, 
foot, pedestal; O chassis, undercarriage; 
precept, rule, principle, maxim; formula; 
method, manner, mode; model, pattern | 
Jjla-Vl SjLpIj q. al-ustulov 4jjj£ *J*U {bah' 
riya) naval base; j^UI SJlcli capital of the 
country; \y? SJU-U (jawwiya) airbase; 
4-j j*- SAclS {harblya) base of operation; 
^aJI ApIjS #. at?-c£m basic teachings of reli- 
gion, dogmatics; i^*^ S-uU ($a c biya) popu- 
lar base, broad base among the people; 
^jl^^aJI 4pIj5 rocket bases; JbUsVt 3-A^l5 
q. aX-itldq launching base {for rockets); 
ijJUl j£.\ji q. al-luga grammar (of clas- 
sical Arabic); liiUI S-U-U q. al-mulk seat 
of government; j>j^^ SocU supply base 
{mil.); SAeUJi 4s- L* masahai al-q. base, 
basal surface 

^4pU ga'ti* basic 

JUi. mwfid disabling (e.g., injury) 

■Ui. mwfad brought to a standstill, 
stopped, arrested; lame, crippled; dis- 
abled, infirm; an invalid 

Jbliu mutaqdHd retired; pensioner 



j>i qa'nra u (SjU* qa'dra) to be deep, hol- 
lowed out II to make deep or deeper, 
deepen (* s.th.); to hollow out, make 
hollow, excavate (a s.th.) ; to cry, shout, 
scream | *u^T j _^5 (kaldmiht) to speak 
gutturally IV to make deep or deeper, 
deepen (a a well) V to be depressed, sunk, 
low, deep, hollowed out, dished, concave; 
to descend to the bottom 

y3 qar pi. j^*5 qu'ur bottom; depth; 
keel (of a .ship) ; pit, hole, hollow, cavity, 
depression | IopU? j*iS\ ^* {sdHdan) from 
the ground up; *Ja— j*s {musattah) flat 
bottom 

IjjZ qa'ra pit, hole, hollow, cavity, 
depression 

jy& qa ilr deep 

jv3 qcfir deep 

j*jl* muqcf'ar depressed, sunk, low, 
deep; holiow, dished, concave; curved; 
obscure (language) | 3^*1. Zl^* {mir'dk) 
concave mirror, parabolic mirror, reflec- 
tor (opt.) 



L _ r *J qaisa a {qa f as) to have a protruding 
chest ani hollow back, be pigeon- 
breasted VI to remain aloof, keep away, 
stay away, desist, refrain (jp from); to 
hesitate, waver, be reluctant {^ to do 
s.th.); to neglect (jp to do s.th.); to be 
uninterested <jp in); to fail, disappoint 
XI V ( _ r — i*ii iq'ansasa = I 

U ^S\ at/as 2 having a protruding chest 
and hollow back, pigeon-breasted | 
(j***! Jp ( izz) firmly established power 

^Uj toqd'us negligence 

^Ub. mutaqd'is hesitant, wavering, 
reluctant; negligent, careless, sloppy, 
listless, idle 

*juS qa'qaa (^*io qa'qa'a) to clatter; to 
rattle; to clank 



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914 



•JuS qa r qa% qu qu magpi - 

4jul*s qaqa'a clatter; rattle; clank, 
clang; noise, din; pi. *SU° qaaqi 2 high- 
sounding words 

*JaS qaffa u ( Js^ii qufuf) to be dry, withered, 
shriveled; to dry up, Wither, shrivel; 
to contract, shrink; to brstle, stand on 
end (hair) 

Xas quffa pi. Ca£ qufaj largo basket; 
(Mesopotaraian) round boatj, gufa (ir.) 

US quffa, qaffa feverish shiver, ague fit 

yis qafara u {qafr): t>j\ j£ (atarahu) to 
follow s.o.'s tracks, track s.o. IV to be 
or become empty, bleak, desolate, 
deserted, depopulated, uninhabited, dev- 
astated, waste; to be destitute, be 
devoid (jj of); to ravage, lay waste, 
devastate, desolate, depopulate (a s.th.); 
to abandon, leave in a t tate of deso- 
lation (a houses, a city); to gnaw off, 
pick (a a bone) YIII to follow s.o.'s 
(&) tracks, track (& s.o.) 

ya qafr pi. jUS qifdr desert, wasteland, 
desolate region; empty, bleak, for- 
saken, forlorn, deserted, lifeless, un- 
inhabited, depopulated, devastated, des- 
olate, waste; destitute, devoid (^ of) | 
(jU5 or) j& ^y>j\ (ard) wasteland; y^- 
yA (kubz) plain bread, dry bread 

lj}j> qafra pi. qafardt desert, wasteland, 
desolate region 

jU5 y+ kubzun qafarun plain bread, dry 
bread 

jJ£ qaflr pi. jl^ qufran beehive 

%\jja ijiL) badiya qafra 2 arid desert 

j US I iqfdr emptiness, bleakness, deso- 
lateness, desolation; ravage, devastation, 
depopulation 

jaL* muqfir empty, bleak, forsaken, 



forlorn, deserted, lifeless, uninhabited, 
depopulated, devastated, desolate, waste; 
destitute, devoid (^ of) 

jiS qafaza i (qafz, jljiS qafazdn) to jump, 
leap, spring, hurdle, bound; to jump 
up, leap in the air ; to jump off, take off | 
toLJ Jl jii to jump to conclusions V to 
put on, or wear, gloves 

j£ qafz jumping; jump (atklet.) | jiDI 
JJ-I J* (habl) skipping the rope; ^oUl 
Ij \ji Lj pole vaulting ; Jj £a ji5 broad jump ; 
jUjji* (*alin) high jump; j^J ji> [tuldtl] 
hop-skip-and-jump; jjJUI }& show jump- 
ing (equitation) 

lyj& qafza pi. qafazdt jump, leap, spring, 
bound 

J Us quffdz pi. -at, >iUa qafdfiz 2 glove; 
a pair of gloves 

>iS qaflz pi. Sjial aqfiza cafiz, a dry 
measure, ca. 496-640 1, =16 whibas 
{Tun.) 

jJuu ma-qfiz pi. JM* maqafiz 2 springboard; 
ski- jump hill (sport) 

^iJii qafasa i u {qafs) to gather, collect (a 
s.th.); (eg.) to catch, seize, grasp, grab; 
to find out, discover (a s.th.) 

u t£ qafs prattle, chatter 

<ZJs qaf$a pi. qafasdt quip, witty answer 

jj^ju qafas pi. ^USl aqfds, ^Lai*l aqfisa cage; 
birdcage; pen, coop, wired enclosure; 
basket (made of palm fronds); thorax, 
chest; (prisoner's) dock (— pl^Vl ^au 
q. al-ittihdm) J <jj-U* ^aJ3 (sadrl) thorax, 
rib cage (anat.) 

taqflsa poultry coop 



o\liJ£quftdn pi. j^kUS qafdtln 2 caftan, a long- 
sleeved outer garment, open in front and 
fastened by a hizdm 



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915 



J* 



^Uijjjl al-qafqas the Caucasus 

Ja qafi f a a (qafa") to contract; to shrink; to 
shrivel, become wrinkled II to shrivel (a 
the fingers; of the cold) V = I 



£« qaf 



testudo 



qafqafa (iiiiS qafqafa) and II taqafqafa 
to shiver with cold; to chatter (teeth) 

JiS qafala u i (JjiS quful) to come home, 
come back, return; — i (qafl) to shut, 
close (a s.th.); to latch, lock, shut up, 
bolt (a s.th.); to accumulate, amass, 
hoard (a s.th.) II to close, lock (a all or 
several doors), lock securely (a a door by 
several means) IV to padlock (a s.th.); 
to shut, close (a s.th.); to latch, lock, 
shut up, bolt (a s.th.); to switch off, shut 
off, turn off (a s.th.); to cut off, stop (a 
the supply of), block, bar, close (a s.th.) 

JiS qujl pi. J US I aqfdl, J^iS quful pad- 
lock; lock, latch; bolt; O lock (of a 
canal) | J Li Ji* q. amdn safety lock 

JUS qaffdl locksmith 

JUSI iqfdl shutting, closing, closure; 
shutting up; locking, bolting; stoppage, 
blocking, blockage, barring, obstruction 

Jsli qdfil pi. SJUU qdfila, JUS quffal 
home-coming, returning; homecomer, re- 
patriate 

Us IS qdfila pi. Jil_>» qawdfil 2 caravan; 
column; convoy; pi. J^_>* hosts, legions 
(of people who have passed on or passed 
by) | hj£ ftjWO *^^ (tijariya, bah* 
riya) or (ji-JI iiilS q* as-sufun naval 
convoy 

Jii* muqfal closed, locked up (also, 
e.g., office, university) 

(jiS) US qafa u {qafw) to follow (*J\ atarahu 
s.o.'s tracks) II to send (<~> or © © s.o. 



after s.o. else); to rhyme, put into 
rhyme VIII »j\ JzSi (atarahu) to follow 
s.o.'s tracks, track s.o.; to follow up, 
pursue s.o. (mil.); to follow in s.o.'s 
tracks, follow s.o.'s example, imitate 
s.o. 

US qaf an m. and f., pi. LiSl aqfiya, 
^jSi aqfin, *USi aqfa", JS qufiy, qifiy 
nape; occiput, back of the head; back; 
reverse; wrong side (of a fabric) 

*U5 qafa nape; occiput, back of the 
head 

»lol iqtifa" following (of s.o.'s tracks), 
tra( king; imitation 

JLili qdfiya pi. Jsjy qawdfin rhyme; 
(eg,) play on words, pun, double- 
enttndre; nape 

c-JLJ look up alphabetically 

*Jj U, JS i and JSli look up alphabetically 

1 JS goZ&* i (^iW, qull, SiS gj&z) to be or become 
little, small, few (in number or quantity), 
trifling, insignificant, inconsiderable, 
scant, scanty, sparse, spare, meager; to 
be rare, scarce ; to be of rare occurrence, 
happen seldom; to decrease, diminish, 
wane, grow less; to be or become less, 
littler, smaller, fewer (in number or 
quantity), more trifling, less significant, 
less considerable, s canter, scantier, 
sparser (je- than); to be second, be 
inferior (^ to s.o.) — (qall) to pick up, 
raise, lift (jp a, o s.o., s.th. from the 
ground); to carry (a s.th.) | 61 JS (an, 
with perf.) rarely, seldom; jAJj JS U Vf 
(ilia, wa-nadara) but for a few exceptions, 
with a few exceptions only; *j^> JS 
(sab rutin) to be impatient, lose one's 
pativ3nce II to make little or less, diminish, 
lessen, decrease, reduce, do seldom or 
less frequently (a or ,y» s.th.) IV = II; 
to do or give little (j* in or of); to pick 



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up, raise, lift (jc. a, » s.o., s.th. from the 
ground); to be able to cftrry (a, « s.o., 
s.th.); to carry, transport, convey (« 
s.o., a s.th.) VI to think little (a of), 
scorn, disdain, despise (a $th.) X to find 
(a s.th.) little, small, inconsiderable, in- 
significant, trifling; to esteem lightly, 
undervalue, despise (a, o s.o., s.th.); 
to make light (a, * of), Bet little store 
(a, o by), care little (a, e for) ; to pick 
up, raise, lift (a, * s.o., s.th.); to carry, 
transport, convey (a, « s.o., s.th.); to 
board (a s.th., e.g., a ship, a carriage, 
or the like); to rise; to be independent; 
to make oneself independent, become 
independent (^p of); to become autono- 
mous; to possess alone (^ s.th.) | Jii**l 
J*^ (bi-himlin) to assume a burden; 
4a1voj JJii^t (bi-$ariihl) he alone made it, 
he was the only one who made it; J.a.^1 
<u»ij (bi-nafsihl) to be entirely self-reliant, 
be left to one's own devices; to be 
independent, manage without others, get 
along by oneself; {<«->- 1 j^j) ^-$jc jJo~-*I (bi- 
muhimmatin, bi-wajibin) to assume a 
task (or duty) 



VJL* qallamd (conj.) seldom, 
scarcely, barely, hardly 



rarely ; 



J5 qill, quit littleness, smallness, few- 
ness; insignificance, inconsiderableness, 
triviality, paucity, paltriness, scarceness, 
sparseness, scantiness, insufficiency; a 
little, a small number, a small quantity, 
a modicum; — qill tremor 

515 qalla recovery, recuperation; resto- 
ration of prosperity 

5JL? qulla highest point; top, summit; 
apex; vertex; (cannon) ball; (pi. J13 
qulal) jug, pitcher 

5i5 qilla pi. J15 qilal littleness, fewness; 
smallness, inconsiderableness, insignifi- 
cance, triviality; paucity, paltriness, 
scantiness, sparseness; scarceness, rare- 



ness, rarity; minority; lack, want, de- 
ficiency, insufficiency, scarcity | <U 
^L^-Vl q. al-ihsds insensitivity, ob- 
tuseness; »U~I 5JL5 q. al-hayc? shameless- 
ness, impudence, insolence, impertinence; 
jwJI Sii q. as-sabr impatience; ^j>-J\ 51* 
scantiness, scarcity; rareness, rarity; 
iiiJl *^ jam' al-q. (gram.) plural of 
paucity (for persons or things whose 
number is between three and ten); 
►LJUIi j. 4I1 {'ulama') a small number 
of scholars 



bi-qilliyatihl completely, wholly, 
entirely | *^JUj \jL-j (rahalu) they set 
out all together or with bag and baggage 

J-15 qalll pi. »^»i aqilla' 2 , Jj^s qala'il 2 , 
J^ qilal little; few; insignificant, in- 
considerable, trifling; small (in number 
or quantity), scant, scanty, spare, sparse, 
meager, insufficient; scarce, rare; a 
small number, a small quantity, a 
modicum, a little (j* of); *>U5 qalilan 
a little, somewhat; seldom, rarely; pi, 
otfVl the few, the minority of people | 
I* tiLli seldom, rarely; ^LlS ^Li» by and 
by, slowly, gradually; ^Ui VI J&l al-lcull 
ilia q. almost everything, nearly all; 
JJ5 jUj a little later, some time later on, 
shortly afterward; shortly, before long; 
JJi jc or JJ* l^ ( f ammd) soon, before 
long, shortly; j^iSC Vj JJju V <^ j-jJ to 
have absolutely nothing to do with s.th. ; 
*_j^V I JJi <?. al-adab uncivil, impolite, rude, 
uncouth; »LU JJ5 g, al-hayd' shameless, 
brazen, impudent, insolent, impertinent; 
fUJjVI J*i5 low; j\^ai\ JJU 2- as-sabr im- 
patient; Jk^jfl JJ3 scanty, scarce; rare; 
JJUJI gjp {yarbahu) he earns little, has 
small profit 

J5I aqall 2 less; fewer; smaller,' rarer; 
J5V' the least, the minimum | J*Vl J*or 
J* V b at the very least ; at least ; ^ jUj J5 1 Jp 
(at the lowest estimate) = J5V1 J*; 
ti\ jm Jill V {aqalla) the least one can 



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vJU 



do is to . . . ; I (you, etc.) could at least . . . ; 
JJUll ^ J*l quite insignificant, all but 
negligible; ul dilij 1.1* j- jSlj let alone 
that . .., not to mention that . .., to say 
nothing of . . . 

ULlil aqalllya smaller number, numerical 
inferiority; (pi. -at) minority 

JJLSj taqlil decrease, diminution, re- 
duction | *iU j* ,JJLiJi devaluation, 
demotion, reduction of the value of s.o. 
or s.th. 

J^l iqlal decrease, diminution, re- 
duction 

J^Ux-l istiqlal independence; auton- 
omy 

Jtfc-1 istiqldll of or pertaining to 
independence, independence (used attrib- 
utively) ; proponent of independence 

JJL muqill propertyless, unpropertied, 
without means, poor, destitute 

^ei^jt mustaqiU independent; auton- 
omous; separate, distinct, particular 

8 U» qilllya pi. -at and 'ojiS qilldya. qallaya pi. 
•at, J"^ qalali (Chr.) monk's cell; resi- 
dence of a bishop | -HJIM aj"^» qalldyat 
al-a, residence of the Coptic Patriarch 

jjj'H, i^jjtAS (Turk, kilavuz) qalawuz ship's 
pilot; screw 

<j^ see above under 2 4JL* 

t-ii qalaba i (qalb) to turn around, turn 
about, turn up(ward), upturn (a s.th.); 
to turn, turn over (a s.th.); to turn face 
up or face down (a s.th.) ; to turn inside 
out or outside in (a s.th.); to turn upside 
down (a s.th.); to tip, tilt over, topple 
over {a s.th.); to invert, reverse (a s.th.); 
to overturn, upset, topple (a s.th.); to 
capsize (a s.th.); to roll over (a s.th,); to 



subvert, overthrow (a a government); 
to change, alter, turn, transform, convert, 
transmute (a s.th., a a s.th. to or into 
s.th.); to transpose (a s.th.); to exchange 
(a a s.th. for s.th.) j U-lj <uis (ra'san) to 
turn s.th. upside down; { yk\ _^ *J ,_JS 
(zahra I-mijann) to show s.o. the back 
of the shield, i.e., to give s.o. the cold 
shoulder, become hostile to s.o. II to 
turn, turn around, turn about, turn 
up(ward), upturn, turn over (a s.th.); to 
turn face up or face down (a s.th.); 
to turn inside out or outside in (a s.th.); 
to turn upside down (a s.th.); to tip, tilt 
over, tupple over (a s.th.); to invert, 
reverse (a s.th.); to overturn, upset, 
overthrow, topple (a s.th.); to capsize 
(a s.th.;; to roll over (a s.th.); to turn, 
turn ovor (a pages); to rummage, ran- 
sack, Kike (a s.th.); to roll (a s.th.); to 
stir (a >.th.); to examine, study, scru- 
tinize, investigate (a, o s.o., s.th.); to 
change, alter, turn, transform, convert, 
transmute (a s.th., a a s.th. to or into 
s.th.) | jOj jjvj 4J3 (yadaihi) to turn s.th. 
around in one's hands, fidget with s.th.; 
<dl*j <uL> {bi-'aqlihl) to turn s.th. over in 
one's ] lind, reflect on s.th., ponder 
s.th., I rood over s.th.; ^UJ \j$> <uli 
(mhran 'i-batnin) to turn s.th. completely 
upside down, turn s.th. topsy-turvy, 
turn s.t-i. over and over ; 4 = i5~<_JU (kajfaihi) 
to repert, be grieved; to be embarrassed; 
,^Ji 4,5 ^_J3 {basara) or J&}\ 4J <_Ui 
(nazarci: to scrutinize, eye, regard s.th. 
V to b( turned around, be turned over, 
be reversed, be inverted; to be over- 
turned, get knocked over (e.g., a glass); 
to toss and turn, toss about; to writhe, 
twist, squirm, wriggle; to be chang- 
ed, be altered, change; to fluctuate 
(prices) :. to be changeable, variable, 
inconstant, fickle (j in s.th.); to move 
(about), live, be at home (j in); to 
dispose ( j of), have at one's disposal (j 
s.th.) I SJbJU> lJJUJj J <_Jij (wazaifa 



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918 



'adldatin) he held \ 
(*sd\ or) <*aJI j uJUj {/Z: 
^pUI ^jijuJl («. l- r aiM) 
ease and comfort, li 

live in utmost misery 
be turned around, be 
turned up(ward), L 
turned over; to be rev 
to be turned inside ( 
to be turned upside i 
get knocked over; to 
upset, be overthrown; 
to overturn, somersan 
be changed, be altere' 
be converted, be trans 
turn (a or JI into s.l 
Jl s.th.); to turn (J* 
return; (with foil, in 
suddenly to do s.th., 
s.th., change over to s.1 
(zahran li-batnin) to 
turvy; to be compi 
(«j>v^l Jl i-JJul to take 



»_Jj qalb reversal, inversion; overturn, 
upheaval; conversion, transformation, 
transmutation; transposition (of letters), 
metathesis (gram.); perversion, change, 
alteration; overthrow (of a govern- 
ment) 

<_Jj qalb pi. ^^LS tp'-lub heart; middle, 
center; core, gist, essence; marrow, 
medulla, pith; the best or choicest part; 
mind, soul, spirit | ju^I l _JU q. al-asad 
Regulus (star a in the constellation Leo; 
astron.); fj>^ «—ii> center forward 
(soccer); «_JLiiJI #tJbj>- suwaida al-q, the 
innermost of the heart, the bottom of 
the heart; *_JJsJl <Ji~*w^ fainthearted, 
pusillanimous, recreant, cowardly; ^U 
<_J-aJI qaM l-q. hardhearted, callous, piti- 
less, merciless, cruel: «_JUJi SjLi qasd* 
wat al-q. hardheartedness. callousness, 
pitilessness, cruelty; <_JUJl ^LiJi de- 



jectedness, despondency, dispiritedness, 
depression; ^JLaJI j$> ^ (zahri l-q.) by 
heart; ^JLaJl ^s° ^ from the bottom of 
the heart, most sincerely ; <uii> JT j* with 
all his heart ; U Uj LJU qalban wa-qdhban 
with heart and soul; inwardly and out- 
wardly; (jSwJi) Cf\jjiS qulubdt (as-suhbxr) 
small candies, lozenges 

J& qalbi of or pertaining to the heart, 
heart- (in compounds), cardiac, cardia- 
cal; cordial, hearty, warm, sincere; LU 
qalbiyan cordially, heartily, warmly, sin- 
cerely 

t_Ji qulb, qalb, qilb palm pith, palm 
core (edible tuber growing at the upper 
end of the palm trunk); qulb bracelet, 
bangle 

4J3 qalba (eg.) lapel; (pi. -at) a measure 
of capacity (Tun. ; = 20 1) 

<_JU qullab tending to change; agile, 
adaptable, resourceful; versatile, many- 
sided, of varied skills or talents 

(_Jli qdlab, qdlib pi. t-Jly qawalib 2 form; 
mold; cake pan; model; matrix; last, 
boot tree, shoe tree | j\»- JU g. jubn a 
chunk or loaf of cheese; ^S^. t_JU> q. sukkar 
sugar loaf; byX^ (_Jli g. sdbun a cake or 
bar of soap; ***aJI ,y uJU (fahm) bri- 
quette; Ul5j Li* (qalban) with heart 
and soul ; inwardly and outwardly 

i^JS qdlib m. and f„, pl„ ILlii aqliba, ^Ji 
qulub, oLAS qulbdn well 

ojii gaZwfe tending to change; agile, 
adaptable, resourceful; versatile, many- 
sided 

t-j^5 ^aZJoi changeable, variable, un- 
steady, inconstant, fickle, wavering, 
vacillating; reversible, tiltable; dumper; 
tip wagon, skip [ h *$$ <uy> ( c araba) tipcart; 
i» ^ «-j tA5 (kalldt) rotary mixer 



tumorous 

'ma), (JsILpI j^^JUj 
to lead a life of 
ve in prosperity; 
ranvlai l-bus) to 
VII to be turned, 
turned about, be 
e u pturned, be 
nrsed, be inverted; 
ut or outside in; 
lown. be toppled, 
be overturned, be 
to be rolled over; 
It; to capsize; to 
I, be transformed, 
muted; to change, 
h.), become (a or 
igainst; J! to); to 
•perf.) to proceed 
shift instantly to 
,h. I jLJ l^tJUjI 
be turned topsy- 
etely devastated ; 
the offensive 



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jUU 



<OlS qalldba agitator, stirring ma- 
chine 

tJUL. maqlab pi. JU. maqalib 2 (eg.) 
refuse dump, dump pile, dump; intrigue, 
scheme, plot; April fool's joke | <u y 1 i~-li* 
m. afn&a rubble dump; SJLjj ^U* m. 
zw&ato (zibala) and 4*15 cJLi. m. qumama 
dumping ground 

tJULi miqlab pi. t_JU. maqalib 2 hoe 

« -rr Lftj togK6 change, transformation, re- 
shaping | j Jjl a^»-j ^---lJu examina- 
tion of s.th. from different points of view 
or from all sides, careful consideration 
of s.th.; jkJI ^laj -U* (£. an-nazar) on 
closer inspection or examination, when 
examined more closely 

i_JLaj taqallub pi. -ai alteration, trans- 
formation, change; variation; fluctuation 
(of prices); changeableness, variableness, 
unsteadiness, inconstancy, fickleness; pi. 
vicissitudes, ups and downs | ^j*- <_JJij 
(jawwl) change of weather; ^JLaJI *s %J ^ 
very changeable, very fickle, capricious 

^^Uil inqilab upheaval; coup d'etat; 
overthrow, bouleversement ; alteration, 
transformation, change; solstice | %J\s 
w^Vl tropic (geogr.) 

Jiuij\ inqildbl revolutionary, sub- 
versive, pertaining to, or causing, a 
downfall | 4jj^xil <Jl>' revolutionary 
activities 

«_j^1a. maqlub turned over, turned up- 
side down, turned about, inverted, in- 
verse, reverse(d), etc.; infolded (hem, 
seam); reciprocal (math.) | c-jjiiib topsy- 
turvy; upside down; wrong side out; the 
other way round, reversely, conversely, 
vice versa 

4j^1a* maqluba dish of meat, rice, 
tomatoes or cauliflower, baked and served 
upside down 



t^Jjtz* mutaqallib, also jljkVI 
(Jij»-V! or) wavering, vacillating, change- 
able, variable, inconstant, unsteady, fick- 
le, capricious; cyclothyme (psych.) 

oJLfli. munqalab (place of overthrow, 
i.e.) the hereafter, the end one meets in 
death, the way of all flesh, final destiny; 
tropic j (jjz£ i_JUL* (satawi) Tropic of 
Capricorn; J^ i_JUL. (saifi) Tropic of 
Cancer 

jji qalbaq a tall, usually cylindrical, fur cap 

1 «is qalah yellowness of the teeth 

rife gildh yellowness of the teeth 

2 "^J> qaulaha pi. 1-\J> qawdlih 2 (eg.) cob 
(of corn, and the like) 

1 uiS II to adi rn with a necklace {U a woman) ; 
to gird (a 6 s.o. with); to invest (a a s.o. 
with an office), appoint (a a s.o. to an 
office), inward (a & to s.o. a decoration, 
an order, confer (a a upon s.o. a rank); 
to grant (a a to s.o. a favor); to entrust 
(a a s.o. with the rule or government of 
s.th.), give (» s.o.) authority or power 
(a over i^.th.); to follow blindly another's 
(e) opinion; to copy, ape, imitate (e 
s.o.); to forge, counterfeit (a s.th.) V to 
put on or wear a necklace, adorn o.s. 
with a necklace; to gird o.s. (a with), 
put on (a s.th.); to take upon o.s., 
assume a s.th.); to take over (a s.th., 
esp. pow^r, control, government); to take 
up (a aii office) 

3jo*3 fjilada pi. jJ *^S quia id 2 necklace; 
pi. Jj^-IS exquisite poems 

j!X» m'qlad pi. jJUL* maqdlid 2 key 

3 *>li* miqldd pi. xJLi- maqdlid 2 key | 
j^V I jJ Ll» key positions, power ; O- ( jj li. 
m. al-hvkm the reins of government or 
power; ;CJ-I oJlx. LJ (tasallama) to take 



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920 



over (the reins of government, seize 
power; "L>\SJ\ -JUL. JjJ (tawalld) to take 
over the keys of th o presidency; *J\ Jli 
j^.Vl AJU- (oZga) to entrust 3.0. with the 
management, put s. >. in charge 



-lJ_o taqlid pi. 4JL 
copying; blind, tint 
(of concepts or ide 
(e.g., in a source's 
adoption of the 3- 
madhab (I si. Law) ; 
vention, custom. 
{ScCbiya) inherited fo 
customs, folk traditi 



taqalld 2 imitation; 
lestioTiing adoption 
is); uncritical faith 

authoritativeness) ; 
gal decision of a 
pi. tradition; con- 
sage I l^ jUU; 
k practices, popular 
m 



iS-i^Jii taqlidi traditional, customary, 
conventional; based on uncritical faith 
(e.g., in a source's ai thoritativeness) 

ajoJLaj taqlidlya traditionalism 

ail. muqallid pi. un blind follower; 
believer in authority ; adherent of taqlid 
(see above ; I si. Lan ) 

ait. muqallad imitated, imitation, 
forged, eounterfeit(ed), fake, sham, spu- 
rious, false; tradition -bound 

2 xJUi iqlid pi. aJUI aqdlui 1 key 

pJUJl y^ bahr al-qulzum she l?ed Sea 

1 ( _ r i5 qalasa i (qals) to belch, burp, eruct 
II to bow (J to s.o.:; (eg.) to make fun 
(J* °f)> poke fun ( jp at), ridicule (J* 
s.o., s.th.) 

2 cr l* II to put a cap (5j.JLl5 qalansuwa, q.v.>. 
on s.o.'s head) 

3 cr ii qals pi ^jiS qulus hawser, cable, rope 

1 (J lli II to molt 

J^jZ taqlis molting, molt 



2 J^J> U (Fr. galoche) galos pi. -at galosh, over- 
shoe 

^-iiS qalsin pi. ^i-^J qaldsln^ puttee 

Cr a& qalasa i {^jls qulus) to contract; to 
shrink (laundered garment); to decrease, 
diminish; to dwindle, fade, wane, 
decline; to become shorter, recede 
(shadow) I <dk ^^U (zilluhu) his prestige 
declined; it decreased, dwindled, faded 
II to contract, draw together (a s.th.); 
to tuck up, roll up (a s.th.) V = qalasa; 

^di qals (saud.-ar.) small launch, barge 

u d£\ aqlas 2 shorter 

u Am iaqallus contraction, shrinking, 
shrinkage; recession, decrease 

^jAju muqaUis flexor (anat.) 

_kdii qillit scrotal hernia 

.LJLS qilit afflicted with scrotal hernia 

JS qalda a (qaV) to pluck out, tear out, 
pull out, weed out, uproot (a s.th.); to 
root out, exterminate, extirpate (& 
s.th.) ; to take off (a clothes) | ojjX>- <y <uU 
to pull out s.th. with the roots II to pluck 
out, tear out, pull out, weed out, uproot 
(a s.th.); to root out, exterminate, 
extirpate (a s.th.) IV to set sail, prepare 
to sail, get under sail; to sail, put to 
sea, depart (ship); to take off (airplane); 
to desist, abstain, refrain (^ from); 
leave off, abandon, give up, renounce, 
relinquish (j& s.th.) VIII to pluck out, 
tear out, pull out, weed out, uproot 
(a s.th.); to root out, exterminate, 
extirpate (a s.th.) 

»iS qiV pi. 9-jia qulu, 9 "^5 qiW sail (of a 
ship) 

^xla qaVa pi. 9- ^ qild' , pj& qulu r fortress, 
stronghold, fort; citadel 



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9yS quid" thrush, canker of the mouth, 
ulcerative stomatitis, stomacace (med.) 



^"$5 qulcCli ^"^UJI { jJ~\ (humma) foot- 
and-mouth disease 

JUL. maqlcf pi. JUL* maqdli 2 stone 
quarry 

O 4*ii. miqla'a bulldozer 

f ^1. miqld t pi. ^Jl*- maqdli' 2 slingshot, 
sling; catapult 

icJUtJ to^Zra pi. -a<, «JLaj tog^t' 2 
eccentricity; eccentric fashion; innova- 
tion, new-fashioned thing; pi. unusual, 
odd or rare things, rarities, curiosities 

9 ^51 iqld r sailing, departure (of a ship); 
take -off {of an airplane) 

JiaI* qaVata to soil, sully, smirch (a s.th.) 
.kj*lS quVut a heretic 

1 JlLj qalafa i (qalf) to bark (a a tree), strip 
the bark {a from a tree); — u (qalf): 
oLU l _dJi (qulfatahu) to circumcise s.o. 

<jJS qilf bark, rind (of a tree) 

4iiS qulfd pi. ijtis g^Za/ foreskin, prepuce 

4«^* qulafa bark, rind (of a tree) 

.JcUl fi^Za/ 2 uncireumcised 

2 JdS II to calk (a a ship) 
ii^5 qildfa calking 

3 iiii qalf a pi. -a£ ((itw,.) foreman; workman, 
manual laborer 

JailS qalfata to calk (a a ship); (e.g.) to do 
sloppy work, scamp, bungle 

jyi* qalafun and v^als qolafuniya rosin, 
colophony 

jli qaliqa a (qalaq) to totter, be unsteady; to 



be or become uneasy, disquieted, ap- 
prehensive, anxious, excited, agitated, 
upset, perturbed, troubled, disturbed; 
to be restless, be sleepless, pass a sleepless 
night, find no sleep IV to trouble, worry, 
alarm, disturb, upset, disconcert, dis- 
quiet, discompose, discomfit, discomfort, 
make uneasy or anxious (a, & s.o., 
s.th.); to make restless, fill with un- 
easiness or anxiety, perturb, agitate, 
excite (e s.o.); to rob s.o. (t>) of his rest 

jii qalaq unrest, uneasiness, disquiet, 
alarm; agitation, excitement, perturba- 
tion; stir, sensation; anxiet3 r , apprehen- 
siveness, apprehension, fear, worry, con- 
cern; rest]essness; sleeplessness; impa- 
tience 

jlii qaliq uneasy, disquieted ; apprehen- 
sive, worried, concerned, anxious; agi- 
tated, excited, perturbed, upset; disturb- 
ed, troubled; restless; sleepless; im- 
patient 

3jj3 qalu'f (eg.) restless 

tS^'Ji iqldq disquieting, troubling, per- 
turbation; ilisturbance 

jiJL. muqliq intrigant, schemer, trouble- 
maker 

^UiS qulqds (coll.; n. un. 2) pi. -at a variety 
of taro or < lephant's ear (Colocasia anti- 
quorum; h>t.) 

JaU qalqala zo move, commove, shake, 
convulse, unsettle (a, o s.o., s.th.); to 
disturb, trouble, harass (a, o s.o.; s.th.); 
to disquiet , alarm, excite, agitate (a, » 
s.o., s.th.); to stir up, incite to rebellion 
({. s.o.); to pronounce accurately (the J) 
II taqalqalt to be or get in a state of 
commotion, be shaken, be convulsed, 
be unsettled, be disturbed, be troubled, 
be disquieted, be alarmed, be excited, 
be agitated ; to be stirred up, be incited 



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to rebellion, be incense d, be rebellious; 
to move, budge (^ from one's place), 
stir; to be shaky, precarious, insecure 
(situation) 

SJUis qalqala pi. Ji:>U qaldqil 2 unrest, 
excitement, agitation, commotion; shock, 
convulsion, concussion; disturbance; pi. 
jS'iU troubles (pol.) 

aLj&$ (eg.) qulqela pi. at clod, lump of 
earth 

JJUa* muqalqal in a st.ite of commotion, 
agitated, shaken, unsettled, etc.; un- 
stable, inconstant, unsteady 

1 ii" qalama i (qalm) to cut, lip, pare (a nails, 
etc.), prune, trim, lo]» (* trees, etc.) 
II do. | <u-^- j>\±>\ is (amfira kasmihi) to 
neutralize, disarm one'& opponent 

15 qaki?n pi. >»"}\5! aqltim reed pen; pen; 
pencil; crayon; O style, pistil (bot.); 
writing, script, calligrax hie style, ductus; 
handwriting; style; office, bureau, agency, 
department; window, counter; item, 
entry (com.); (eg.) stripe, streak, line; 
(eg.) slap in the face j <wUj bi-qalamihl 
written by him ; _/J~i 15 <[. al-hibr fountain 
pen; JsU- j^- IS (jaff) and <Ji^Lj j^ IS 
ball-point pen; u^*-^ 1 ^ q. al-hawajib 
eyebrow pencil; j j*J\\ 15 editor's office, 
editing room; <T^1 is </. al-haralca 
traffic bureau; obLJ-t 15 q. al-hisabat 
accounting department; SjbVl ^ q. ah 
idara administration office, head office; 
^L^i 15 q. ar-rasas pencil; 4»-LJl 15 
travel agency; *JuUiJI II (eg.) and S^^J-l 15 
q. al-humra lipstick; oU^kil IS press 
and information office; oloU^i 15 
information bureau; pi^iV 15 (Leb.) 
polls, voting district polling office; ^ 
oli^Jl bureau of vital statistics, (G.B.) 
(general) register office; ^IxSOl 15 q. 
al-kuttab clerical office ; secretarial pool, 
steno pool; secretariat; ^^S\JI 15 q. 



al-kobiya indelible pencil, copying pencil; 
j jJS p (Eg.) Traffic Control Board 

^yJU qalami penned, handwritten 

X»^3 quldma pi. -at clippings, cuttings, 
parings, shavings; nail cuttings 

*Aaa miqlama pi. -at pen case 

JUj taqllm clipping, trimming, paring; 
pruning, lopping (of trees) | _/lkVi ^ 
manicure 

ii* muqallam clipped, trimmed, prun- 
ed; (eg.) striped, streaked | ^jJiJI U, m, 
az-zufr powerless, helpless, weak 

2 151 aqlama, J£l pi. JlSi, i j*J*\ and^Jilsee 
under 15 i (alphabetically) 

j\xJS qalanddr wandering dervish, calender 

^Joj II taqalnasa to wear a cap 

6j~jAii qalansuwa and <~Jls qulansiya 
pi. ,jJ^5 qalanis*, cr £~$i qalanis 2 tall 
headgear, tiara, cidaris; hood, cowl, ca- 
puche; cap 

(j\j and JS) *$* qald u (qalw) and J5 qald % 
(qaly) to fry, bake, roast (* s.th.); — 
tAS qald u (^5 qilan, »^5 qalq'), JS qala i 
and JS qaliya a (JS gtZan, ^ ga&f , Ul. 
maqliya) to hate, loathe, detest (o s.o,) 

^15 giZw?, J5 qilan, qily alkali, base, lye 
(chem.) 

<jj\3 qilwi alkaline, basic; oUjJiJl al- 
qilwiyat the bases (chem.) 

4j^5 qalldya frying vessel; see also 
2 <Li5 under J5 

Jl. miqlan and S*>U* miqldh pi. JU. 
maqalin frying pan 

aJLaj taqliya (eg.) sauce made of garlic, 
coriander and melted butter and served 
as a condiment; alcalization (chem,) 



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jJS qalwaza to wind, twist spirally (* s.th.) 
jjj$> see alphabetically 

JJjIj qalwaza to screw on, screw together 
(a s.th.) 

bjji* see alphabetically 

Js^li. muqalwaz screw-shaped, spiral, 
helical (techn.) 

J* and hj^i see under^; *si* see also 2 y« 
under J5 

Lj^Ji qalyub 2 Kalyub (town in Lower 
Egypt) 

ijjJUIt ai-qalyubiya province in Lower 
Egypt 

Ji qamma u (qamm) to sweep {* s.th.) 

<S qimma pi. *J qimam top, summit, 
peak, acme, apex | ^J\ 43 q. ar-ra$ 
crown or top of the head; *>-J\ <5 ?. a£- 
mauja wave peak (e£.) ; 4*iJl j^-*- _y* (hasan 
al-q.) he is well-built; ^-J-l JI ^-Ijl Si^ 
pXaJi (akmasil-qadam) or tJ -ai^V JI 4<JiJi t> 
from head to toe; kJ>}\ jxJa mrftamar 
al-q. summit conference 

4*15 qumama sweepings, rubbish, refuse, 
garbage | 4*1^1 3jX~*> sunduq al-q. gar- 
bage bin 

f li qamaim? sweepings, rubbish 

4*1. miqamma pi. y-UL. maqdmm 2 broom 

p qamu'a u (S»U qamaa) to be lowly, be 
humble, feel inferior; to be unattractive, 

ugly 

tjqaml 3 lowly, humble; unattractive, 

ugly 

••IS qamd'a lowliness, humbleness; un- 
attractiveness, ugliness 

;U qumbaz — jLi 



•J II to give a portion only, pay an install- 
ment (e to s.o.) IV to put forth ears, 
ear, ripen (grain) | «uiU «£l (bi-anfihi) 
to be proud, bear one's head high 



«5 gwmA wheat | t^X-all p*a)I (§ulb) 
hard wheat (Triticum durum; hot.) 

^J qamhl wheat -colored, wheaten 

4xJ qamha pi. -at wheat kernel; grain 
(in Eg. - .04875 g = V* Mj*) 

rp L^ sahrd qumah (qintah) the 
two coldest months of winter 

*-li qawmah grain merchant, corn 
chandler 



x ^5 qamara i (qamr) to gamble; — t « to 
defeat in gambling {» s.o.); pass, qumira 
to lose in gambling; — qamira a (qamr) 
to be or become snow-blind II to toast 
(a bread) III to gamble (o with s.o.); to 
stake, risk, hazard (>--» s.th.); to bet, 
speculate (J* on) [ ^ U-'l .aJjA-l Jp ja\s 
(jawad) to bet on the wrong horse IV to 
be moonlit (night) VI to gamble with one 
another 

J qamar snow blindness; — (pi. jlSI 
aqmar) moon; satellite (astron.); olj-JaJi 
al-qamardv sun and moon | ^jJl J q. 
ad-din sheets of dried rolled apricots; a 
refreshing drink made by dissolving the 
above in water; (^tk^l) ^>U-# J (si- 
nd'i, istitufi) earth satellite; c-oS" J 
paraselene, mock moon {astron.) ; jjd\ ^ 
hajar al-q. selenite (mm.) 

ij qamnra (n. un.) pi. -at crescent 
(as an emblem on a uniform); (eg.) 
moonlight: (eg.) skylight; see also 
below 

(j J qamiri of or pertaining to the 
moon; moon-shaped, moonlike; lunar | 

4j^*a!I j^t^\ (ashur) the lunar months; 
41^-JsJ 1 ' J*j^\ the moon letters (gram.) 



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tfji qumri (coll.; n. un. 3) pi. ^jli 
qatndrly a variety of turtledove 

S^jj 3JLJ fet7a qamira moonlit night 

4jy qamariya pi. ~a£ (e<7.) skylight, 
small window 

>\jt qamra z moonlight 

^3 qamlr pi. jlil aqmar fellow gambler, 
gambling partner, gambler 

Jfl aqmar*, f. »ly qamrd** moonlit 
(night); moon-white, bright, whitish 

j*ju maqmar and j^^*^ maqmara pi. 
^U^ maqdmir 2 gambling house, gambling 
hell 

jli giwmr gambling; bet, wager | 
jl^l ^-J 5JT aZa£ la r b al-q. slot machine 

S^Uu muqamara gambling 

j+jl* muqammir, tj\t j4f? _^JL» (kahrabal) 
toaster 

j^i* muqammar (eg-) toast, toasted 
bread 

^tL. muqdmir gambler 

^*1* muqmir moonlit (night) 

2 ljS (It. camera) qamara, qamra pi. -af 
berth, bunk, cabin, stateroom 

Jy gumrug pi. <5jlS gamdrig 2 customs 
<te.) 

_)J qamaza u i (qamz) to take with the 
fingertips (a s.th.) 

^J qamasa u i (qams) to dip, immerse, 
soak, steep (j * s.th. in) 

^^.li qdmus pi. (j-J-tjS qawdmls 2 ocean; 
dictionary, lexicon 

^ j-U gamw5i lexical 

^^•y qaumas pi. u — Ijj qaioamis 2 depths 



of the sea; pi. mishaps, misfortunes, 
adversities 

1 a £s qamasa u i (qams) to pick up, gather 
up, collect (a rubbish) II do. 

^ili qumds rubbish, garbage, refuse, 
offal, trash, junk; (pi. iiil aqmik) 
fabric, material, cloth | c-*Jl jilJ j. 
al-bait household effects, furniture; Jti 
^Ul the scum of the earth, riff, 
raff 

^Jli qammds draper, cloth merchant 

2 l£s qamsa (eg.) strap, thong; leather whip, 
cowhide 



1 ( _ r ai qamasa u i (qams, ^Uf qumds, qimds) 
and II to kick up its heels, buck (horse); 
to gallop 

i ya qams gallop 

2 j*} II to clothe with a shirt (• s.o.) V to 
put on or wear a shirt; to be clothed, 
be vested (a with), dress, attire o.s., 
wrap o.s. (a in), cloak o.s. (a in the 
mantle of; fig.); to transmigrate, pass 
into another body (spirit), materialize 
(a in another body); to identify oneself 
(«, <u-jj ruhahu with s.o., with an ideal; 
psych,) 

( _ r a-J qamls pi. tJJ aJ qumus, Lall 
aqmisa, 0U*3 qumsdn shirt; dress, gown; 
covering, cover, case, wrap, envelope, 
jacket; (Chr.) alb, surplice, rochet; in- 
carnation | u^jil l _ r aJ (ifranji) day shirt, 
upper shirt; pJI U ^J q. an-naum night- 
gown 

( _ r a :: *ij taqmls and u aJu taqammw 
transmigration of souls, metempsychosis 

3 cr^ qummus pi. ^La*13 qamdmisa archpriest, 
hegumen (Copt.-Chr.) 



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U qamata u i (qamt) to swaddle (e a baby); 
to fetter, shackle (o s.o.); to dress, 
bandage (a a wound) II do. 

U qimt pi. 1>\}\ aqmdt rope, fetter 

4U qamta a kind of kerchief (e#.) 

_t»U qimdt pi. -a£, Ja5 qumut, *k5l aqmtia 
swaddle, diaper 

^ qimatr, qimtar pi. „L»U qamatir 2 recep- 
tacle for storing books ; satchel 

*5 qamcfa a (qam r ) to tame, curb, bridle, 
restrain, check, suppress, repress, subdue 
{*, o s.o., s.th.); to hinder, prevent (j* c 
s.o. from) II (eg.) to cut off the upper 
end (a of an okra) IV — I 

*5 qam r repression, suppression, curb- 
ing, prevention; taming, subdual, quell- 
ing, subjection 

*i qam% qim', {eg.) qum r pi. f-tfl aqma* 
funnel; cone (geom.); pericarp; — (pi. 
fp qumu e ) stem (of a fruit) j _ULJ- 1 *i 
g. al-kayyat thimble; Sjl^LJl *5 cigar 
butt; JL> «j g. sukkar sugar loaf, sugar 
cone; *J J>J* loaf sugar 

j»Jti qamqama and II ^JLaj taqamqama to 
complain, grumble, mutter 

-Is qurnqum and ^uii qumquma pi. 
•i'J qamdqim 2 a bulgy, long-necked 
bottle 

JJ qamila a (qamal) to be lice-infested, 
teem with lice V do. 

Ji gamZ (coll. ; n. un. S) louse 

Ji qamil lousy, lice -infested 

J*i. muqamrnal lice -infested 

y V to intend, purpose, propose (a to do 
s.th.) 



Jji qamin worthy, deserving (^ of 
s.th.) 

^5 qamin worthy (<-> of), adequate 
(<~> to), in keeping with (<--•); fit(ting), 
appropriate, suitable (<_j for), capable 
(- of) 

s yJu maqman adequate (J to), appro- 
priate, suited, suitable, fit (J for) 

2 ^i qamin and <xJ? qamiwt pi. -a/ kiln, fur- 
nace 

1 ( \S gwran, pi. OLS qindn chicken coop, chicken 
house 

jj5 qinn pi. jLJl aqnan, <3\ aqinna slave, 
serf 

of g?/ma galbanum (hot.) 

iJ> gonna pi. -d£, ^5 qunan, obi qinan, 
OjLs qvnun mountaintop, summit, peak 

^J^jj qununa slavery, serfdom 

oj£ itnnlna pi. oU qananin bottle, 
glass battle; flask, flacon, vial 

2 j5 II to make laws, legislate; to determine, 
fix (a s.th.) 

djS\s qanun pi. frt\y qawanin* canon; 
established principle, basic rule, axiom, 
norm, regulation, rule, ordinance, pre- 
script, precept, statute; law; code; tax, 
impost: (Tun.) tax on olives and dates; 
a stringed musical instrument resembling 
the zit ler, with a shallow, trapezoidal 
sound 1 ox, set horizontally before the per- 
former ] ^-U-^i j^jUJI (asdsi) basic con- 
stitutional law; statutes; ^^ju-uJI j^JU 
statutes, constitution; ijbi- 1 6>)UII (jinai) 
criminal law, penal law; J[^»-"i/l cjj\s 
4~*aiJJ (sakslya) personal statute; u^UJI 
fjjj^^\ (dusturl) constitutional law; 
Jj-Ji (!. _jJLaII (duwall) international law; 
oLol^i Ojj\j> q. ahmurafa'at code of 
procedure (jur.; Eg.); otTl^l J^»l Ujjli 



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aJ^S do. (Syr.): ^jlVi/l dUi jjitf ?. 
as-silk al-iddri administrative law; j^jli 
(SjXS" (Icimdwl) ch mical formula; o^jUJI 
<jj.il (madanl) civr law 

<Jjj15 qdnunl canonical ; legal, statutory; 
lawful, legitimate, licit, accordant with 
law or regulations, valid, regular; legist, 
jurisprudent, jurist ] jjJlS J-L-p (saidall) 
certified and license 1 pharmacist; J^ltS j& 
illegal 

V^ li qdnuniya legality, lawfulness 

^j\'Jij taqnln legislation, lawmaking; 
codification (jur.) ; regulation by law; 
rationing 

jili muqannin legislative, lawmaking; 
lawgiver, lawmaker, legislator 

(>!. muqannan determined, fixed; ra- 
tioned; standard (in compounds), stand- 
ardized 

\JU qdni" blood-red, deep-red 

Jbi qandl canal; channel; (Leb.) TV channel | 
t^>bfVl JLaJI [inglizl) the English Channel 

^ji #an& pi. <-j^i qurtnb calyx 

<_^i qunnab, qiunab hemp (Cannabis 
indica; &of.) j t^JjL'l Ja*>- &aii a^-^. hemp 
rope, string, cord, twine, packthread; 
V~* t_r^ ^ un ^ 5f- hemp cloth, canvas 

^ qinnabl hempen, hemp (adj.) 

*_-!&* miqnab pi. u-JUl» maqdnib z troop 
of horsemen 



^jLi qunbdr (ir.) bast rug, bast runner 



2 jO qunbur (coll.; n. un. I) pi. ybi qandbir 2 
lark (zooZ.) 

3 S ^rci qunbura pi. j* l;i qandbir 2 bomb 



4 j_j^ qunbur hump, hunch | j^jJ jjl a&ii 
qunbur hunchback 

JLjJ qunbdz pi. >jbi #aw.a&£s 2 (s^r.) a long, 
sleeved garment worn by men, open in 
front and fastened with a belt 

1 JrJ> qanbal and UjJ» qanbala pi. JjU» qanabil 1 
troop of horsemen; troop, group, band 

2 J-jlS qanbala to bomb (a s.th.) 

aLJ qanbala bombarding, bombardment 

aLJ qunbula pi. JjU qanabil 2 bomb, 
bomb shell; grenade, shell | iljU «JLi 
incendiary bomb; ajjJ> iUj (damyo) 
atomic bomb, A bomb; 3u jU aJLS (gaziya) 
-gas bomb, gas shell; aJU aLx* (mt'fya) 
depth charge; a*^ Ujj (mukriqa) incen- 
diary bomb; *»i-« aLJ (munfajira) 
high -explosive bomb; SJL>.jjJU aLJ 
[haidrojiniya) hydrogen bomb, H bomb; 
xJI UJi g. ahyad (obs.) and ajjOj aJlJ 
[yadawlya) hand grenade 

UjJL» (S^/li?) muqanbila (obs.) bomber 

Ja-oi5 qunnablt cauliflower 

C^S qanata u (£sj3 qunut) to be obedient, 
submissive, humble 

O^i qunut obedience to God, humility 
before God, devoutness, piety 

a>^5 qanja pi. -at, ^hi graaf Nile boat 

xi qand pi. j>p> qunud hard crystalline mass 
formed by evaporating or boiling cane 
sugar, candy 



jj^Ju maqnud and - 
ened with qand 



* muqannad sweet- 



jJii qunduz and ^-JUi qundus beaver 



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3xS qandaq pi. JbtS qanddiq 2 gunstock, rifle 
butt 

cJixS qandalaft pi. -lya sexton, sacristan 
(Chr.) 

iljXi qandul aspalathus (bot.) 

JjXj qindll pi. Jj->bi qanddil 2 lamp; candle- 
stick; candelabrum | _^\ JjJLi q. al- 
bahr phosphorescing jelly fish; JaiJ Jj-Uj 
kerosene lamp 

"&jS qunzu'a, qanzaa, qinzi'a pi. p-jUS 
qandzi' 2 tuft of hair; cock's comb, crest 
of a rooster 

j,^ qanasa i {qans) and VIII to hunt, shoot, 
bag (* s.th.); to hunt up (a s.th.), get 
hold (a of s.th.); to make use, take 
advantage, avail o.s. (Jsj^liJl of the 
circumstances, Z^iil al-fursa of the 
opportunity, and the like) 

jaj" qans hunting, shooting, hunt 

U ^S qanas quarry, bag, game 

qanis game, quarry, bag, catch; 



hunter 

cr -»bi qannas pi. l^»US qannasa hunter; 
sharpshooter 

^r-ailj qanis pi. ^li qunnds hunter 

<*aiU qanisa pi. ^^y qawdnis 2 gizzard 

O *-^aiU qanisa pi. -at tank destroyer 
{Syr.; mil.) 

O^yju maqnus quarry, bag, catch 

J*ai qunsul pi. J^U qandsil 2 consul | «_JLj 
J-auJl and J-^lUI i jSj vice-consul; J-^i 
(*U ( T dmm) consul general 

J--aJ qunsuli consular 

4-LaJ qunsuliya pi. -a£ consulate j 
<*U SJL^S ( e amma) consulate general 



Ji^^S qunsuldto consulate 

JaJ qanita a (qanat), qanata u i (J*>i qunut) 
and qanuta u (&Li qanata) to despair, 
despond, become disheartened, be with- 
out hope, lose all courage II to drive to 
despair, dishearten, discourage (» s.o.) 
IV do. 

.ki qanat and J»jJ tjwftttf despair, 
despondency, desperateness, hopelessness 

izis 2<z?at and J*^ qanut despairing, 
desperate, despondent, disheartened, dis- 
couraged 

Jaju gc^if despairing, desperate, de- 
spondent, disheartened, discouraged 

l J^S qantara to arch, span, vault ( a s.th.) 

Ijl^S qantara pi. ^LLJ qandtir 2 arched 
bridge, stone bridge; vault, arch; arch- 
way, arcade; arches, viaduct, aqueduct 
(esp. pi.) ; dam, weir | 4Jjl_^ «jkS regulator, 
regulating device (at a canal, esp. in the 
Egyptian irrigation system); a±j-X\ J*UJiJl 
(kairlya) the Barrages, at the entrance 
of the Nile delta, about 15 miles north of 
Cairo 

iSjaS qintari bridgelike, like the arch 
of a bridge 

JzLk* nuqantar vaulted, arched, ar- 
caded 

2 JsJ qantara to possess tremendous riches 

jlki qi 'tar pi. jd?U qandtir 2 kantar, a 
varying weight of 100 Jkj rati (in Eg. = 
44.93 kg, in Tunisia — 53.9 kg, in 
Syria — 1:56.4 kg) | IJ^Ju ^kLS (muqan* 
tara) accumulated riches; tremendous 
sums 

Ujh>jlkL5 qintdriyun centaury (Erythrea 
centaurici m; bot.) 

IaJaJ qantart: a pi. -at snaffle, bridoon 



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*iS qania a (qana, d)U;. 
to content o.s., be 
(<_j with); to be c 
(* the face); to , \ 
woman); to satisfy 
satisfaction ( e to) ; 
of); to persuade (.. 
satisfy (* s.o.), giv 
to convince (o s.o.' 
(«_j * s.o. to do s.tl 
s.o. to do s.th.) A 
one's face; to veil 
wear a veil VITI 
content (<y with); 
of) 



3 qun'dn, "^[^ qana' a) 

content, be satisfied 

>nvinoed II to mask 

oil (* the face, U a 

content {» s.o.), give 

to convince (<_j e s.o. 

s.o.) IV to content, 

3 satisfaction (o to); 

; to induce, persuade 

), prevail {^j « upon 

to mask or conceal 

one's face, be veiled, 

to content o.s., be 

to be convinced (oj 



«J qirC pi. ?Ui' aqna arms, weapons, 
armor 

«jj' qana contentment, content, con- 
tentedness; frugality, moderation, tem- 
perance, abstemiousness 

<pbi qana a satisfaction; contentment, 
content, contents iness; frugality, tem- 
perance, moderation 

^S qani" satisfied, content, contented; 
temperate, moderate, abstemious 

pbi qina pi. ^i qunu arms, weapons, 
armor; — {pi. ^1 aqni'a, also oULS 
qindbdt) veil, head veil; mask; peri- 
cardium | (Jlj p-bi iwdqin) gas mask 

9^i qanu pi- ^ci gwrm 1 * satisfied, 
content (^ with); frugal, modest, tem- 
perate 

*Lk* maqna r sufficiency | a} giu dUi J 
that is enough for him, he may content 
himself with that 

9-Uil iqna satisfying, satisfaction, con- 
tenting (of s.o.); persuasion; convincing, 
convincement, conviction 

?cJu taqannu mummery, masquerade 

c-brgl iqtind* satisfaction, contentment, 



content, contentedness ; conviction (= 
convincedness) 

-JL5 qani* satisfied, content (lj with) 

^i. muqanna r veiled; masked 

a^ju muqnV convincing 

tcsji* muqtani satisfied, content (u 
with); convinced 

JLli qwifud pi. Asbi qanafid 2 hedgehog | 
j*J\ JLei q. al-bahr or &j£- Jxi {bah'%) 
sea urchin (Echinus; zool.); porcupine 
fish (Diodon; zool.) 

jjcS qanqar kangaroo 

J La look up alphabetically 

1 Is qanima a (qanam) to be or become 
rancid, rank 

Isj^a qannuma sacred fish (Mormyrus 
oxyrhynchus) 

2 ?j£\ uqnum pi. JUI aqdnim 2 hypostasis, 
person of the Trinity (Chr.); basic 
element, substance, subsistent principle 

\j3 and £) US qana u (j£ qanw, qunuw, 
IjJ qunwa, o\j£ qunwdn) to acquire, 
appropriate, make one's own (> s.th.); 
to possess, own, have (x s.th.); — ^ 
qana i {qany, jLji qunydn) to acquire, 
gain (a s.th.); — <y qaniya a (Li qaimn) 
to be hooked, aquiline (nose) II to dig 
(a canal) VIII to acquire (a s.th.); to 
get, procure, purchase (a s.th.) 

jLz qunw, qinw pi. »L5l aqna , b\jS 
qunwdn, qinwdn, oLiS qunydn, qinydn 
bunch of dates 

SyJS qunwa, qinwa appropriation, acqui- 
sition; property in livestock, wealth, 
fortune, possessions, property 

iji qunya, qinya acquisition, property 



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SbS qanah pi, JS qanan, quniy, »U5 
#ma', olyi qanawdt, oUj qanaydt spear, 
(bamboo) lance; shaft; tube, duct, pipe; 
— (pi. Ajjii aqniya y C;\j£ qariawat) canal; 
channel; waterway; TV channel | obS 
U'Lj q. banama Panama Canal; S^i ;US 
(dam'iya) lachrymal canal; ^^-N *b* 
g. assumes Suez Canal; ^1 SU* g. al-'alam 
flagpole; <uUS cJ V lanat qandtuhu to 
soften, relent; to yield, give in 

^jU qandya pi. -a( small stream, rivulet, 
runnel, canal 

O ^5 qunayya cannula 

^51 agna bent, curved, crooked, 
hooked 

»LxSl iqtind* purchase, acquisition 

uU ganm pi. aJLS qdniya possessor, 
owner; see also alphabetically 

^xi. muqtanan pi. oLj&L. muqtanaydt 
thing acquired, acquisition 

a Ji> tagnt, S-jjij look up alphabetically 

_^j qahara a (qahr) to subject, subjugate, 
conquer, vanquish, defeat (a, » s.o., 
s.th.); to subdue, overpower, overwhelm, 
overcome {a, « s.o., s.th.); to force, 
compel, coerce ( Jp o s.o. to) 

j^a qahr vanquishing, subdual, sub- 
jection, subjugation; compulsion, coer- 
cion, force; (eg.) annoyance, trouble, 
sorrow, grief; \j^ qahran forcibly, by 
force; perforce, of necessity | tr uiJl j£ q. 
an-nafs self -discipline, self-control 

" a j4* quhra compulsion, coercion, con- 
straint, force 

,Sj^ qahrl compelling, conpulsory, 
mandatory, coercive; forcible, forced | 
o^ iuLJul forced smile; iSjtf *— y 
(sabab) compelling reason 



jL^S qahhdr conquering, vanquishing; 
jljiJl the Subduer, the Almighty (God) 

j*li qahir forcible, cogent, overpower- 
ing, irresistible; vanquisher, conqueror, 
victor; y>UJI the planet Mars 

SyiULS! j^oj* misr al-qahtra or S^LaJl oZ- 
qdhira Cairo 

(_£y>U qdhiri Cairene; (pi, -un) a Cairene 

jj+a* maqhur conquered, overcome, 
humiliated, defeated; (eg.) sad, afflicted 

ol*^ qahramdn pi. *»jl$S qahdrima steward, 
butler, household manager 

aJUj^S qahrumdna (woman) housekeeper 

Jjl£ qahqara to move backward, go back, 
fall back, retreat, withdraw; to fall 
behind, lag behind; to recede, retrogress, 
retrograde, decline* degenerate, deterio- 
rate II taqahqara do. 

*Jh$ q<^hqara backward movement, 
recedence, recession, retrogression, fall- 
back, retreat; decline, retrogradation, 
degeneration 

t£j*4* qahgard backward movement, 
recedence, recession, retrogression, fall- 
back, retreat ; decline, retrogradation, 
degeneration j ^^hH-aJI :>U to fall back, 
retreat, withdraw; t ^ J X^i\ <u **-j to take 
s.o. back into the past 

jk^&l taqahqur regress, recession, re- 
cedence, retrogression, lag, fallback, 
retreat 



4I4& qahqaha to laugh boisterously, guffaw 

<L$JL$i qahqaha loud burst of laughter, 
guffaw, horselaugh 

«u^L« muqahqih side-splitting, hilar- 
iously funny 

•>4* qahwa coffee; (pi. qakawdt and □ ^jlfi 



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qahawi) cafe, coffeehouse j SjU- S^if 
coffee without sugar 

JI_^S qahwdti, qahawati pi. -*ya (5yr.) 
coffeehouse owner 

^jtf qahwayl coffeehouse owner; coffee 
cook 

_$JL* maqhan and SL^a* maqkdk pi. all* 
maqdhin cafe, coffeehouse 

4jL$a* maqhdy% {yem.) cafe, coffeehouse 



^^5 qahiya a: AA^\ ^ ^ (ta r dm) and IV 
>»LkJl ^ ^1 to have little appetite 

«li qdhin supplied with provisions 



lj» see under t£J* 

{^>y) cjli gafta « (qaub) to dig; to dig up, 
burrow, excavate, hollow out (a the 
ground) II do. V to break open, burst 
open (egg) 

u-jIS qdb small distance, short span 
(between the middle and the end of a 
bow) | Cx^-j* V^ J* (£• q&usain) quite near, 
very close; imminent; ii uli J^ (g. 
lamha) in a moment 



^Js qub pi. 
chick 



j\ji\ aqwdb young bird, 



»l>^3 



my quba, quwaba 2 and 4jj5 qvha> 
quwaba pi. <_jy quwab tetter (med.) 

Z>j») 0L3 qdta u (qaut, qfd, Z\J qiyata) to 
feed, nourish, subsist, sustain, support 
(o s.o.}, provide for the support (a of) 
II and IV do. V to be fed, be supported; 
to feed, live (^ on s.th.); to eat {^> 
s.th.) VIII do.; to take in or absorb as 
nourishment (a s.th.) 

o'i qdt kat (Catha edulis Forskal; bot.); 
the leaves of this shrub which act as an 
excitant when chewed | OLcJI oli g. 



ar-ru'yan a variety of lettuce (Lactuca 
inermis Forsk. ; bot.) 

Cjjs qut pi. £j\ji\ aqwdt nutriment, 
aliment, nourishment, food, viands | 
£jjj}\ ±\j* mawddd al-q. foodstuffs 

*ZiyZ taqwlta snack, quick bite 

djA> taqawwut nutrition, alimentation 

c-iil al-muqit the Feeder, the Nourisher 
(God) 

(^y) -U qdka u (qauh) to fester, suppurate, 
swell (wound); to sweep (a the house) 
II to sweep (a the house) III to quarrel, 
pick a quarrel V to fester, suppurate, 
swell 

4p-(j qaka pi. ry quh courtyard 

{*js) jU qdda u {qaud, iLs qiydd, oL* qiydda, 
Si li. Tnaqdda) to lead, lead by a halter 
(a s.th.); to conduct, guide, engineer, 
steer (a s.th.) ; to drive, steer (a e.g., an 
automobile), pilot (a an airplane); to 
conduct, direct (a an orchestra, choir); 
to pander, pimp IV to cause (o s.o.) to 
retaliate VII to be led, be guided; to 
follow, obey (J s.o.), yield, submit (J 
to s.o.) VIII to lead; to lead away (o s.o.); 
to be led X to retaliate 

Sji qaud leadership; pandering, pimp- 
ing 

jy qawad retaliation 

:>i_J qaiowdd pander, pimp, procurer 

ijj* qctud tractable, docile, amenable, 
manageable; trained (horse) 

sj\ aqwad 2 tractable, docile, amenable, 
manageable 

.3 Li qiydd leadership, guidance; leading 
rope, halter j ^LdJi ^JL- sails al-q. tractable, 
docile, amenable, manageable, pliant; 



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U-> 



jjLaJI <_-a-^ sa r b al-q. intractable, unruly, 
ungovernable 

S^L5 qiydda leadership, guidance; driv- 
ing, steering, steerage (of a vehicle); 
command; direction; (pi. -at) leading 
body, controlling body (esp. of a party) [ 
(i*UI or) LJUJI S^LaH ( v ulya> 'ammo) su- 
preme command; oUall ^Juf 'ajalat al-q. 
steering wheel (of an automobile); ^Js* 
»j^l oLS m, q. at-tcmra Supreme Revo- 
lutionary Council 

(^iLi qiyddi leading, guiding, leader's 

ijJu miqwad pi. zjuL* maqdwid 2 leading 
rope, leading rein, halter; steering 
mechanism; steering wheel 

jLajl inqiyad obedience, compliance, 
yielding, submission 

-All* qa*id pi. s\Ji quvnvdd, SjU qada 
(classical also jjS quwwad, obtf) leader; 
director, manager; head, chief; command- 
er, commandant; (formerly) caid, native 
governmental officer heading a caidate in 
Tunisia; steersman, helmsman; pilot (of 
an aircraft) ; conductor (of an orchestra, 
choir) ; captain (of a team ; sport) ; lieuten- 
ant colonel (formerly, Jord., Saudi Ar., 
mil.) J JM JS\Sq.at-jai§a,Tmy commander 
(mil.); JpI aJI* (a'ld) and *U Jtftf ('amm) 
commander-in-chief (mil.); ,jli-' JJLi 
JacVi (a'aim) generalissimo (mi?.); (for- 
merly, Eg.) fjj>- JJ»LI Jtfli (jaivwi) air 
marshal, lieutenant general of the air 
force, fjjt- J>k-»! OjU (g. ■&££«?) air vice- 
marshal, major general of the air force, 
^U>- OjIj q. janah wing commander, 
lieutenant colonel of the air force, 
u^ JtfU q. sirb flight lieutenant, captain 
of the air force, »-»'_/-' OjL5 squadron 
leader, major of the air force, *5^ 4?U 
jljif (<?. /trga) air commodore, brigadier 
general of the air force, jj*. *\J -u*U 
group captain of the air force (mil.); 
jSCjiil »iL5 q. al-jikr leading thinkers 



jy II to make a round hole (a in s.th.); to 
gouge, scoop out, hollow out (* s.th.); 
to cut out in a round form, cut round 
(a s.th.) V to coil (snake) VIII jUSI and 
jj£\ iqiawara = II 



j 15 qar pitch; tar 



» j IS qara pi. -ai, jy gw, u! ^J giran hill; 
see also garra under J» 

ojja* miqwara gouge 

j yH taqwlr gouging, hollowing out 

ZjjAJ taquira neckline (of a garment) 

jyu muqawwar cut out in a round 
form; gouged, hollowed out, scooped 
out; chiseled out; low-cut, low-necked, 
decollete (dress) 

Asjjs qaumrma (eg.) mutton or beef cut in 
small pieces and braised with squash 
(qar') or onions and tomatoes 

HJLo jjj>i\ al-qurina'iya the Cyrenaics (philos.) 

^js qawisa a (qawas) to be bent, curved, 
crooked II -- I; to bend, curve, crook 
(a s.th.); to shoot V = I; to bend 

^Js qaus m. and f., pi. ^jjii aqwas, 
^^S qusiy, qisly bow, longbow; arc (geom.) ; 
arch, vault (arch.; of a bridge); violin 
bow, fiddlest ick; semicircular table ; jL-y 
parentheses (punctuation marks); u - j ^aJ' 
Sagittarius, the Archer (sign of the 
zodiac; astron.); the ninth month of the 
solar year (Saudi Ar.; cf. J*»- hamal) \ 
t>-*jji t>j (qausain) in parentheses; ^y 
*-J> q. quzala rainbow; <J»-di ,j*j» q. an- 
nadf teasing bow (for combing or carding 
cotton); ^aJI ^y q. an-nasr triumphal 
arch; f*j* ,jjy^ ^Js j J-j a lam yabqa 
fl q. sabri miaza' my patience is at an end 
(lit. : there is no arrow left for the bow 
of my patience) 



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932 



^\y qawwas bowmaker; bowman, 
archer; kavass, consular guard 

<~ty ({uwaisa sage (bot.) 

mj2* muqaunms bent, crooked, curved, 
arched 

J^y qus pi. ^\js\ aqwdS crupper {of the 
saddle or harness) ; strap, girth 



J^jjti qawus pi. 
cell 



jri j'j* qawdwU 2 prison 



D^ qawwas see ^-[^5 qawwas 

(a*j*) U* ^ ?^ a w (qaud) to demolish, tear 
down, wreck, raze (a a building), strike 
(a a tent) II do.; to break off (a s.th.); to 
smash (a s.th.) V to be demolished, under- 
go demolition; to collapse, fall in, cave 
in; to break up, scatter, disperse (crowd); 
to desist (^ from), give in, give way 
(o*to) 

^-aJ jJo taqwld wrecking, demolition; de- 
struction , annihilation 

i-ijU* muqawada barter, exchange, 
interchange 

1 Sf J 3 qaut pi. \f\y\ aqwat flock of sheep 

3 J*»iJl al-qut the Goths 
^y qutl Gothic 

3 ~d?y qauta small basket for fruit; date 
basket 

4 *by quta (eg.) tomatoes 

(f\j*) £^ qa* pi. 6UJ gfa7t, 9-yl aqum , s>\y\ 
aqwa' plain, lowland; bottom, lowest 
part; lowest place or rank (e.g., in sport); 
wave trough (pkys,); floor (of a mine 
or valley) ; gulf, abyss | ^^-Jl P U q. al- 
bahr ocean floor, bottom of the sea; 



j^\ £\i q. an-nahr river bed; fUJl ^ 
the Netherlands 

SpU ga'a pi. -at paved courtyard; 
entrance hall, vestibule, corridor; hall; 
sizable room | o i^Ui SpU q. al-muhadarat 
lecture hall, auditorium (of a university); 
^-jjAdl 4*li lecture room, classroom; 
j»UkJI 4cl5 g. at-ta f dm dining room; 
messhall; ^i^*Jl 4cli g. al-'ars throne 
room; S^JLLil S^li g. al-mutdla'a reading 
room, study hall; ^\y^\ itli banquet 
hall, ballroom; SJX ipU (malakiya) 
throne room 

*(3y) Jjtf qdqa u (qauq) to cackle, cluck (hen) 
II do. 

Jtf ^ag pi. oUJ gigaa (s#r.) raven | 
•III -Jli cormorant (zooZ.) 

Jj jj pi wmm quwaiq (eg.) owl (sooj.) 



2 JjU and Ojjtf pi. &j\y look up alphabet:- 
cally 

jU^II al-qauqdz and ^UjSJI al-qauqda the 
Caucasus 

Ujj jU^SJI al-qauqdziyun the Caucasians 

^ II taqauqa'a to pull back into one's shell 
(snail-like), withdraw within oneself 

£y qauqa r seashells 

l*iy qauqa'a pi. *Z\y qawdqi' 2 snail 

Hdy) i}\Sqdla u (Jy qaul) to speak, say, tell 
(a s.th., J to s.o.; j, ^p a s.th. about or 
of), utter, voice (a s.th.); to speak (jpof), 
deal (j,p with), treat (jc. of); to state, 
maintain, assert, propound, teach, pro- 
fess, advocate, defend (^ s.th.); to 
support, hold (^ a view), stand up (u 
for), be the proponent (u-» of a doc- 
trine or dogma); to allege (<->s.th.); with 
J*: to speak against s.o. speak ill of 



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Jy 



s.o., tell lies about s.o.; to compose (a a 
poem, verse, poetry) | 4-1/ JU (bi-ra 9 * 
sihi) to motion with the head, signal, 
beckon; Jilt j J-5 qlla fl l-matal the 
proverb says; jl JUu Vj (wma) one 
cannot say that..., let no one say 
that . . . ; JS j\ au qui or, or rather, or say 
even...; j aJU Ji» J3j (wa-qul mitla) or 
j 4li* J5j or ,_j JS dil -i5j the same must be 
said about..., the same can be said 
of ... , the same applies to . . . Ill to 
confer, parley, treat, negotiate (a with 
s.o.}; to dispute, wrangle, argue; to 
haggle, bargain (a with s.o., about the 
price); to make a contract; to conclude a 
bargain, make a deal (o with s.o.) V to 
fabricate lies, spread rumors (J* about 
s.o.); to pretend, allege, purport (a 
s.th.) | JjjtsVl Jj^j (aqawila) to talk 
foolishly X O to render (voice by radio) 

JJj JU qdl wa-qll and JUj JJ qll wa-qal 
long palaver; idle talk, prattle, gossip 

<ili qdla speech, talk | *JUJI ^ sit al-q. 
malicious gossip, backbiting, defamation 

Jy qaul pi. Jlyl aqwal, JjjU! aqdiml 1 
word, speech, saying, utterance, remark; 
statement, declaration; report, account; 
doctrine, teaching; pi. <J!jSl also: testi- 
mony (in court); JjjISI sayings, locutions; 
proverbs | "iU^ *^y qaulan wa- amalan 
or J*iJlj J^ilb (yn) by word and deed; 
j^ill JljJSI testimonies, depositions, evi- 
dence; dJ^S ( Jac\ a f td qaulahu to make 
one's bid (at an auction) ; j^jU Jy prov- 
erb; jl£% J>SJI (*'?*5) doctrine of the 
immitability of the Koran 

"4j> qaula (n. vie.) utterance, remark, 
word; pronoucement, dictum 

aJ^J quwala garrulous, voluble, lo- 
quacious, talkative, communicative 

JljJ qawwal garrulous, voluble, loqua- 
cious, talkative, communicative; itinerant 
singer and musician 



Jja* miqwal pi. JjU* maqdwil z phono- 
graph, gramophone, talking machine 

JUL. maqdl speech; proposition, con- 
tention, teaching, doctrine; article; trea- 
tise; piece of writing 

<JLi» maqdla pi. -at article; essay; 
treatise; piece of writing | IL^-Ual aJUL. 
(iftitahiya) editorial, leading article 

<Jjli. muqairala talk, conversation, 
parley, conference; dispute; — (pi. -at; 
eg.) contractual arrangement, mutual 
agreement (Jp on a job to be done); 
contract; agreement; closing of a business 
deal | iJjUi'o by the job, by the contract, 
by piece (work) 

J^aj taqawwul pi. -at talk, rumor, 
gossip 

JjU qail pi. dy quivwal saying, 
telling; teller, narrator; advocate, pro- 
ponent (^ of s.th.) 

JJu mnqiil pi. -at that which is said, 
utterance, saying; word(s), speech j 
jZJ\ Cj^j2X\ "ah) the ten categories 
(philos.) 

Vja* maqula a word (= short talk or 
written statement about s.th.) 

(JjU* muq&wil pi. -un contractor, (spe- 
cif.) building contractor 

2 djs (Turk, hn) qpl wing of an army, army 
corps; ^Ul Jy 9-L* see pL* (alpha- 
betically), (_£-U' Jy J^ see 2 J_^» 

uJy qaulaba (from uJtf gafo&) to cast, 
mold, form (a s.th.) 

iJ^s qaulaba casting, forming, molding 

"^js qaulaha pi. i ^5 qawdlih 2 (eg.) cob (of 
corn, and the li;ce) 

«J_ji> qaulanj colic 



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ojy qolon colon (cnat.) 



{fj}) j*U qama u (l»y qauma, *[J qiyam) to get 
up; to stand i:p, stand erect; to rise 
(also fig.: voice-, noise, wind); <tJU As to 
rise or turn ag; inst s.o., revolt or rebel 
against s.o., attick s.o.; «*J *U to rise in 
honor of s.o.; to rise from the dead, be 
resurrected; to ascend; to set out, start 
out; to depart, leave (train); to take off 
(airplane); to betake o.s., go (Jf to); to 
come to pass, take place; to be on-going; 
to happen; to stand; to remain stand- 
ing; to be, exist, be existent; to be 
located, be situated, he; to consist (<-> 
in); to rest, be based, be founded (J* 
on, also t_j), b<' built (Jp on); to have 
for its (main) theme {J* a problem; of a 
book, and the Itke); to begin (J*ij to do 
s.th.), start (J^ij doing s.th.); to make 
s.th. (cj) one's business, concern o.s. 
(i_-> with), undertake, take upon o.s., 
perform, do, any out, execute, ac- 
complish, praclice, exercise (<_j s.th.); 
to stand up (uj for), support, advocate, 
endorse (u* s.th.); to he in charge (J* of), 
manage, run, tend, guard, keep up, 
preserve (J* s.th.); to take care (Jp 
of), attend (Jc to), watch (J^ over), 
look after s.th. (J*); to cost, be worth 
(cj so and so much) j J*. uU^Jl ^ U (burhdn) 
proof had been furnished for; ^LcL *\S 
CU (bi-a c bai l-hiilm) to assume the 
burdens of government, take over 
power; oijL f ; j (bi-awadihi) to provide 
for s.o.'s need, provide s.o. with barest 
subsistence, keep s.o. barely alive; j»l» 
jjJo (bi-daurin) to play a part; ajIJj *\3 
to be independent, exist by itself; 
4jtt> ftf (bi-SaniM) to take care of 
s.o., look after h.o., take s.o. under one's 
wing; (JlujUaiu fli to defray the costs, 
pay the expenses; a~U i_->-I^JI> /»15 to do 
one's duty; e-Lcjj fU (bi-wa r dihl) to keep 
one's word; JL. J^ ^V^' ^^ (/mm*) the 
war was or became violent, flared up; 



war broke out; ji-l pU (^<?g) truth 
became or was manifest; S^UJI cJi 
($aldh) "the communal prayer begins 
herewith" (ritual phrase spoken by the 
imam); <3L*j *X* Jp #1* {qadamin w- 
saqin) to become fully effective, be in 
full progress, be in full swing; i.ji lj*li 
A^-lj J»-j (gmtmata rajulin) they rose to a 
man; i*j Ic U <! *ij J Ztm taqum lahu 
qaimatun ba'du he was no longer able 
to put up any resistance, he was as good 
as finished; «Lc IS Jju^I rjju V there is no 
resistance against the enemies ; 4i»U cJj 
(qiydmaiuhu) to get excited, get angry, 
become furious ; all hell broke loose in it; 
(jj-o) J <oLS c*»lS to be upset, be shocked, 
be violently agitated by s.th.; <$>-j j »li 
(wajhihi) to resist, oppose, defy s.o.; 
<uj^L j j*U to stand in the way of s.th,; 
<utiL. /»ts (maqamahu) to replace s.o., 
substitute for s.o., deputize for s.o., take 
s.o.'s place; to serve as or instead of 
s.th., take the place of s.th., replace s.th.; 
<uUL. <o j»lS to take the place of s.o. with 
s.o. ; -USj f U (wa-qa'ada) to be in a state 
of great anxiety, be seriously upset, be 
very agitated; to be very alarmed (J by 
s.th.); JL»S Vj fli V not to be lasting 
and durable II to set upright, lift up, 
raise (a s.th.); to create, shape, form, 
arrange, set up (a s.th.); to straighten, 
make or put straight (a s.th.); to arrange 
well, do properly (a s.th.); to put in 
order, fix, set going (a s.th.); to right, 
put to rights, rectify, correct, reform, 
amend {a s.th.); O to rectify (el.); to 
estimate, assess, appraise, value, rate 
(<_^ a s.th. at) | ( yjj *jju V la yuqawzmmu 
bi-tamanin inestimable, invaluable, price- 
less III to resist, oppose (a s.o.); to fight, 
combat (a s.th.); to raise objections, 
take issue, contend, argue ( j o with s.o. 
because of s.th.); to withstand (a s.o.), 
hold out, hold one's own (*> against), be 
on a par (» with s.o.), equal, match 
(a s.o.), measure up (o to s.o.) | f jUj N la 



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yuqdwamu irresistible IV to straighten, 
straighten out, make right or correct, 
put in order (a s.th.); to make (« s.o.) 
rise; to resurrect, raise from the dead 
(a s.o.); to lift up, elevate (a s.th.); to 
set up, raise, erect (a s.th.); to start, 
originate, found, call into being {a 
s.th.); to fix, determine (a s.th.); to 
appoint, nominate, install {» a s.o. as); 
Jp <uUl to put s.o. in charge of s.th., 
commission s.o. with the management 
of s.th.; to agitate, rouse, excite (a s.th,); 
to bring about, set up (a s.th., e.g., a fair, 
a public event); to hold (a a meeting, a 
ceremony, a competition, etc.), celebrate 
(a a festival), put on, stage, organize (a a 
celebration, a pageant, etc.), give (a a 
reception); to occupy o.s. constantly 
(J* with); to abide, stay, remain, dwell, 
reside, live (^ in); to dwell (Jp on), 
persist (Jp in), keep, stick (Jp to) | 
•ijl plil (awadahu) to provide for s.o.'s 
need, provide s.o. with barest subsistence, 
keep s.o. barely alive; Je Ji-1 oU^JI ptfl 
{burhdna l-jaliya) to furnish the unmis- 
takable proof for ,.., clearly prove s.th.; 
S>JJ *15I {hujjata) to protest, lodge a pro- 
test; J IL^- plil (hisdban) to render ac- 
count to s.o. ; to give one's mind to s.o. 
or s.th., make s.o. or s.th. one's concern; 
^ J* J=WI f ^ l to prove that . . . ; JIA\ pli! 
aJu-01 (dinlya) to perform the liturgical 
rites; St>UaJl *tf! (saldta) to perform the 
ritual prayer; JjbJi aUI ( e adla) to admin- 
ister justice, handle the law; <i>\*^ *Uil 
(alaqdt) to take up, establish relations 
{£• with a country; pol.); Jp ^1-tfJI *tfl 
'"dm) to read the Mass for s.o.; *15I 



f 

J* dsjzi or) A~Jt*> {qadlyatan, da'wd) to 
take legal action against s.o., sue s.o.; 
Ljjj <*J j-ISi (waznan) to set great store by 
s.th., attach importance to s.th., make 
much of s.th.; jjj <d aUj V (yuqdmu, 
wazn) to be negligible, be of no conse- 
quence; o'jL* fill (mubdrdtan) to stage 
a contest; <uU« <uts! (maqdmahit) to make 



s.o. take the place of s.o. else, make 
s.o. replace s.o. else, substitute s.o. for 
s.o. else; jfU-\ til* << — iJ flii (nafsahu 
maqama l-hdml) to pose as the protector; 
6-Uoij lull! (wa-aq r adahu) to upset s.o. 
seriously, throw s.o. in a state of violent 
emotion; U-bJlj LJ jJi y»La! (dunydwa-aq' r ada* 
ha) to move heaven and earth; to make 



a stir, crrate a sensation; i»li <J 



<sfi- 



(qiydmatan) he forestalls any resistance 
on his part X to rise, get up, stand up; 
to straighten up, draw o.s. up; to stand 
upright, stand erect; to be or become 
straight; to stretch straight ahead (road); 
to be sincere, honest; to be right, sound, 
proper, in order; to keep, stick (j to 
s.th.) ] j .**$J\ 4J |»U=-! (kaldmu) he said 
the right thing about ..., he talked sense 
about . . . 

rji qauvi pi, +\y\ aqwam people ; crowd 
or group of people; tribe; nation | <u>S 
his relatives, his family members; his 
(fellow) tribesmen; AjiW JU ethnog- 
rapher, ethnologist; u \ *j> JjJL- (inna) 
some people will say . . . 

<»j3 qauma rising; uprising, revolt 

tjjs qa<iml national; ethnic, racial; 
oL*y national traits; (pi. ~%ya) "goum- 
ier" (formerly, a member of the native 
cavalry troops recruited from the local 
tribes in French North Africa); (pi. -uri) 
nationalist | ^y jjy national team 
(sport); ^3 -^ (masrah) national 
theater 

<z*J» qaumlya nationalism; (pi. -at) 
nationality 

1*\S qdma stature, figure, build, frame 
(of a person); fathom (measure of 
length = 6 feet); stand, support, tripod 

fSqayym valuable, precious; straight, 
right; being in charge (Jp of), responsible 
(Jp for); caretaker, curator, custodian, 
superintendent ; <**aJ( al-qayyima the true 



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faith 



~f {kutuh) valuable books 



X+3 qima pi. <J qiy 
size of an amount, a 
price | X*J> jj valuabk 
worthless; <>ju-»jJ d* 
<«JiJl :4j^ muta'addid 
multivalent; *uJ *) ^ 
able value; AiLi* i*J 
value, surplus value (ec< 
falsafat al-q. philosopl 
ology 



im value, worth; 

mount, quantity; 

; <J i*J V (qlmata) 

jimatain bivalent ; 

al-q. polyvalent, 
s.th. of consider - 
(muddfa) added 

m.); O f^ aaJU 

y of values, axi- 



^*J £lm£ relating to the value, by the 
standard of value, according to the 
value; nonfungible (Id. Law) | ^^ <JU 
nonfungible things, nonfungibles (IsU 
Law) 

Ay qawdm upright posture, erect 
bearing; straightness ; stature, physique, 
build, frame; figure, body (of a person); 
Tightness, properness, proper condition, 
normal state; strength, vigor, stamina; 
firmness, consistency: support, stay, 
prop; livelihood, living 

Ay qiwdm support, stay, prop; basis, 
foundation; stock, supply; sustenance, 
subsistence, livelihood | <d*l Ay q.ahlihi 
the provider, or supporter, of his family 

Ay qawwam manager, director, super- 
intendent, caretaker, keeper, custodian, 
guardian (J* of s.th.) 

**\y qiwdma guardianship 

fy qawlm pi. /-LJ qiy dm straight, 
upright, erect; correct, right, proper, 
sound, authentic; true (religion); firm, 
solid 

AS qiydm rising, getting up; standing; 
existence; outbreak (e.g., of a revolt); 
setting out, leaving, departure (also, 
esp., of trains); performance, execution, 
carrying out, consummation, discharge, 
accomplishment, undertaking (i_j of 
s.th.); concern {Jp for s.th.), attentiveness 



(J* about s.th.); support, stay, prop; 
sustenance, subsistence, livelihood | Ji 
apLJI /*Lj till doomsday, forever and 
ever, in perpetuity, for all time to come; 
*UI /»U q. ahlihi the provider, or supporter, 
of his family; J-^Jb pLDI (*amal) per- 
formance; working, functioning; *U 
? ij-iil coming about or realization of a 
project; !plJ stand up! (command in 
school) 

lUti qiyama resurrection; tumult, tur- 
moil, upheaval, revolution, overthrow; 
guardianship j <.Liil -Lc f id al-q. Easter; 
^•LaII {ji yaum al-q. the day of resur- 
rection, the day of final judgment; 
«oU> c— U (qiydmatuhu) to get excited, 
get angry, become furious; all hell broke 
loose in it; (j^) J <clJ ju*U to be upset, 
be shocked, be violently agitated by 
s.th.; -ju, i JuLiJI [taqum] the resurrec- 
tion hasn't come yet, i.e., don't get so 
excited! you have plenty of time, you 
still have to wait 

p-iJi al-qayyum the Everlasting, the 
Eternal (God) 

*y\ aqwam 2 straighter; more correct, 
sounder; more adequate, more appro- 
priate 

*jaa miqwam plowtail, plow handle 

AX* maqdm pi. -at site, location, po- 
sition; place, spot, point, locality; 
situation; station; standing, position, 
rank, dignity; tomb of a saint, sacred 
place; key, tonality, mode {mus.); de- 
nominator (of a fraction ; arith.) \ Aii\ J 
Jj-yi (awwal) primarily, first of all; 
*LUI IJU j on this occasion; jjulj-l *Ua 
small building near the Kaaba in Mecca 
(housing a stone with Abraham's foot- 
prints); J^jAi.1 AX* topic of the conver- 
sation; (**r*^jl) JL-LJl oUUil (siydsiya, 
rasmiya) the political (official) agencies; 
gij\ pUil i^^-L* (formerly) title confer- 



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red upon the holder of the order of "Col- 
lier Fouad I" established by Fuad I in 
1936; t^oJIj pU. j ^X* jlS~ (m. wdlidl) he 
assumed the responsibility of fatherhood 
for me; cf. also muqam and under ^i 

1.1a. maqama pi. -at sitting, session, 
meeting; a genre of Arabic rhymed 
prose 

fjjii taqwim pi. /^j^ taqdwlm 2 raising, 
setting up, erection; appraisal, assess- 
ment, estimation, rating, valuation; 
correction; rectification, amendment, re- 
form, reformation, reorganization, re- 
shaping, modification, adaption; recti- 
fication, detection (eZ., radio); land 
survey, surveying; determination of 
geographical longitude and latitude; 
geography; stocktaking; almanac; cal- 
endar; chronology | ^j^^l fjj£i\ the 
Gregorian calendar; ^.J fj£ (zamani) 
chronology; jiJlLJI fyu ^ r ilm t.al-buU 
dan geography; dUliT fjju t. kafa'at 
evaluation of job qualifications 

i*jlJL» muqawa ma resistance ; opposition ; 
fight, struggle, battle (with foil, genit. : 
against); resistivity (techn.); firmness, 
bearing capacity (of ground; arch.); re- 
sistance (el.) | <lj*~ S^jU* (jawwiya) anti- 
aircraft defense ; S-JL 1»j\ju (salblya) pas- 
sive resistance; j-a^\ **jU* m. at-tahas* 
§ur breaking strength (of a material); 
ojLa. u>> passively, unresistingly 

i.151 iqdma raising, lifting up ; elevation ; 
setting up; erection; etablishment (of an 
institute); execution; performance; hold- 
ing, convocation (e.g., of a meeting), 
celebration (e.g., of a festival), put- 
ting on, staging (e.g., of a pageant, 
of a celebration); resurrection (of the 
dead); stay, sojourn; second call to 
the salat in a mosque, indicating the 
imminent beginning of the prayer; 
{Magr.) residentship, office of resident j 
Uj^JI J U*jl i.151 (diniya) performance of 



the religious ceremonies, celebration of 
the divine service; JjujI i.lil i. al-adl 
administration of justice; <.liVl J^ 
mahall al-i. (place of) residence, domicile; 
address; \j*r **^ (jabriya) house arrest 

i.Ux^l istiqdma straightness ; upright 
posture or stance; sincerity, uprightness, 
rectitude, integrity, probity, honesty; 
Tightness, (soundness, correctness 

**U qa'im pi. *\js qutvwam rising, get- 
ting up; standing; upright, erect; stand- 
up; existing, existent; lying, located 
(of a place); visible, conspicuous; ob- 
vious, evident; established; firm, stead- 
fast, staunch, unflinching, unshakable; 
being in charge (J* of), responsible (Jp 
for), watching over (J* s.th.); revolting, 
rebelling (J* against); vertical, perpen- 
dicular ( J*- to) ; — upright post, goalpost 
(sport) | jUVb f U, l^jii\ jLfb f'tf {bi-a. 
al-mujawwadiya) charge d'affaires (dipt.); 
£j\j}\ f\S y 4iJb fU, 4^1^ fli (bi-rctsihi) 
and <l~Jc> fli (bi~nafsihi) self-existent, 
independent; 4jL»- fU (J (q. hayatihi) 
during his lifetime; ajjIjJ! flS q. az-zawiya 
rectangular, right-angled; «UJI <ij\J\ 
right angle; AfM\ <rl* q. aS-Subha highly 
questionable, obviously suspect; <\S ojj 
(wazn) gross weight; l/lS <_Jj to jump 
up from one's seat, jump to one's feet 

(•Lax li gaim-maqdm, qaimaqdm ad- 
ministrative officer at the head of a 
qada ', approx. : district president (Jr., 
Syr., Leb.): colonel (formerly, Eg., Jord.; 
mil.) 

IL. ! JixtS (jaim-maqdmlya, qd'imaqdmlya 
administrative district headed by a 
qd'im-maqdm, in Iraq — qada' 

Zc l 3 q&iina pi. r\y qawd'im leg, foot, 
paw (of a quadruped); leg, foot (of 
furniture); pale, stake, post, prop, 
stanchion, pillar; pommel (of a sword's 
hilt); stand, base, support; (fig.) main 



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938 



support, pillar; (pi. also -at) list, roster, 
register, index, table, schedule; catalogue; 
invoice, bill | *UiaJI «Ij q. at-tadm 
menu, bill of faro; J^-jlI «^» ?• ol-mu* 
ras§ahln slate, list of candidates; ^ p^ 
le*U (taqumu) they endure, they have 
stamina, they stand their ground; see 
also /»j* I 

Aji» muqawwim estimator, appraiser, 
assessor; — {pi. -at) formative element, 
constituent factor; O rectifier, detector 
{el., radio); pi. toLjJL. elements, constit- 
uents, components, formative agents, 
basic factors, fundamentals j SUul cAaja* 
m. al-hayah means of subsistence; earthly 
possessions; J Li I o 1 ^ m. al-jamdl 
cosmetics; o\j+*i\ oU^i. m. aZ-'timran 
cultural factors 

(•^i* muqawvam highly creditable, 
valuable, valued, treasured, prized; pi. 
CjI>jju valuable possessions, valuables; 
assets, values 

fjlJL* muqawim resisting, resistent, 
reluctant, averse, unwilling; — (pi. -un) 
opponent, adversary, antagonist; resist- 
ance fighter (pol.) 

*A* muqlm raising, lifting up, setting 
up, erecting, etc.; remaining, staying, 
abiding, lingering; permanent, lasting, 
enduring; persistent; living, residing, 
resident, domiciled; resident (dipl.) \ 
ajL^-I^j J** (bi- wajibatiki) dutiful, con- 
scientious, loyal; >>U *3u femffl) Resident 
General (formerly, Tun,) 

i j<^A* muqlml residential 

3u*JL» muqimiija residentship, residency 

j»Uu muqdm raised, set up, erected, 
etc.; pending (legal action); stay, sojourn; 
abode, habitat, whereabouts; place of 
residence; duration of stay; see also un- 
der p 

-iu. mustaqlm upright, erect ; straight ; 



dead straight, straight as a die; directed 
straight ahead; correct, right, sound, 
proper, in order; even, regular, symmet- 
rical, proportionate, harmonious; honest, 
straightforward, upright, righteous, hon- 
orable; (pi. -at) a straight, straight line 
(math.); rectum (anat.) 

^ru^j* (Fr. commissaire) qomiser commissioner 

d\JC~*j» (Fr. commandant) qomanddn com- 
mander, commandant 

1)js quna pi. dj* quwan icon; image of a 
saint 

ZJy qoniya 2 Konya (city in Anatolia) 

6ji II to shriek, scream, yell, cry, shout 

djji, l?j\j* see JjjU (alphabetically) 

tfj* qawiya a (ly quwwa) to be or become 
strong, vigorous, forceful, mighty; to 
become stronger, increase in power, 
gain ascendancy; to be able to do s.th. 
(Jp in or about s.th.), have influence 
(J* over s.th.); to be sufficiently strong 
(J* to do s.th.); to be able to cope (Jt 
with s.th.), be able to manage or tackle 
(J* s.th.); to be superior (Jp to s.o.); — 
(l5 qWVi *j!j* qawdya) to be depopulated, 
deserted, forsaken, desolate (place); — 
(t^ji qawan) to starve, be starved; to be 
denied, be withheld (rain) II to make 
strong or vigorous, strengthen, fortify, 
consolidate, invigorate, brace (*, » s.o., 
s.th.); to encourage, hearten, embolden 
(« s.o.); to intensify (a s.th.) Ill to vie or 
compete in strength (» with s.o.); to 
equal, match (* s.o.) IV to be poor; to 
be empty, deserted, forsaken, desolate 
(place) V to be or become strong; to 
intensify, become stronger; to take 
heart, take courage Till to claim for o.s. 
(* s.th.) X - V 



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*\y qawd\ qiwa' and j qiyy desert, 
wasteland, desolate country 

*\y qawd' and jy qaivan hunger, 
starvation 

ly quwwa pi. -at, gy quwan, qiwan 
strength; vigor; potency; power, force; 
intensity; violence, vehemence; courage, 
pluck; faculty, ability, capability, apti- 
tude; efficacy, efficiency, potential; (elec- 
tric) energy, power, capacity, output; 
armed force, troop; o\y quwwat armed 
forces, troops | S^xJL forcibly, by force ; in- 
herently, virtually (pkilos.); *^>-j lya t 
bi-quwwatin wa-jala'in (to speak) loud 
and distinctly; ly}\ J^-JL* munsariq al-q. 
weakened, debilitated, effete, exhausted, 
spent; <l*ls*-\ ly (ihtiydtlya) reserves 
(mil.); lp\'^\ ly q. al-idd'a transmitting 
power (radio) ; olj'ifl ly q. al-irada will 
power; jij*x*-Vl ly inertia; SiiiiU- ly mem- 
ory; jjAi-l ly frontier guard, border 
guard; uLa>- ly q. hisan horsepower; 
JU>-V1 ly durability, endurance (of a 
material or of goods) ; <s*»U- ly (hdssa) 
commando, special troop; <u~a>- ly light, 
mobile task force (mil.); Q aasIj ly 
yb^^ (kahrabaiya) electromotive force, 
e.m.f.; 4-cUi ly (diffflya) total defense 
potential; O V*k-" *j* (sathlya) surface 
task force (navy); *1 jf iJl ly and ly 
• »1>-VI buying capacity, purchasing power 
(eeon.); Oj-Jl iy q. as-§aut volume, in- 
tensity (radio); U*U ly intellectual 
power, faculty of perception; 6\y ly 
combat force ; J**J! J*. lyd\ ( f amal) work- 
ing power; output capacity; o^JUJI ly 
legal force; ly\* ly force majeure; 
'ojiy ly (markaziya) central power; 
oiU SjjT^ ly centripetal force; ly 
•ijU» tijfy centrifugal force; oLi* ly 
ujl_/UaH (mudddda) antiaircraft defense; 
3jjU» »y (ma'mrwi^a) moral strength, 
morale, spirit; c^\ ly q. an-nabt germina- 
tive faculty; ^Ik! ly (nizamiya) regular 
army; \y~-j Hj^.J \j d\y (barriya 



wa-bahrlya wa-jawwlya) ground, sea 
and air forces; i**Li! £>\yb\ (musallaha) 
the armed forces; ^yVl ^j$ <?. al-amn 
security forces, police trooi^s; Cs\y 
ii^LJl storm troops; 0">UiII *i*\y q. al- 
mizallat paratroopers, airborne troops 
(mil.); 9jiJ\ C»\y q. ar-rad' (international) 
peacekeeping forces; ISJU. (jy creative 
powers; <UU (jy and J*JI (jy q. l- f amal 
work force, labor force ; lsy^> ^y (muntija) 
productive powers or forces; upjJoJI »_jUJI 
athletics, specif. , track and field 

,jy qaiviy pi. *Ly\ aqwiya 2 strong; 
vigorous ; potent ; mighty, powerful, force- 
ful ; intense, violent, vehement; firm, solid, 
robust, hardy, sturdy | a-^jLJI gy elo- 
quent, quick-witted 

<jy\ aqwd stronger 

iyj taqwiya strengthening; fortifi- 
cation, consolidation; intensification; en- 
couragement 

□ <jjUJ taqawi (eg.) seed (for sowing) 

*\y\ iqwa depopulation; imperfect 
rhyme (change of the vowel following 
the rhyme letter) 

yu muqawwin strengthening, fortifying, 
invigorating; corroborant; (pi. Cj\jjju 
muqawwiyat) a restorative, tonic, cordial, 
corroborant; O amplifier (radio) 

,jyu muqawwan strengthened, rein- 
forced, stiffened, stiff | ^yu 3jj (waraq) 
cardboard, pasteboard 



j qiyy see ^ y 

(\i) »l* qd'a i (#j qay') to vomit II to cause 
(e s.o.) to vomit (of an emetic) V = I 

*\J quya vomit, that which is vomited 

^<U muqayyi pi. obLJL* muqayyidt a 
vomitive, an emetic | ^*iil J>H (jauz) 
nux vomica 



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jbul qitar pi. ^jLI qayatir 2 , jlii qitar and 
•jli-i qUdra pi. joli qaydtir 2 guitar, 
lyre | JjJ&t jliJ (elektroni) electric guitar 

(*-U) ~J qaha i (qaih) to suppurate, fester, 
be purulent II and V do. 

~J qaih pi. f-jJ quyiih pus, matter 

mJu taqayyuh suppuration, maturation, 
purulence 

^Jii* mutaqayyih suppurative, festering, 
purulent 

1 JLj II to bind, tie, fetter, shackle (v » s.o. 
with; also fig.: to bind or tie s.o. to); to 
limit, restrict, confine, qualify (a s.th.); 
to impose restrictions (a, e on s.o., on 
s.th.), set bounds {a, » to s.o,, to s.th.), 
curb, check (a, a s.o., s.th.); to fix, 
determine, lay down, specify, stipulate 
(a s.th.); to write, write down, note 
down (a s.th.), make a note, take notes 
(a of) ; to enter, book (a s.th.) ; to register, 
record (a s.th., also fig., of the eyes); 
to enroll {« s.o., in a list or register); to 
charge (J* a s.th. to s.o.'s account), 
debit (J* * with s.th. s.o.); to place 
s.th. (a) to s.o.'s credit (J), credit (J a 
with s.th. s.o.) T pass, of II; to bind o.s., 
be bound (t-> to, by, e.g., by an obligation) ; 
to be limited, restricted; to enroll, have 
one's name registered 

-Li qaid pi. ijJ quyud (also jtil aqyad) 
fetter, shackle, chain; bond, tie; strap, 
thong; — (pi. oljjJ) record, booking, 
entering, entry, registering, registration, 
registry; enrollment (e.g., at matricula- 
tion); — fixation, determination, specifi- 
cation, stipulation; document; limitation, 
confinement, restriction, qualification, res- 
ervation; condition, proviso; amount, 
measure, degree; distance | 6b- VI -Li 
gum(s); i^L-J^I -LJ> genealogical tree, 
family tree; Jajlj j\ JLi j± £* without any 
reservation, without qualification; ^j 



•Kr* Vj -*J [sart) without any reservation, 
without qualification; with no strings 
attached; unconditional; oUjJaJl il 
qalarn al-quyudat bureau of vital statistics, 
(G.B.) (general) register office; SLLl -Li 
bi-q. il-hayah or SLJ-1 JLi J*, (still) alive, 
living; lj*£ Jii qaida sa'ratin by a hair- 
breadth, within a hair's breadth; 
Sic i Jul . . . V Id . . . qaida unmulatin not 
one inch, not one iota; ojJu* oUU -Li Jp 
(q. sa'atin) within a few hours ; S^ip jl5 J* 
Cj\J^jiS at a distance of 10 km; Jul J* 
^aJi (q. l-basari) within sight 

Jwi qaida (prep.) under, subject to, the 
object of, in the process of, in the stage 
°f I i^J^ •*-» fjj^ (dars) the project 
is being studied, is under consideration; 
d^Jl JLi aJ LJ.1 (mas'ala, baht) the affair 
is subject to investigation, is being in- 
vestigated 

(jjJs qaidi booking-, registration- (in 
compounds), e.g., hxS *y»j booking fees, 
registration fees 

JUjAj taqyld pi. -at, JLjUj taqdyid 2 fetter- 
ing, shackling, tying, binding ; reservation^ 
qualification; limitation, restriction, con- 
finement, curtailment; entry, registry, 
registration, booking | J*JJI JwJiS t. an- 
nasi birth control; -uJidl ^»j rasm at-t 
registration fee 

jlJo taqayyud pi. -at a being bound, 
obligation, tie, bond; restriction, lim- 
itation, confinement 

JLJi. muqayyad fettered, shackled, 
bound, tied, tied down; limited, re- 
stricted, confined; booked, registered | 
jlJL. js. unlimited, unrestricted; jlJu diL» 
(mulk) constitutional monarchy; JLi. OjJt 
captive balloon 

a jli and Sj Li see .iy 

ji II to tar, pitch (a s.th.) 



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941 



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jU qdr and jS qir tar; pitch 



j\> ji\ see y\ 

]Aj£ qlrdt pi. iajjly qardrlt 2 inch; a dry- 
measure (.%. ^ V32 ^ = °- 064 *) ; 

a square measure (Eg, — 1 j 2l oiji — 
175.035 m 2 ); kerat, a weight (^gr. = Vie 
**jj — 0.195 g); carat (fineness of a gold 
alloy) 

b\jji qairawan pi. -at caravan 

o\jj\j>}\ al-qairawdn Kairouan (city in 
NE Tunisia) 



(tri*) o*^ $a sa i [qais, ^IJrqiyas) to measure, 
gauge, measure out (a s.th.), take the 
measurements (a of); to try on (a a 
garment); to weigh, judge (a s.th., ^, 
J* by analogy with s.th. else), draw anal- 
ogous conclusions (J* from s.th., a 
for s.th. else); to compare, correlate, 
bring into relation (J* or ^> a s.th. with, 
also Jf a), proportion ( Jp or u * s.th. to, 
also J I a) I aA^ ^Jj wa-qis 'alaihi and so 
forth II to measure (a s.th.) Ill to compare 
(j\SaJLJ! ^j between two things, a s.th., 
Jl or t-> with or to) VIII to measure 
(a s.th.); to imitate, follow (<~> s.o.), take 
after s.o. (<^>) 

^\J qiyds pi. -at, JLJi aqyisa measure, 
measurement; mensuration; dimension; 
scale; size (of shoes, clothing); exem- 
plar, example; reference, relation; record 
[athlet.}; comparison; analogy; deduction 
by analogy; deduction, logical conclusion, 
syllogism (pJiilos.) | dHS Jp ULJ by analogy 
(with it), analogously (to it); correspond- 
ingly; J' a - ^^ * n comparison with, (as) 
compared to; in proportion to, in relation 
with; with reference to, with respect to, 
with regard to; ^^LJaJl Jp by analogy; 
regular; after the model, accordant with 
the model; ^LJ ,/uo illogical; <^LJ JU-l to 
take s.o.'s measure (tailor); ^LSJI 1*— b^« 



mutandsib al-q. fitting together, well 
matched; equai in proportion, commen- 
surate, commensurable; AU ^{^('dlami) 
world record; -U-U ^LJ wrong inference, 
false conclusion, fallacy, sophism, paral- 
ogism; ^LSJt ^Hj$ t a P e measure, tape- 
line; O *~>rJj$*~"J\ 4-oSVl J* 'ilm, al-a. as- 
sikolojlya psych ometry (psych.) 

^LS qiydsl accordant with analogy, 
analogous; consistent with the model, 
pattern, rule, or norm; comparable, by 
comparison; logical; record (in com- 
pounds) I ^{J ^j (raqm) record (athlet.); 
4-~*L* oLT (kammlydt) record amounts 
or quantities 

^Li qayyds land surveyor, geodesist 

^Li* miqyd-s pi. ^jli* maqdyw 2 meas- 
ure, measurement; amount, quantity, 
magnitude; measuring instrument, gauge, 
water gauge, tide gauge; scale (e.g., of a 
map); standard; standard of judging, 
criterion; unit of measure; <j-UtU Kilom- 



eter 



substandard; 



*UL» 



jLxJl to. at-tayi/dr ammeter (el.); ^Lx. 
Ji^J-l to. al-jahd voltmeter (el.); ^rW*-* 
Sjl^l to. al-hardra thermometer; (j-L2-» 
^UjjVI m. al-irtifd r altimeter (aviation); 
JjVJl (j-Lji* tn - az-zaldzil seismograph, 
seismometer; tljjJl t r , W** m - o,z-zaiodyd 
protractor; ic-^-Ji ^La. to. as-sura tacho- 
meter, speedometer (auto) ; ZjI>j^S\ <j*\~** 
to. al-kahraba lya electrometer; ^LI* 
Jal\ m. al-matar rain gauge, pluviometer, 
ombrometer, ombrograph; IL-jJaUU ^tji* 
to. al-magnatisrya magnetometer; (j«LJL* 
(J Jcsi\ m. at-tanafjus spirometer (med.); 
Jljfi/I (j-juli* measures of length, linear 
measures; oU^aJLI ^^juIa* to. al-musatta= 
hat square measures; 7-jkJl ^r^J^JL. do.; 
*>J-I jj-ojU* to. al-hajm cubic measures; 
J-S3l ^rJuH* to. al-kail measures of capac- 
ity, dry measures, liquid measures 

^Liu maqas pi. -a( measuring, men- 



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942 



suration; gauging; measurement, di- 
mension, size; pi. C-UU* dimensions 

i-jU* muqdyasa measuring, mensura- 
tion, gauging; comparison; appraisal, 
valuation, estimation by analogy; (pre- 
liminary) estimate (of costs) ; relation 
rate, rates, proportion; detailed listing, 
specification; itemized list (of services 
quantities, prices) 



t$j-i» qaisari pi. ^uj qaydsir 2 1 S 
qayasira big, large, huge, enormous 



-,li 



*ij-~*i qaisariya 2 Caesarea (ancient sea- 
port in Palestine) 

ajjUaS qaisariya pi. j— LS qaydsir 2 large 
block of public buildings with stores, 
workshops, etc., roofod market place, ba- 
zaar; qaisariya 2 Caesarea (ancient seaport 
in Palestine) 

J^\l pi. Jt>\j* look up alphabetically 

JlijS qisani faience; glazed tiles; glazed 
earthenware; {eg.) porcelain, china 

4JU<a-S qaisana sunfish, moonfish 

j^S qaisar pi. _^\J qaydsir 2 , S^»LS qayasira 
Caesar; emperor, kaiser; tsar 

^j^Jb qaisari Caesarean; imperial; 
tsarist I^MaJiJ I «JL*JI Carnally a) Caesarean 
section (med.) 

aj j ^lS qaisariya kaiserdom, Caesarism, 
imperialism, empire; imperial dignity; 
tsarism; Caesarean section {med.); large 
block of public buildings with stores, 
workshops, etc., roofed market place, 
bazaar; Caesarea (ancient seaport in 
Palestine) 

(^J) ^H qdda % {qaid) to break, crack, split, 
cleave, burst open (* s.th.); to get 
broken, crack, burst; to exchange {^ a 



s.th. for) II to foreordain, destine (J * 
s.th. to s.o.; of God); to lead, send (i 
s.o., J to s.o.; of God) III to exchange, 
give in exchange (v * o to s.o. s.th. for) 
V and VII to burst, crack, get broken, 
break; to collapse, fall in, cave in, 
tumble down 

ijJlS qaid eggshell; barter, exchange; 
article of exchange, barter object, equiv- 
alent 

^Li qiyad barter, exchange 

Z*Jl>\jL» muqayada barter, exchange; 
barter trade, bartering; trading, barter 
{I si. Law); compensation, barter trans- 
action, barter deal 

jlki see Jtii 

^yjbJ qitus Cetus {astron.) 

J»U> qdza i {qaiz) to be blistering hot (day) 

JaJ qaiz heat of summer; high summer, 
midsummer, dog days; lack of rain, 
drought, aridity | jLfJ! ^J q. an-nahar 
daytime heat 

JiLJi* maqiz summer residence 

Jil U qaiz scorchingly hot, midsummery, 
canicular 

<Ja~* II to follow (* x s.o.'s tracks); to study, 
examine, investigate (* s.th.) ; to criticize 
(a s.th.) 

43IJ qiydfa tracking, pursuit (of a 
track); make-up, guise, costume 

i^JiS qaiqab maple {boL) 

1 (JJ) J IS qdla i {qail, &IS qd'ila, "4^J>qaUuh t 
JJ! qll) to take a midday nap; to hold 
siesta II do. IV to abolish, repeal, annul 
{» s.th.); to cancel, abrogate, rescind, 
revoke (* s.th., esp. a sale); to depose, 



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dismiss, discharge (* s.o.; also with ^ 
^■^a'.ll mitt al-mansib from his office); to 
free, release, exempt {» s.o., ,y from 
an obligation) [ ii)3j& 4S1I JU1 ("atrataka) 
may God regard your offense as undone; 
4j^ ^ 4] IS I ('atratihi) to steady one who 
has stumbled X to demand the cancel- 
lation, seek the abrogation (a of a sale); 
to ask (ft s.o.) for exemption, release, or 
annulment; to request to be released 
from office, tender one's resignation, 
resign (^ or je from an office); to 
resign one's commission, quit the service; 
to ask s.o.'s (a) pardon, apologize {* to s.o.) 

JJ qail pi. J Li I aqyal princeling ; chief, 
chieftain 

aJjLJ qailula siesta; midday nap 

JJL maqil resting place,, halting place 

*Jtfl iqdla cancellation, abrogation, 
rescission, revocation (esp. of a sale); 
abolishment, abolition, repeal, annul- 
ment; deposition, dismissal, discharge 
from an office 

UlirJ istiqdla resignation, withdrawal 
(from office); retirement; (pi. -at) with- 
drawal, voluntary elimination (sport) 



4ajU qaila midday nap; noon, midday 

JJa£-~* mustaqll resigned from office, 
retired, discharged 



2 4LS qila, aJL *iJ (ma'iya) hydrocele (med.) 

Ji II to rate according to value, evaluate 
(a s.o., a s.th.); to assess (a a situation); 
to interpret (* e.g., statistics); to rate 
or value highly (* s.th.) 

-•Li, i»L5, <u*s, *», ijJ* and +j3 see 
under *ji 

pJS taqyim evaluation (e.g., of abili- 
ties); expert opinion (about the value of 
s.th.), rating (of s.o.); interpretation, 
evaluation (e,g., of statistics) 



,ji gain pi. OjJ quyun blacksmith 

<lJ qaina pi. -at, uLs qiydn songstress, 
singer; lady's maid 

i-ji* muqayyina lady's maid 



j» j~j»il j»i see under a\ umm 



i] 



l ii abbreviation of j^lT kanun, \ *S for Ojitf 
J/lM December, Y £i for JliJI j^lT 
January (see under jT); j» £j (— T) for 
s*j)S km 

%l Ska- (with foil, genit.) as, like; all but, as 
good as; as, in my (your, etc.) capacity 
of I JjVST ka-l-aiowali as before, as at 
the beginning, as from the outset; l-L$5" 
ka-hadd such, e.g., 1jl$5" ^j rajulun ka- 
hMa such a man, a man like this; j* 
*iilj J* j^jwiir" {ka-l-mujmilna) they are 



as good as unanimous about it, they are 
practically agreed on it; LS til and ka- 
muslimin I (in my capacity) as a Mus- 
lim 

utS* Ica-anna and Lc'lT ka-anna-ma 
(conj.) as if, as though; it is (was) as if | 
L^ Jo* ka-annl biha (with imperf.) it is 
like seeing her before me; I am under 
the impression that she . . ., it looks to 
me as if she . . . 

IJ5" la-da so, thus, that way; so and 



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944 



so, such and such, so-and-so much, 
so-and-so many | \JSj \j$~ so and so, 
such and such, so-and-so much, so-and-so 
many; \JS~j \J5' jtSLc bi-makdni k. at such 
and such a pla ce ; Cj\jX*> IaT t>jf 'umruhu 
k. sanawat his age is so-and-so many 
years 

tjJdJif ka-ddlika so, like this, thus; 
equally; likewise 

\£ ka-rnd (conj.) as, just as, as also, as 
on the other hand; (introducing a main 
clause) equally, likewise, as well | jl \f 
ka-md anna as, just as, quite as, as also, 
as on the other hand;^* ^Tsuch as it is; 
as things are, such being the matter; 
l^U- oS'jl ^as if he were present 

^E"* (Engl.) kdb cap 

2 »_->i53l OJU madinat al-kdb Cape Town 

<*j£~ kaHba a (^IT ka'b, ajIT ka'ba, h IS~ 
ka'dba) to be dejected, dispirited, down- 
cast, sad (J^ about, <J because of), be 
worried (J by, because of) IV to sadden,, 
aggrieve, distress, worry (o s.o.); to 
depress, dishearten, discourage (» s.o.) 
VI [I to be dejected, dispirited, downcast, 
sad ( Jp about, <_J because of), be worried 
(J by, because of) ; to be gloomy 

uu ka'b, 4jiS" kaba, <> 15" kadba and 
tyUxTi ikti'db sorrow, grief, distress, sad- 
ness, dejection, depression, gloom, melan- 
choly 



^J5 kaib and ^>p ka'ib sad, dis- 
pirited, dejected, downcast, depressed, 
melancholy; gloomy, morose; grave 

i^JcSL* mukiaib sad, dispirited, de- 
jected, downcast, depressed, melancholy; 
gloomy, morose; grave; dark-colored, 
blackish, dismal 



AjjljlTsee 4jjL5' 

j-lT = 2 j^ kabar (q.v.) 

*4jj ^ kabroleh pi. -at cabriolet 

iJjlT (Fr. cdbh) kdbil pi. -a/, Jj ijf toM 
cable 

2 JjlT kdbul 2 Kabul (capital of Afghanistan) 

Jj IT kabuli Kabuli, of Kabul; [eg.) 
mahogany wood 

^L>ji^ see ^i->J^ (alphabetically) 
OjjlT(Fr.) kabun pi. -a£ coupon 

(>j K" {Fr. cabine) kdbin pi. ^L5~ kabd'in 2 ,j\S 
kabdyin 2 cabin 

iJljJGlf katidra'iya pi. -ai cathedral 

_^jlT (Fr.) grafo cake, piece of pastry 

j^jIT fcaiwZ cathode (el.) 

diJy\&\ al-kdtullk the Catholics 

^Jjytf kdtullkl Catholic; (pi. -un) & 
Catholic 

Lrf-lT kdkiya pi. £lj5~ kawdkin butler, stew- 
ard 

l :>ir &ae£ anacardium (6o£.) | ^JlI* a 6" (Awuft) 
cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale; 
bot.) 

2 m5" ka i ada a to be sad, distressed, worried 

#tao kdda 1 sadness, sorrow, distress, 
grief; fear; dark night | »bt5"* SJat ( f o?a6a) 
insurmountable obstacle 

Jjj5" &a'wd: ijijT "La* ('aqaba) in- 
surmountable obstacle 



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f 



ir 



_plT(Fr. cadre) kddir pi, j-sl^T kawddir 2 cadre 
(of a military unit, of a governmental 
agency, of a corporation, etc.), skeleton 
organization; qualified and politically 
trained staff of personnel (party); (eg,) 
payroll group (of officials, employees); 
(Alg.) pi. ji^ functionaries, administra- 
tive officers 

ps*iK" kadmiyom cadmium 

jlT fear pi. -a£ work, job, occupation, busi- 
ness; calling, vocation, profession, trade | 
jlT j,\ ibn k. (eg.) artisan, craftsman; 
oljO ^L J artisans, craftsmen;jl£JUj1-u. 
'adawat al-k. professional jealousy, trade 
rivalry 

^jlTsee JZ\£ 

il>jlf (Fr.) kart pi. Csjjf kurut (eg.) card 

Ojjjlf (Fr.) karton pi. {fj\^~ kardtln 2 card- 
board, pasteboard; (pi. ~dt) carton; — 
(Engl.) kartun cartoon | ojijC Li car- 
toon film 

JbijS" kardlndl pi. *J >\^ karadila cardinal 

<JjlT(Fr. carnet) karneh pi. -a( (eg.) identity 
card (e.g., for students); transportation 
pass (on buses) ; membership card 

)JC (It. carro) karro pi. oUjjlT karrohat 
(^.) cart, wagon | jjlT h mJ c- 'araba karro 
do.; — (Fr. carreau) kdro pi. oUjjS' 
iaroAaf (egf.) square 

tfjT — (^^T fcam curry 

cjjlT {It. carretta) kareta pi. -a( (egr.) two- 
wheeled horse- drawn carriage 

StijSlxjjK" fawifcotftlni/a caricature, cartoon 

jlTjoz =b jli jjaz gas; (Ze6., saud.-ar.) kerosene 



j^j jS* (It. casino) kazino pi. CjU^j jS~ fcaztao* 
fo^, olyjjS' teSfW>wa£ nightclub; (egr.) 
kazino pi. fcaztnoAoi outdoor restaurant 

^j-tT £a's f., pi. ^jjf kuus, ^^ ki'as, 
ZslJf ka*sdt cup (also victory trophy); 
drinking glass, tumbler; goblet; chalice, 
calix; calyx (bot.) | \jjjj\ ^-IT Europe 
cup (sport) ; JUI ^IT k. al-alam world 
cup (sport) 

UL-tT kasata cassata (Italian ice cream) 

<^ju-tf (Fr., Engl.) kaset cassette | ii^fi" J>»-~» 
musajjil k. and c^-lTjl^ ?aftaz fc. cassette 
recorder 

.US' &a^ pi. ApIjT kawdgid 2 (tun,) paper 

]ai& kagit pi. Japl^fcawo^ 2 (mor.) paper 

«J»lT A^/ name of the letter £j 

Ij>jIT (It.) kafeteriyd (eg.) coffee shop, cafe- 
teria 

jjilT £a/wr camphor, camphor tree; (eg.) 
blue gum ( Eucalyptus globulus Lab. ; bot.) 

!S"tS" II taka'ka'a to gather, assemble (J* 
around s.o.) 

«^"lT kakinj, kdkanj alkekengi, ground 
cherry (Physalis alkekengi; bot. ) 

J& (It. callo) kallo pi. CjUyTcorn (on the 
toes) 

j^JlT graZdfi gallon; — (eg.) kalun and b^S 
kailun pi. O^jS" kawalin 2 lock (of a door) 

^Jl^ Awwa£im pi. -ya locksmith 
LJ j jjLJ 5" kdlijomiyd California 
Lo^lT kambodyd, kambodyd Cambodia 



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♦If 



946 



j~*£" (It. cambio) kambiyo rate of exchange 

>1T kdmak, kdmik pi. 'f^jf kawdmik 2 vinegar 
sauce, pickle; (mixed) pi< kles 

lj\*5~ kamerd, ljj€ kamira pi. -at camera 

<JC (Fr. camSe) kameh cameo 

otS", U* fc* see under 2 ^ ka 

_plSCjl J^ suq al-kanto rag fair, secondhand 
market 

JcJlT kantin post exchange, canteen 

J^-aitT(Fr.) kansol pi. -a/ console 

^iS" (Engl.) £a?m canoe 

ILaIT kahiya pi. J_j5" kawdhin chief officer of a 
"kiV^f kihdya {Tun,); deputy, vice-, under-, 
sub- {Tun.) 

j£jC kdwits {eg.) rubber; (pi. -at) tire | 
^ijjtf ft^T" &«*ra£ &. rubber ball 

iljtjjC kdwitsuk {eg.) and J-£jj5" kautmq 
rubber, caoutchouc 

t_S kabba u {kabb) to prostrate, throw pros- 
trate {•^rrji U-wajhihi or <^-j Jp » s.o.); 
to overturn, overthrow, topple, upset, 
capsize, turn upside down, revert, invert 
{a s.th.); to pour out, pour aw r ay (* a 
liquid) II to ball, roll or form into a ball, 
conglomerate (* s.th.) IV to throw down, 
prostrate, bend down, bow down (<. s.o.); 
to throw o.s. down, prostrate o.s.; to 
bend, bow, lean (Jp over s.th.); to apply 
o.s. eagerly, devote o.s., dedicate o.s. 
( Jp to s.th.) VII to fall prostrate (<$*-j Jp) ; 
to throw o.s. down, prostrate o.s.; to 
bend, bow, lean (Jp over); to apply 
o.s. eagerly, devote o.s., dedicate o.s. 
(Jp to); to nestle (Jp against); to be 



reverted, be inverted, be overturned, 
be upset, be toppled, get knocked over; 
to be poured away | 4~.jlS Jp ^S3\ (qada< 
maihi) to throw o.s. at s.o.'s feet, pros- 
trate o.s. before s.o.; J*ij t-iof to do 
s.th. with great fervor, enthusiastically 

^S kabb prostration; overthrow, over- 
turn, reversal ; bending, tilting, incli- 
nation 

IS kubba pi. ^S kubab ball ; clew, hank; 
ball of thread, hank of yarn; {leb.-syr., »>., 
eg.) a kind of meatballs made of bulgur, 
onions, minced meat and pinons, also 
baked in flat loaves ; (eg.) bubo, plague boil 

<->lS" kabdb fried or broiled meat; 
cabobs, meat roasted in small pieces on 
a skewer; a kind of meatballs made of 
finely chopped meat {syr., eg.) | J^ <^\S 
{sini; eg.) cubeb (Piper cubeba Tr.; hot.) 



4jL5" kabdba, 
cubeba; bot.) 



kubdba cubeb (Piper 



JT {eg.) kubeba a kind of 



meatballs, hamburgers | ^^LlJaj <^ r jk r S 
{eg.) baked potato dough stuffed with 
minced meat, meat patties 

IAS kubbdya pi. -at drinking glaas, 
tumbler 

^Si* mikabb pi, -at, ujISv* makdbb 2 ball 
of thread, hank of yarn; reel of thread, 
bobbin, spool, reel 

i*SC mikabba pi. -at plaited straw lid 
for protecting foods 

<_jL5"1 ikbab devotion, dedication (Jp 
to s.th.); occupation (Jp with), pursuit 
(J* of) 

v->L£ll inkibdb devotion, dedication 
(Jp to s.th.); occupation (Jp with), pur- 
suit ( Jp of) 

i_^$C mukibb devoted, dedicated, ad- 



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947 



J 



dieted, given over ( Jp to), intent ( Jp on), 
wholeheartedly engaged ( Jp in) 

t_*S^L« munkabb devoted, dedicated, 
addicted, given over (Jp to), intent 
(Jp on), wholeheartedly engaged (Jp in) 

*ij\S (Fr. cabaret) kabdreh pi. -at cabaret 

l cS kabata i (kabt) to put down, crush, 
stifle, subdue, restrain, curb (a s.th.); to 
repress, suppress (a s.th., also a desire 
or feeling), exclude from consciousness 
(psych.) | tij*. J 4*~p c*£ (gaizahu fi jau= 
fiht) to suppress one's anger; <u-Ujl c*S 
(anfdsahu) to throttle, strangle s.o., (also 
fig.) to finish s.o. off, kill s.o. 

C^S kabt suppression, repression (also 
psych.) | ^-U-i *i«£ll (jinsi) sexual in- 
hibition 

CjjSL* makbut stifled, subdued, quelled ; 
frustrated; suppressed, repressed (also 
psych.) 

% CjjS (Fr. capote) kabbut pi. C-ajLT kabdblt 2 
hood, cowl; {syr.) overcoat; hooded 
mantle; top of a carriage or automobile 

iJj^T kabtvla lump, chunk; ball; pellet 
Jx-SC* mukabtal round 

i>\f (Engl.) kdbtan captain (military rank) 

£jT kabaha a (kabh) to rein in (a a horse); 
to check, curb, control (a s.th.); to 
hamper, hinder, prevent, detain, restrain, 
hold back (jp » s.o. from) | 4*-U; ^f 
[jimahahu) to curb s.o.'s defiance, repress 
s.o. or s.th. 

£*T kabh curbing, checking, subdual, 
restraint, control; suppression, repres- 
sion; hindering, prevention 

t^X* mikbah brake (of an automo- 
bile) 



1 -lS" kabada u i (kabd) to affect severely, 
afflict gravely, wear out, wear down 
(a s.o.; of pain, losses, etc.) II to cause 
(a o to s.o. s.th., esp. losses), inflict (a » 
upon s.o. s.th., esp. losses); to culminate, 
pass through the meridian (star) ; to 
reach its climax III to bear, suffer, 
endure, undergo, sustain, stand (a s.th.) 
V to bear, suffer, endure, undergo, 
sustain, stand (a losses, hardships, etc.); 
to have to take upon o.s. (a s.th.), be 
exposed (a to); to bear, defray (a costs); 
to take up the center, step into the 
middle (a of a place); to be in the zenith, 
culminate 

jl5" kabid, kabd, kibd m. and f., pi. $\S\ 
akbad, ijS kubud liver; interior, heart; 
middle, center; — kabid, kabad center 
of the sky, zenith 

-iLS" kubdd liver ailment 

■>L5" kabbdd, kubbdd name of several 
citrus plants (Citrus medica Risso, 
Citrus Bignradia Duh., also Zollikoferia 
spinosa B. ; eg.); kabbdd (syr.) citron 
(Citrus medica) 

**j£ kabbud pi. j*j\S kabdbid 2 {eg., cf. 2 CjjS) 
top of a carriage or automobile; condom 
(contraceptive) 

1 ^\5~ kabara u (kabr) to exceed in age (<-> * 
s.o. by), be older (a than s.o., i_j so-and-so 
much); — kabura u (kubr, kibar, SjL5* 
kabara) to be or become great, big, 
large; to grow, increase, augment, 
become greater, bigger or larger; to 
become famous, gain significance, be- 
come important; to become too great, too 
big, too large (jp for s.th.); to disdain 
(jp s.th.); to become too oppressive, too 
painful, too distressing, too burdensome; 
to appear intolerable (Jc to s.o.); to 
become too difficult, too hard (Jp for 
s.o.), appear insurmountable (Jp to 



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s.o.) | ui djS" {najsuhv) he felt em- 
boldened, he was, or became, proud and 
courageous II to make great(er), big(ger), 
large(r), enlarge, magnify, enhance, ag- 
grandize (a s.th.); to extend, expand, 
widen, amplify (a s.th.); to increase, 
augment (a s.th.); to intensify (* s.th.); 
to exaggerate, play up (a s.th.); to 
aggravate, make worse (a s.th.); to 
praise, laud, extol, exalt, glorify, celebrate 
(« s.o., a s.th.); to exclaim allahu akbar 
III to treat haughtily, with disdain, with 
contempt {» s.o.); to seek to excel, try- 
to surpass, strive to outdo (o S.O.); 
to contend, vie, strive, contest (s with 
s.o.); to oppose, resist, contradict (* 
s.o.); to renege, renounce (a s.th.), 
offend (a against), act contrary (a to); 
to stickle, insist stubbornly on one's 
opinion IV to consider great, deem 
significant, regard as formidable (a 
s.th.); to praise, laud, extol (a s.o.); 
to show respect (* to s.o.), be deferen- 
tial {t> toward s.o.); to admire (a s.th.) | 
(«jU j* or) **li jS~\ (Sanahu) to extol 
s.o. V and VI to be proud or haughty, give 
o.s. airs, swagger; to be overweening, 
overbearing (J* toward s.o.) X to deem 
great or important (a s.th.); to be proud, 
haughty, display arrogance (J* toward 
s.o.) 

jS~ kibr bigness, largeness, magnitude; 
greatness, eminence, grandeur; signif- 
icance, importance; standing, prestige; 
nobility; pride, haughtiness, presump- 
tion, arrogance 

jS" kitbr greatness, eminence, grandeur ; 
bigness, largeness, magnitude; size, bulk, 
extent, expanse ;■ power, might; glory, 
fame, renown, standing, prestige; nobili- 
ty; main part, bulk 

j&* kibar bigness, largeness, magnitude; 
greatness, eminence, grandeur; old age 

IjS" kabra old age 



jS kabir pi. j\S kibar, *\jS~ kubarS 1 
great, big, large, sizable; bulky, volumi- 
nous, spacious; extensive, comprehensive; 
significant, considerable, formidable, huge, 
vast, enormous; powerful, influential, 
distinguished, eminent; important; old; 
(with foil, genit.) head, chief (in com- 
pounds) ; pi. jUSOl adults | »LUV jSk. d- 
atibba' head physician; *j£.\ IjSk. al-Jca'* 
dam female head of the household staff; 
USL-V' jjf k. al-asdqifa archbishop; jS 
t j-JI k. as-sinn old; SLaUI jjf k. al-qudah 
chief justice, chief magistrate; jS y\ 
(abu) asafetida, devil's dung (pharm.); 
ijS'j ojJt^> Jf every single detail; JS 
i^L^l k. ad-dubbat senior officers; j\S 
,>ilyll k. al-muwazzafin senior officials; 
olJL^Jl jL5" k. al-hai'&t the leading per- 
sonalities of public corporations 

*_^S kabira pi. -at, J\S kabair 2 , j£ 
kubur great sin, grave offense, atrocious 
crime 

j\S kubar, kubbdr very great, very big, 
huge 

»U jS~ kibriyd' 2 grandeur, glory, magnif- 
icence, majesty; pride, haughtiness, 
presumption, arrogance 

j$"\ akbar 2 pi. -un, j If 1 akdbir 2 , f. ^jf 
kubra, pi. oL jS kubraydt greater, bigger, 
larger; older; senior-ranking | li* j£\ 
(sinnan) older, more advanced in years; 
_/\fVi o^s JUJI Mr. So-and-so, Senior; 
,jjS^\ (JjAJl (dutoal) the Big Powers; 
.^fV' J^til (mufti) the grand mufti; 
p^ill ylTl a. al-qaum the leaders of the 
people; jLpV'j ./If VI the grandees and 
notables; oUj^SOlj j^)ll\ seniors (male 
and female), adult age class (sport; Tun t ); 
./If I {/\ ibn a., f. yjf I c^j bint a. s.o. 
from a respected family 

j^Sj takblr enlargement, increase, 
augmentation, magnification; enhance- 
ment, aggrandizement; intensification, 



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amplification; exaggeration; augmenta- 
tive (gram.); praise, laudation, extolment, 
exaltation, glorification; the exclamation 
j6~\ 41 1 aUdhu akbar 

»jj&+ mukdbara haughtiness, super- 
ciliousness, overweening, overbearing- 
ness; self-importance, pomposity; stub- 
bornness, obstinacy, self-will 

j\S\ ikbdr admiration; deference, re- 
spect, regard, esteem 

j&L~i takabbur and y# l& takdbur pride, 
haughtiness, presumption, arrogance 

j&.* mukabbir pi, at Q ampHfier (el.) \ 
£jj^o)\ jS^ m. as-saut or <Jj~a j&~* (sautl) 
loudspeaker (radio); megaphone; SjUil 
»j^SC (nazzdra) magnifying glass 

»j£L» mukabbira pi. -at magnifying glass 

jvC mukabbar enlarged, magnified | 
IjSL* *jj^ [sura) enlargement, blowup 
(phot); IjSl* tjj~*> increasingly, on a 
larger scale, to an increasing degree 

j-KC* mukabir presumptuous, arrogant, 
supercilious, haughty, overweening; 
quarrelsome, contentious, cantankerous; 
self-willed, obstinate, stubborn; stickler 

j^i* mutakabbir proud, imperious, high- 
handed, haughty, supercilious, over- 
weening 

*jf kabar capers; caper shrub 

^jLfand bj^-Tlook up alphabetically 

Ojf kabrata to coat with sulfur (* s.th.) ; to 
sulfurize, sulfurate {* s.th.); to vulcanize 
(* s.th.) 

Cjjf kibrit sulfur; matches | i^j^j^ 
r vdk. a match; oU C-ijS^ k. aman safety 
matches 

~^ijf kibrita match, matchstick 



^ijS" kibrltl sulfureous, sulfurate, sul- 
furous, sulfuric | ^jS" *[*• (hammdm) 
sulfur bath; ^uf 9-^Ju (yanbu e ) sulfur 
spring 

dhjjS' kibritdt sulfate (chem.) 

XjjjS^ kibritid sulfide (chem.) 

dLlljS' ^f-xtU- hdmid kibrltlk sulfuric 
acid (chem.) 

<£ jS~ hubrl or ^j J? (from Turk, kopril) pi. 
(jjiS kabdri bridge; deck 

^j-S kabasa i (kabs) to exert pressure ( Jp on), 
press {Jp s.th. or on s.th.), squeeze 
(J* s.th.); (eg.) to cram, stuff (* s.th., 
*_; with); to attack, raid, enter by sur- 
prise (a a place), make a raid (a on, 
e.g., cjuJI on a house; of police); to inter- 
calate (rjtJ ^— Jl as-sanata bi-yaumin a 
day in a leap year) ; to preserve (in vine- 
gar, or the like), pickle (» s.th.); to mari- 
nate (a s.th.); to conserve (a s.th.) II to 
press or squeeze hard (* s.th.) ; to massage 
(« s.o.) VII (eg.) to be dumbfounded, be 
thunderstruck or flabbergasted; pass, of 
kabasa 

^j-jS* kabs pressure, squeeze, pressing; 
raid; attack; preservation (esp. in vine- 
gar), pickling; intercalation (of a day; 
astron.) | ^jli: iJ ^S' (bukari) steam pres- 
sing 

!L» p kabsa (n. vie.) raid, surprise 
attack 

^Lf kabbds piston; press; ramrod | 
O a"^ <s*y (musd) penknife 

^S Icabis preserved (esp. in vinegar), 
pickled; pickled food, preserves; inter- 
calary, intercalated, interpolated | St- 
i-JuS" (sana) leap year 

(j-^jS" kdbus pi. { j r y)jf kawdbis* night- 
mare, incubus; terrible vision, phantom, 
bugbear 



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^^SL mikbas pi. < _ j -~j tSC makdbis 2 or 
^LSL. mikbas pi. ^^jjISC. makdbis 2 press; 
piston (of a pump) ; ramrod | l jiaJiJI ^^Si* 
m.al-qutn cotton press; O oLUaA-'l ,j-^C. 
letter press, copying press; O J^ o*^-* 
(md'l) hydraulic press; O <Jj>~j o~^* 
(rahawl) rotary piston 



.Sj takbis massage 



cri- 



O *— jlT dJT ala kdbisa compressor 

^r-j-SC makbus raided, attacked; press- 
ed; preserved, pickled; CjI^JC canned 
goods, conserves 

J^-aS" (Fr. capsule) kabsul or ~<dj~S kabsula 
pi. -at capsule; percussion cap, primer, 
detonator; snap fastener | yLii <Jj-^T 
(fada'iya) space capsule 

j^T kabasa u (kabs) to take a handful (a 
of s.th.) ; to grasp with the hand, clench 
(a s.th.) 

lJ tS' hbsyA. ^LS" kibds, ^LS"! akbds 
ram, maie sheep; bellwether; chieftain, 
chief, head, leader; battering-ram; pile 
driver; rammer; (pi. J^j^ kub us) buttress, 
pier, stay, prop, support; mulberry | 
fiL*x)l J^f k. at-tasadum (pi. J^j^) 
bumper (railroad) ; JiJ^i J^jrf k, qaranful 
cloves 

XLjS~ kabsa a handfui ; grasp, grip 

XtS kabsa ladle, scoop 

XtS kubsa pi. J^f kubas hook, clamp, 
cramp, brace; clasp, brooch 

^SS kabkaba to topple, upset, capsize, over- 
turn, turn upside down, revert, invert 
(a s.th.); to spill (a s.th.) 

g£~S~ kablkaj Asiatic crowfoot (Ranunculus 
asiaticus; bot.) 

1 J^T kabula i (kabl) to put in irons, shackle, 



fetter (a s.o.); to keep waiting (» b.q. ( 
a for s.th., esp. for the payment of a 
debt) II to put in irons, shackle, fetter 
(o s.o.) Ill to keep waiting (o s.o., a foi 
s.th., esp. for the payment of a debt), 
defer, put off (j>^ ad-daina the pay- 
ment of a debt) 

JJ" kabl, kibl pi. J>^~ kubul leg iron, 
chain, shackle, fetter 

djS kabidi and J>>tf kabuli pi. JJjf 
kawdbil 2 bracket, corbel, console (arch.); 
lean-to roof, pent roof, shed roof (arch.) 

2 JjlT and JjIS" look up alphabetically 

(jvjlT pi, ^LTlook up alphabetically 

(L5") jS kabd u (kabw, hibuw) to fall forward 
(<$>-j) li-wajhihl on one's face) ; to stumble, 
trip, slip; — u to empty (a a vessel), pour 
out the contents (* of a vessel); to 
become dim (light); to become dull, 
fade, lose luster (color) ; to rise, swirl up 
(dust) IV to fail, fail to produce a spark 
(lighter) VII to fall headlong ; to stumble, 
trip, slip 

IjS kabwa (n. vie.) fall, tumble, drop; 
stumble, trip, slip, false step; dust 

i_j!T kdbin dull, dim, pale, dead, flat; 
slack, weak, decrepit; see <~> IT alphabeti- 
cally 

i^5" and -s^-S'see under c^Tand aS 

\jjjS kaburiya (eg.) crab (zool.) 

SjLT see w,r 

cS katta i (kait) to hum softly 

cS kait and OjoT kailt soft humming 

rj UT katdlog pi. -at catalogue 



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<_^T kataba u (katb, 4-^5"* kitba, ILbS" kitaba) 
to write, pen, write down, put down in 
writing, note down, inscribe, enter, 
record, book, register (a s.th.); to 
compose, draw up, indite, draft (a s.th.); 
to bequeath, make over by will (<J a 
s.th. tos.o.); to give written orders {<~>to 
do s.th.); to prescribe (J* a s.th. to 
s.o.); to foreordain, destine (J or J* a 
s.th. to s.o.; of God); pass, kutiba to be 
fated, be foreordained, be destined {J 
to s.o.) | ul <u~aj* Jp ^S~ to be firmly 
resolved to . . ., make it one's duty to . . . ; 
<Up <_j3" to write from s.o.'s dictation; 
4jIxT u^S" (kitdbahu) to draw up the 
marriage contract for s.o., marry s.o. 
(Jp to) II to make (» s.o.) write {a s.th.); 
to form or deploy in squadrons {a troops) 
III to keep up a correspondence, exchange 
letters, correspond (* with s.o.) IV to 
dictate (a » to s.o. s.th.), make (o s.o.) 
write (a s.th.) VI to write to each other, 
exchange letters, keep up a correspond- 
ence VII to subscribe VIII to write (a 
s.th.); to copy (a s.th.), make a copy 
(* of s.th.); to enter one's name; to 
subscribe (J for); to contribute, sub- 
scribe (J <_> money to); to be entered, 
be recorded, be registered X to ask 
{« s.o.) to write (a s.th.); to dictate (a a 
to s.o. s.th.), make (c s.o.) write (a s.th.): 
to have a copy made {» by s.o.) 



oUS* kitdb pi. <^f kutub piece of 
writing, record, paper; letter, note, 
message; document, deed; contract (esp. 
marriage contract); book; w»li£ll the 
Koran; the Bible | ^1^3! J*l ahl al-k. the 
people of the Book, the adherents of a 
revealed religion, the kitabis, i.e., 
Christians and Jews; r-ljjM <~>b$' h. az- 
zawaj marriage contract; J'iUaJl «— >Uj k. 
at-tdaqbill of divorce; ^^JUjv-jIiT (ta'limi) 
textbook; a^l <~>UT credentials (dipl); 
u&\ jta library 



(J ~5*" kutubi pi. -ya bookseller, book- 
dealer 

AilicU5" kitdbkana and Z\U~f kutubkdna 
library; bookstore 

^LT kuttdb pi. ^UT katdtib 2 kuttab, 
Koran school {lowest elementary school) 

^^T kutayyib pi. -at booklet 

'tjlsf kitaba (act or practice of) writing; 
art of writing, penmanship; system of 
writing, script; inscription; writing, leg- 
end; placard, poster; piece of writing, 
record, paper; secretariat ; written amulet, 
charm; pi. oblxT writings, essays; lAzf 
kitdbatan in writing | 4jU53U written; 
4_jU5" Uj-U bi-dun k. unwritten, oral; 
blank; £j UJi ^bT historiography, histor- 
ical writing; «J>d1 ajUS" k. ad-daula 
(Magr.) secretariat of state; 2uU 4jIi5 
(dmma) secretariat general; <*US3l ^\ 
ism al-k. pen name, nom de plume; 
SjLSOI <: I typewriter; SjUxII i*J lugat al-k. 
hterary language; ^USOl 3jj waraq al-k. 
writing paper 

JUT kitdbi written, in writing; clerical; 
literary; scriptural, relating to the 
revealed Scriptures (Koran, Bible); ki- 
tabi, adherent of a revealed religion; the 
written part (of an examination) | l-j^L1 
j US' (uslub) hterary style; i-ilsS" ^*^ 
(galta) slip of the pen, clerical error; 
ij US' J l> I clerical work, office work, 
desk work; jU&l J \£l\ (kamdl) literary 
perfection; ^»UT 2jJ (luga) literary lan- 
guage; u3lx$~ <-ik>* (muwazzaf) clerk, 
clerical worker (of a government office) 

XjcS" katiba pi. ^bS" katd'ib 2 squadron; 
battalion (%., %r., Jbrd.; mil.); corps; 
(##.) name of Islamic youth groups; 
(piece of) writing, record, paper, docu- 
ment; written amulet | V>LJI «ujoS k. as- 
saldm Peace Corps; lx£ l^S k. najda 
military auxiliary corps; <_-j*bS3l <-jj*- 
hizb al-k. the Phalange Party [Leb.) 



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^l^T kataibl pertaining to the Pha- 
lange Party (Leb.) j ^'l^S - * JjU Phalange 
leader (Leb.) 

^c&L* maktab pi. l-JISs^ makdtib 2 office; 
bureau; business office; study; school, 
elementary school; department, agency, 
office; desk | jL»-VI ^5C* and l_-s$C* 
*LjV1 (obs.) news agency, press agency; 
JbjJ! «_-xSL. post office; ^^^ -^-^ <~*zS^* 
(ra'm) main post office; J^Ji «_-xSC m. 
al-barq telegraph office; j _^*xJI l_*x£- 
editorial room; CjUjjLIxJI t_^Sv4 telephone 
central office; C*L _ / jU! (^j^SC m. as-safa* 
riyat (syr.) travel agency; *>w*li i_-xSC* wi. 
as-sihka board of health; ^L*>U^-V! t_-x$v. 
information office, information desk ; <^sSi» 
J*JI m.aVamal employment agency; (_-^SC 
^ (fanni) special bureau (dealing with a 
given field), team of specialists; t_-i$0 
<^-*o. (handasi) technical bureau (of a 
construction firm); <Jt~k>dl ^SL* m. at- 
tauzlf personnel office (of a company) 

^=SC maktabi office (in compounds) | 
<uf^« Jt^l office work 

Xj&I* maktaba pi. -at, <_ r JLSC makatib 2 
library; bookstore; (writing) desk; litera- 
ture | <_jL^J! <-x£. m. aS-Sabdb youth 
library; ^jyJI 4-^il Arabic literature; 
i»lp ^iSv* (dmma) public library, free 
library 

O t->b^l. miktab typewriter 

iJlSv. mukdtaba pi. -a( exchange of let- 
ters, correspondence 

L-jbiTI iktitdb enrollment, registration, 
entering (of one's name}; — (pi. -at) 
subscription ; contribution (of funds) 

cjI^So^I istiktdb dictation 

(jb^jL-*! i&tiktdbl: ILjIiScu-I HJ I dictaphone 

l-JS" kdtib writing, etc. | ^JlT 4JT type- 
writer 

Ul'C kdtib pi. -un, «^jL5" kuttdb, "^f 



fzS'l aktcC % pi. ^S~ kut e 
fingers; one-armed 



kataba writer; scribe, scrivener; secre- 
tary; clerk typist; office worker, clerical 
employee ; clerk, registrar, actuary, court 
clerk; notary; writer, author | iJjJI ^*f 
k. ad-daula (Magr.) (under)secretary of 
state; ^1 ^^ k. as-sirr private secre- 
tary; tS *~J* ^_JlT (qisast) writer, novelist; 
<*isjil »_-jK' k. al-mahkama court clerk; 
oli^JiJl t_Jir k. al-quyuddt registrar; jjj 
4-^SCJI chief secretary, head clerk 

iJtT kdtiba pi. -at woman secretary; 
authoress, writer 

«_jy^L. maktub written, written down, 
recorded; fated, foreordained, destined « 
(<J or Jp to s.o.); s.th. written, writing; 
— (pi. *_-Jui£L. makdtlb 2 ) a writing, mes- 
sage, note; letter; v^^ destiny, the 
predetermined course of events 

t^JlSv. mukdtib correspondent; (news- 
paper) reporter 

(_-IxSv« muktatib subscriber 

<; lilies' and 4JU~j6" see ^zS' 



huXUna (eg.) card game | i^il£]i jijjt 
playing cards; *jJU&3I <_-*J la e b al-h card 
playing, game of cards 



having crippled 



katafa i (Icatf) to fetter, shackle (» 
s.o., esp. by tying his hands); to tie up, 
bind (a s.th.) ; to cross, fold (* hands, arms 
behind the back or in front of the chest) 
II — katafa V and X to cross or fold one's 
arms VI to stand shoulder to shoulder; to 
support one another; to be united in 
solidarity, stand together (J* in s.th.) 

iJ^T katif, kitf f., pi. .JjUTI aJctdf, lj£ 
kitafa shoulder; shoulder blade, scapula; 
— kitf m., pi. JjUTI (eg.) buttress, pier 
(arch.); end support of a bridge | 1J& L 



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J*&\ J5j5 (tu'kalu) that's certainly not the 
way to do it ! that's no way to handle it ! 

o-lsf kitaf pi. cJ^T hutuf shackle, 
manacle, handcuff 

cJcfl aktaf 2 , f. >UxT j&ri/a* 2 , pi. ^T 
&w.f/ broad-shouldered 

o>_jx£L* maktuf: ^xjt «J>_^Sv. m. al-ya* 
dain with tied hands (also fig.); with 
folded hands; with arms crossed 

i cSsf katkat floss, silk waste 

*£j^c$' katkut pi. c^jTUT^ katdkit 2 chicken, 
chick 

^p katala u (katl) and II to agglomerate, 
conglomerate, gather into a compact 
mass, press into a lump (a s.th.) V to be 
heaped up, piled up, agglomerated, 
clustered, clotted, massed, pressed into 
a compact mass or lump ; to agglomerate, 
cluster, clot, pile up, gather in a mass ; to 
unite in a bloc or group 

aIiT* kutla pi. Ji5" kutal lump, chunk, 
clod, clot; bulk, mass; cube; block; bloc | 
vl»L— J* iisf k. muassasat cartel (econ.); 
hjJj JiT" (basarlya) crowds, throngs, 
masses; Jul; I <1^5"" kutlat al-jasad bulk 
of the body, frame; ^Laf VI ^y UxT (a'sah) 
a fearless, husky fellow; l^ji\ £US3l 
{wataniya) the National Bloc 

iSjisf kuUawl bloc (in compounds) | 
iSjkS' .JJU^ (tahaluf) bloc alliance; iJli 
djbT deputy of the bloc parties 

J^C miktal pi. JJlSC* makdtil 2 large 



J-^sS to&ftZ agglomeration 

J^Sj takattul pi. -a£ formation of blocs 
(poZ.) | J^dl i-*L- policy of blocs (pol.) 

J^cu mutakatlil clotted, lumpy, ag- 
glomerate, clustered, massed ; concen- 



trated, compact; burly, husky, stocky, 
heavily built (body) 

J3~ katama u (katm, u£5" kitmdn) to hide 
(a s.th., jg from s.o.); to conceal, secrete, 
keep secret (a s.th., ^ from s.o.); to 
suppress, repress, restrain, check, curb, 
subdue (a anger, passion); to hold (a one's 
breath); to lower, muffle (a the voice); 
to stifle, smother, quench (a fire) | IT 
<uAijl to take s.o.'s breath away, drive 
s.o. out of his senses II to hide, conceal 
(a s.th.) Ill to hide, conceal, keep, with- 
hold (a a from s.o. s.th.) V to keep silent, 
hold one's tongue, keep mum VIII — II 
X to ask (o s.o.) to keep (a a secret); 
to confide (a * to s.o. s.th.) 

J3" katm and j$~ kitmdn secrecy, 
concealment, secretion, silence; restraint, 
control, suppression (esp. of an emo- 
tion) 

czS' katim shut tight, hermetically 
sealed, impenetrable, impermeable, im- 
pervious 

py£ katiim reticent, reserved, secretive, 
uncommunicative, taciturn, discreet 

>»L=5~ kitdm (eg.) constipation 

J3sj takaitum secrecy, secretiveness, 
reticence, reserve, taciturnity, discre- 
tion 

pLsT! iktitam concealment, secretion, 
secrecy, silence 

fET katim: jJ\ ftf k. as-sirr (private) 
secretary; confidant; (eg,) stuffy, sticky, 
muggy (air, weather) 

rj&* makium hidden, concealed, kept, 
preserved (secret); (eg,) constipated 

1 t ^S" katina a (katan) to be dirty, soiled, 
smutty, blackened by soot II to smut, 
soil (a s.th.) 



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'JS katan dirt, smut, soot 

2 jUT kalian (kittdn) flax; linen 

(jlzT kattanl made of linen, linen (adj.) 

3 4^xT {It. catena) katina (watch) chain 

itS katta i a (t*S~ katat, ~4\sf katata, ~£^S 
kututa) to be thick or dense (esp. hair) 

d-iT katat thickness, density 

tS" kait and li-jiT Xv*|f| thick, dense, 
thick- grown, densely crowded 

^jS katab nearness, proximity, vicinity | 
^ ^jS Jp and ^ US' y. in the vicinity 
(or neighborhood) of, near; ^jf {^) <y 
from nearby, at a short distance 

i^S katib pi. 2jf\ aktiba, <_J5~ kutub, 
c\jS kutbdn sandhill, dune 

JS katara u {katr) to outnumber, exceed in 
number (a, « s.o., s.th.); — katura u (SjO 
kaira) to be much, many or numerous; 
to be more (jc than); to happen fre- 
quently, occur often; to increase, aug- 
ment, multiply, grow II to increase, 
augment, compound, multiply (a s.th.) 
Ill to outnumber, exceed in number (a, » 
s.o., s.th.); to vie in quantity or number 
(a, » with) IV to do much (j- in or of 
s.th.); to give much or frequently 
(j* J to s.o. of s.th.); to do constantly, 
always or frequently (j- or j s.th.); to 
increase, augment (a s.th.) | j» J&z 
AjuVI he smiles a lot; ji-JI j* jX» 
(safar) he travels a lot, is constantly on 
the road VI to be or become numerous; 
to increase (also of living beings); to 
gather, pile up (clouds); to band to- 
gether, form a gang, gang up (J* against) 
X = IV; to regard as too much, deem 
excessive, find exorbitant (a s.th.); to 
regard as too high, as too troublesome 
(a s.th.); to think not worth the trouble 



(a s.th., J* with regard to s.o.); to be- 
grudge (a J* s.o. s.th.); to demand much, 
ask for a lot | «j*a£ j&**\ (bi-kairihl) to 
thank s.o. 

jO kutr large quantity, abundance, 
plenty; multitude (of people); major 
portion, greater part 

IjS katr a large quantity, great num- 
ber, multitude, abundance, copiousness, 
numerousness, frequency, multiplicity, 
plurality; majority, major portion {^ 
of) | 3 JSL plentifully, abundantly, a lot; 
l]SS\ «-; jam* al-k. plural of multitude 
{gram.) 

j&f katir pi. -un, jbSkitar much, many, 
numerous, abundant, plentiful, copious; 
frequent; a large portion, a great deal, 
a great many, a lot; jcS^l the most part, 
most (j* of) ; \jjS katiran very, much, to 
a large extent; often, frequently | L* \jS 
katiran ma often, frequently; ji£j (after 
a comparative) far, by far; ^ j&\ % 
,y Oj^cSOI the majority of, most of; 
plenty of, a great many, a lot of; Js jS 
too much for; j£&\ • tS iJl most of it; iJU 
jiS and jtS * i J> 1JU that's too much! 
that's going too far! that's pretty strong! 
that's laying it on thick! iIjUj^I J* jS j 
and *j^* *JW-^ <3 frequently, often; fj 
_/^xJl {yarbahu) he earns a lot 

*\jc5~ katira 2 tragacanth (Astragalus 
gummifer Lab.; bot.}; gum obtained 
from tragacanth 

jS I aktar 2 more; oftener, more fre- 
quently; more numerous; longer; most; 
major portion, greater part, majority; 
^>jJS^\ the majority, most of them | 
jS\i jS\ more and more; jo\l Jc at 
most; latest; J * s $\ jS"\ aktara l-amr at 
best; tiili ,>» jS\ besides, moreover; j^Tti 
(after enumeration) etc., and a lot more; 
L. jS"\ aktara ma (with verb) for the most 
part, mostly; bLi p*JS'\ (sababan) the 



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youngest of them; ijliHl U^^S"! (intiSaran) 
the most widespread of them 

4j>T I akbariya majority | l >ii*JI <ij6'\ 
a. at-tultain two- thirds majority 

jliSC miktdr very talkative, garrulous 

j£& taktlr increase, augmentation, 
multiplication, propagation, ample pro- 
vision, abundant supply; accumulation 

jli5~l iktdr increase, augmentation, 
multiplication, propagation, ample pro- 
vision, abundant supply; raising, in- 
crease (esp. of the yield); ^ jliS^V' see IV 

j&5 takdtur growth, increase; multi- 
plication, propagation, proliferation 

jSl* muktir rich, well-to-do 

j&* mutakattir pluralistic 

j&c* mutakdtir numerous, extensive; 
manifold, multifarious, multiple | J&u 
£\ij\ m. ar-riqW patched in numerous 
places 

JcT kaiufa u (<iiiS katdfa) to be thick or 
dense; to thicken, be condensed, become 
thicker or denser II to make thick or 
dense, thicken, compress, solidify, con- 
centrate (* s.th.); to inspissate, condense 
(a s.th.); O (&L) to increase the capacity 
V and VI to grow denser, become con- 
centrated; to thicken, become viscous; 
to be condensed 

Ja^ katlf -pi. <J>\jS' kitaf thick; dense; 
compact; heavy, coarse, crude; viscous, 
sirupy (e.g., sauce) 

«UT katdfa thickness; density; heavi- 
ness; solidity, firmness; compactness, 
fullness, intensity; consistency, degree of 
density or viscosity; capacity (el.) \ 
ol£jl «iiS~&. as-mkkdn and 4J\$L* iiliT 
density of population; O Cjj^\ isliT k, 
as-$cmt sonority, sound intensity 



^JaJ:^ taktlf compression, concentration, 
solidiii cation; condensation 

tjJb-J takatuf concentration, consolida- 
tion; condensation 

<Jd5C mukattif pi. -at capacitor, con- 
denser' | j>j£L* (JaiSC. (mutagayyir) variable 
capacitor [radio) 

^JiiSC mukattaf condensed; thickened; 
massed, massive ; concentrated, intensive | 
iiiSC ^»jji intensive courses 

«Jt?lSc* mutakdtif massing, concentrat- 
ing, gathering, piling up; dense 

II takatlaka to become (a) Catholic 

a£U5s)I al-katlaka Catholicism; the Cath- 
olics 

ifJUjjl&i, &Jjt^ look U P alphabetically 

^jfS' katlrd* 2 tragacanth (Astragalus gum- 
mifer Lab.; bot.); gum obtained from 
tragacanth 

fS abbreviation of *\j>-JS (Eg. spelling) 
kilogram 

*£" kahha u to cough 
"•£• huhka cough 

cS- kahata a and II (eg.) to scrape off, 
scratch off (* s.th.) 

*&S- kahkaha to cough, cough slightly, 

hack 

*j*SS- kahkaha short, dry cough 

j£ kahala u a (kahl) and II to rub, paint or 
smear with kohl (a the edges of the eyelids) 
V and VIII to color the edges of one's 
eyelids with kohl, smear one's eyelids 
with a salve of antimony, etc.; to be 
refreshed, enlivened | »L^ cJU^Tl U 
I»jJLj i'ainahu bi-n-naum) his eyes were 



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not refreshed with slumber, he couldn't 
sleep; (Li>) Li'- J- J^Ti U {gamddan, 
gimadan, gumdan) do.; L$JL< oLf ^iJU^Tl 
(bi-janialiha) his eyes feasted on her 
beauty, were delighted at seeing her 
beauty (also *J^\ Jiy: bi-mar'd 8-8. at 
the sight of s.th.) 

j£ kuhl pi. J IX I akhdl antimony; 
kohl, a preparation of pulverized anti- 
mony used for darkening (the edges of) 
the eyelids; any preparation for coloring 
the eyelids 

Ji- kahal black coloring (of the edges) 
of the eyelids 

j£ Jeofail darkened with kohl, dyed 
black (eyelids) 

j£ htihll dark blue, navy blue 

H5- kuhla {eg.) pointing, filling or 
grouting of the joints (of a wall; masonry) 

j£l akhaP, f. *^£ kahla°~, pi. jC 
kuhl black (eye) ; j£W 1 the medial arm 
vein 

*■>&- &aA?d' (egr.) a variety of blueweed 
(Echium cericeum V.; hoi.) 

J~£ kahtl pi. Jjlf kahd'il 2 black, 
dyed black, darkened with kohl (eyelid) ; 
horse of noblest breed 

iSJi- kuhul alcohol, spirit 

JjS- kuhull alcoholic, spirituous 

JX kuhaill and u^tX kuhailan horse 
of noblest breed 

J if KAaZ antimony powder, eye powder 

Jli- kahhdl eye doctor, oculist (old 
designation) 

J>*£. mikhul and JU^SC- mikhdl kohl 
stick, pencil for darkening the eyelids 

5Lȣ. mukhula pi. J^ISC makdhil 2 kohl 



container, kohl jar; solar quadrant; 
(syr.) rifle, gun 

J-**£j ta&MI treatment of the eyes with 
kohl 

J*. IT fcoAtf pi. ^jfkawdhiP anklebone 

XX kikya and i^-iT kakiya pi. i-I^T ita 
wa&tn butler, steward 

oT fctuftfe « (fa«W) to work hard, exert o.s., 
toil, labor, slave; to fatigue, wear out, 
overwork, exhaust, weary, tire (« s.o.) 
II to chase away, drive away (« s.o.) 
VIII and X to urge, drive, rush (0 s.o.); 
to wear out, overwork, exhaust, weary, 
tire (o s.o.) 

oT kddd trouble, pains, labor, toil, 
hard work 

ij^T kadud industrious, hard-working, 
diligent 

jjoSL makdud worn out, exhausted, 
overworked 

t-aS" kadaha a (kadh) to exert o.s., work 
hard, toil, labor, slave ( j in or with s.th.) 
VIII to earn a living (aJLaJ li-'iydlihl for 
one's family) 

»• .aT &ad& exertion, toil, labor, drudgery 

£»IT MiA: ^-ilS^JI oUJJi (taio^at) 
the toiling classes 

ijjf kadura u and kadira a (kadar, »jIaT 
kaddra, *jj-&' kudura, jjjS" kudur, IjjS' 
kudra) to be turbid, roily, muddy, 
roiled (liquid); — kadira a {kadar, Sjof 
kudra) to be muddy, cloudy, blackish, 
dingy, flat, swarthy, grimy (color); 
{kadar, SjjoT kudura) to be dreary, un- 
happy (life); to be angry (J* with s.o.) 
II to render turbid, to roil, muddy 
(* s.th.), trouble, disturb, spoil, ruffle 
(a s.th., J* for s.o., e.g., s.o.'s peace of 



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957 



,jtr 



mind); to grieve, worry, trouble, vex, 
irritate, annoy, molest, disturb, distress 
(« s.o.) V to be turbid, roily, muddy, 
roiled, troubled; to be angry, be sore 
(j* at s.th.), feel offended, be annoyed, 
be displeased (^ by s.th.), be peeved 
(j* at, about) VII to become turbid, 
muddy, dull, flat; to swoop down (bird) 

jjf kadar turbidity, muddiness, cloud- 
iness, opaqueness, roiledness; worry, 
sorrow, grief, distress, vexation, ir- 
ritation, annoyance 

ijjT kudra turbidity, muddiness, cloud- 
iness, roiledness, impurity; dingy color, 
dinginess 

ijjf kadara clod of dirt, filth 

joT kadir and j jtf** kadir turbid, 
muddy, roily, roiled; dull, flat, dingy, 
grimy (color) ; worried, troubled, disturbed 

jjf\ akdar 2 , f. »l>if kadrd' 2 , pi. j^T 
kudr dingy, swarthy, dark- colored 

j m J& iakdlr roiling, troubling, ruffling; 
offending, offense, affront, indignity 

jaScu mutakaddir angry, sore, peeved 
(,> at), annoyed, irritated, offended 

(a- ^) 

'jjlf look up alphabetically 

% j&\ look up alphabetically 

tf&fadasa i (kads) and II to pile up, heap 
up, accumulate, amass (a s.th.) II to 
cram together, press together (* s.th.); 
to store, accumulate (* energy; phys., 
techn.) V to be heaped up, be piled up; 
to pile up, accumulate (intr.) ; to press 
together, get crammed up 

S& htds pi. ^-IjTI akdds heap, pile; 
stack (of grain, hay, etc.) 



^l-tf" kuddas pi. jj-j.sljtf' kadadls 2 heap, 
pile; stack (of grain, hay, etc.) 

4*-|jtf" kudasa heap, pile, stack 

^j-jjlSo takdis accumulation; stacking 

jjioS' kadasa i (kads) to gain, earn 

jboT kadU pi. ^SaT kuds cart horse, 
nag, jade; (%r.) a worn-out, useless mule, 
hence fig., a jackass, a blockhead 

rj6~ kadama u i (kadm) to bite (with the 
front teeth) ; to bruise, contuse 

iuuS" kadma pi. kadamat bite; wound 
caused by a bite; bruise, contusion 

t^Jif kadd i (kady) to give little, skimp, 
stint II to beg IV = I 

aj J$~ kudya begging, mendicity 

(AT, *£JUJLTsee under ii ka 

t^-iT kadaba i (Hib, kadib, ZJS' kadba, kidba) 
to lie; to deceive, delude, mislead; to 
tell (* or J* s.o.) a lie, to lie (» or J* to 
s.o.) II to accuse of lying, call a liar 
(t> s.o.), disbelieve s.o., give the he to s.o. 
(*); to disprove, refute, disown, deny 
(t-> or* s.th.) | J*i ul ^jf U he did not 
hesitate to do so IV to cause (o s.o.) to He; 
to call a liar, prove a liar (e s.o.), give 
the lie (« to s.o.) 

^JS" kidb, Jcadib and ajJS' kadba, 
kidba lie; deceit, falsehood, untruth j 
Jj j I ijJir April fool's joke 

cjjJtf" kadub liar 

i_jl if* kadddb liar, swindler; lying, un- 
truthful; false, deceitful 

ijjJ5**l ukduba pi. i^jitTl akddib 2 lie 

^JlTI akdab 2 a greater liar, more 
mendacious, more untruthful, falser | 



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^ i^JiS'l (musailimata) a greater 
liar than Musailima (proverbially of a liar) 

»_~j-L£j takdib denial 

i^olT kddib liar; lying, untruthful; 
false, deceptive, fallacious, delusive, 
specious, sham, make-believe | 1—0S" J* I 
(amal) fallacious hope; <_jjtT '9ph (baldg) 
slander, defamation (fur.) 

u->jaS^. makdub false, untrue, fabricated, 
trumped up 

<liliT see ii Jca 



1 S J S^ ^jTand i^see 2 j^T 

y fcarra « (karr, jjjf kurur, jl^SJ talcrdr) 
to turn around and attack (Jp s.o., 
s.th.); to return, come back, recur; to 
withdraw, retreat, fall back; to attack 
(Jp s.o.), bear down {J* upon); — a 
(j J? karir) to rattle in the throat II to 
repeat, reiterate, do again, do repeatedly 
(a s.th.); to pose over and over again 
(a a question, J* to s.o.), ask (J* s.o.) 
repeatedly (a a question); to clarify, 
filter (a s.th.); to rectify, purify {a s.th.); 
to refine (a sugar, etc.) V to be repeated, 
be reiterated, recur; to be rectified, be 
purified, be refined 

jf karr attack, charge | jJJ\j J&\ (farr) 
attack and retreat (in battle) ; jj jf j« 
alternately, intermittently, by fits and 
starts, by jerks; j^ajJS^Jp and ^p Jp 
j*jJI [k. z-zaman) in the course of time 

Zjf karra attack; return, comeback, 
recurrence; — (pi. -at) one time (= 1j*); 
a hundred thousand; karratan once; 
sometirres, at times; at a time | <_£^l ajf 
karratan ukrd a second time, once more; 
lj>" Xu l_£ repeatedly, time and again 

jlj5" look up alphabetically 



jjjf kurur return, comeback, re- 
currence; succession, sequence, order 

j _f karir rattle in the throat 

4ij\j? kurrdriya pi. -at (eg.) spool, 
bobbin, reel 

jSi, makarr pi. -at reel 

j ^3 takrir repetition, reiteration; 
clarification, rectification, purification, 
refinement; refining | ^SCJI jj& j^ 
ma'mal t. as-sukkar sugar refinery 

jl^^j takrdr repetition, reiteration; 
frequency (of occurrence, also matk)\ 
IjI^SCj takrdran repeatedly, frequently, 
quite often | Ijl^&j \j\j* (miraran) re- 
peatedly, time and again 

^jl^S^J takrdri frequency (in com- 
pounds) 

jj^, mukarrar repeated, reiterated; 
following twice (number), bis (after a 
number); a multiple; rectified, purified, 
refined | j^SC ^** (sukkar) refined sugar; 
jji» rv 4* page 37b 

j^^So, mutakarrir recurring, recurrent, 
reiterated, reiterative; repeated, frequent 

^ \£ karatM Karachi (seaport in Pakistan} 

^\ji garni pi. -at garage (Syr. spelling) 

jljT kardr pi. -at pantry, storeroom; cellar 

4ii!^~ kardfatta, kravatta pi. -at necktie, 
cravat 

U^Tl^5" kardkofiyd Cracow (city in S Poland) 

J^l^ (Fr. caramel) kardmel caramel candy 

1 _-ju I^SOi j£ bahr al-karayib the Caribbean Sea 

X <~>J? karaba u (karb) to oppress, distress, 
grieve, worry, trouble, fill with concern 



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(e s.o.); to overburden (a a beast of 
burden) IV to hurry, hasten, rush 
VII and VIII to be worried, grieved, 
troubled, distressed, anxious, apprehen- 
sive, feel concern, be afraid 

^jf karb pi. ^jj' kurvh worry, 
sorrow, care, grief; apprehension, con- 
cern, anxiety, fear; distress, trouble; 
pain, torment, torture, agony 

Aijf kurba pi. ^Ji" kurab worry, 
sorrow, care, grief; apprehension, con- 
cern, anxiety, fear; distress, trouble; 
pain, torment, torture, agony 

<->j^i, makrub sad, worried, grieved, 
sorrowful, distressed; apprehensive, anx- 
ious, alarmed, fearful, troubled, scared, 
confused; see alphabetically 

<~»js* mukarrib pi. -un designation of 
the priest-king in ancient Saba 

i_jj^SC muktarib sad, worried, grieved, 
sorrowful, distressed; apprehensive, anx- 
ious, alarmed, fearful, troubled, scared, 
confused 

l ^jJ? kirebb crepe | j*~i* V^ ^* diiln and 
jy (-j^T k. sin crepe de Chine 

\jf karub and <Jjjf karubl pi. ~un, ^jjjS*"' 
kdrubim cherub, archangel 

Aijf kurba j, kirbdj pi. <7*^)jf karabij 2 whip, 
lash, riding whip, kurbash 

^jf kirbds pi. ^j^Ajf kardbis 2 a white 
cotton fabric 

pjl^see T-bjS'and JU-^^T alphabetically 

jyI/jS* (Fr.) karbirater {eg.) carburetor 

JbjT kirbdl pi. J-j \J> kardbll 2 teasing bow (for 
combing or carding cotton); coarse sieve 



SL^SCll JL$»~ jahaz al-karbala sieve, mesh, 
sifting installation 

»*^jjf karbald* 2 Karbala (holy city of the 
Shiitcs in central Iraq) 

Ijjikwrbana to carbonize (a s.th.) 

ljj>^> mukarbin carburetor (techn.) 

*>rj>£ karbuja pi. 7&)£ karabij* {syr.) a 
sort of small, hard, plum-shaped pastry; 
^-U- ^j? k. halab {syr.) round balls of 
sweet semolina dough stuffed with crushed 
almonds 

OjtJ? (Fr. carbon) karbon coal | OjiJ? 3jj 
waraq k. carbon paper 

x Cj\^ kurrdt {eg.) = *L>\jS~ 

2 0^"1 akrat 2 curly, kinky (hair) 

1 t y J $~ kartana to put under quarantine, to 
quarantine (J* s.o.) II takartana to be 
put under quarantine, be quarantined 

2 byJ~ karton pi. ^j\jS~ kardtin 2 cardboard, 
pasteboard; (pi. -at) carton; — kartun 
see OjjjIT 

Cj^ karata u i (kart) to oppress, depress, 
distress, worry, trouble (a s.o.); to 
concern, affect, move (» s.o.) IV do. 
VIII to care (J for), heed, bear in mind 
(J s.th.), pay attention (J to), take an 
interest (J in) 

<t*j.jf karit oppressed, depressed, dis- 
tressed, anguished, worried, troubled, 
vexed, annoyed 

iti\jf karrdt, kurrdt leek (Allium por- 
rum L. ; bot.) 

CjIj^T! iktirdt attention, care, heed, 
notice, concern, interest | d>lj*5*Vl iii 
qittat al-ikt. indifference 



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ljjIS kdrit oppressive, depressing, 
grievous, painful 

4jjd karita pi. Cjj\^ kawarit? disaster, 
catastrophe | jlL-Vl ajjS"" &. al-amtdr 
natural catastrophe, torrential rains 

&J$l> muhtarit attentive, interested | 
<L>jSL» j\p indifferent, disinterested 

^^i al-kurj the Georgians 

^-jTkurjl Georgian (adj. and n.) 

^yS' kirh pi. f-\jf\ akrdh monk's cell 

tJ^jS' karakdna pi. -af, t>^i^T kardkin 2 
workshop, factory; (eg.) brothel 

fj^^-jS" karkdnjl artisan, craftsman 

.s^JI al-kurd the Kurds | jj^SOI ^ Kurdistan 

^jf kurdl Kurdish; (pi. jl^Tl cd™?) 
Kurd | iljTVI j-r jabal al-a. the Kurdish 
mountains, Kurdistan 

ub^S" kirddn pi. ^il^ fcararfm 2 necklace 

^r-vp kardasa to heap up, pile up (a s.th.); 
to crowd together, (Tarn together (*, « s.o., 
s.th.) II takardasa to be heaped up, be pil- 
ed up; to flock together, crowd together 

iWjTsee jUjijlT 

<jj-^ (Fr. cordon) kordon pi. -a£ cordon; 
ribbon, braid, lace, trimming | *e OjijS 
[sihhi) sanitary cordon 

iJjT fcaraza i (j^^T iwwz) to hide, seek 
refuge (Jl with) 

2 jjT karaza (karz) to preach, spread (J^VL 
bi-l-injll the Gospel) 

jjf karz and lj\jf karaza sermon, 
preaching of the Gospel | ~<~JjL\ Sjl^l 
(mcquslya) the missionary province of 



St. Mark, the jurisdiction of the Coptic 
Patriarchate 

>jSv" takriz pi. >jISvj takdrlz 2 consecra- 
tion, benediction (Chr.) 

j j 5* Hra preacher 

s jjT fcaraz (coll.; n. un. 5) cherry; cherries 

SJ^ karaza pi. -a* cherry; cherry tree 

fSJjfkarazi cherry -red 

jj> kuraiz (eg,; coll. n. un. S) cherry; 
cherries 

*j£hwraiza pi. -at (eg.) a cherry 

1 o^J' u to ^y the foundation (* of a build- 
ing); to establish, confirm (* e.g., s.o.'s 
fame or reputation) V to stick together, 
cohere 

^J" kursl pi. ^\jf karasiy, ^\f 
kardsin chair; throne, see; seat; pro- 
fessorial chair; base, pedestal, socle; 
bearing (techn.) | J^ ^J' k. Ml and 
d* iS'J' {bilfo) ball bearing; _/b ^jf re- 
volving stool, swivel chair; dj»>J\ ^j&l 
(rasuli) the Apostolic See ; Jj J^&f chaise 
longue; deck chair; dliil ^^ k. l-malik 
royal throne; iSCJLJLt ^f k. l-mamhh 
capital, metropolis; O 2UJI ^J" k. an. 
najah ejection seat (of a pilot); jlj* ^ 
(hazzdz) rocking chair; 2>$Ji ^J'k. a/- 
hamza "chair" of hamza, one of the 3 
Arabic letters on which the sign * can be 
placed (gram,); ^f ibul ^^ k. full 
professor, see also Jb:-l 

Ul^T kurrdsa pi. -aZ, ^ jl^T kardm* 
quire; booklet; notebook, copy book; 
sketchbook; brochure; installment, fas- 
cicle (of a book) 

2 o-_/~ n to consecrate, dedicate, inaugurate, 
open ceremonially (* s.th.; Chr.); to hal- 



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low, sanctify (a e.g., principles); to dedi- 
cate, devote (J a s.th. to s.o.) 

(j-jjSCj takrU consecration; dedication; 
ceremonial inauguration (Chr.); devot- 
ing, dedication 

ij'Jyi' mukarras consecrated; dedicat- 
ed | ^jSi> >L holy water (Chr.) 

{j*>jf kursu' pi. £--'_/" kardsV 2 carpal end 
of the ulna, carpal bone, wristbone 

Ju-^ karsafa to hamstring, hock (* an 
animal) 

OjS* kirsinna, kirsanna a variety of vetch 
{hot.) 

(jijT karisa a (karaS) to be wrinkled, shrivel- 
ed, crumpled, crinkled, puckered; to 
shrivel, form wrinkles, be drawn into 
wrinkles II to wrinkle one's face, knit 
one's brows, frown V — kari§a; to be or 
become pot-bellied, paunchy ; to stick out, 
protrude (paunch) 

^ijS" kirs, karU f., pi. ^IjS"! akras, 
jijjT kuruS stomach (primarily of ru- 
minants = craw); paunch; belly 

iijf kirSa and pi. J>i£ kuruS (eg.) 
tripe (as a dish) 

~i±tjf kuresa, kiresa (eg.) crepe (fabric) | 
iZiJ 1 3jj (waraq) crepe paper 

J>J'\ akras 1 and ^jS^* mukris pot- 
bellied, paunchy 

^j£=* mutakarriS paunchy (person); 
protuberant, protruding (paunch) 

JjijT karsunl Karshuni, Arabic written in 
Syriac characters 



ItfjT look up alphabetically; 
ibid. 



W, Jul/ 



9^5*" kara f a and kari'a a (kar c , ?j^ kuru") 
to sip V to wash one's feet, perform the 
partial ablution of the legs (in prepara- 
tion for prayer); to belch, burp, eruct 

"Ujf kar'a (n.vic.) sipping, sip, swallow 

f\jf kurd r m. and f., pi. 9jf\ akru% 
9-jlTI akari' 2 foot, trotter (esp. of sheep 
or oxen); leg; extremity | ^jVl fytfl a. 
al-ard the remotest areas of the earth 

iu^j takrl'a belching, eructation 

9J6 kar% pi. Pjlj5" kawari" 2 foot, 
trotter; ankle, anklebone; pi. (e^.) dish 
prepared of sheep's trotters 

,j~ijf karajs celery (Apium graveolens L. ; 
hot.) 

U S^ kurk (syr.) fur 

2 45^T karaka distilling apparatus, distilling 
flask, retort 

a Sjf kvrkl pi. JfljT karakiy crane (200?.) | 
iSj^ll tfJL- samak al-k. and J" 1^1 liic - 
pike (soo^.) 

^i^S" karrdka pi. -af dredging machine, 
dredge; penitentiary 

5 t iL_ ; 5' iook up alphabetically 

t^i^T karkaha (eg.) to throw into disorder, 
upset, confuse, disturb (a s.th.); to make 
a noise 

*Sj? karkaha disorder, confusion, 
muddle, jumble 

uj6^5" karkaddan, karkadann rhinoceros | 
^j£ ojS'jS' (bahri) narwhal (zool.) 

jf^karkara (Ijf^ karkara) to rumble (e.g., 
stomach); to make a bubbling sound 



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(narghile), gurgle (liquid) | <j j?j> 
dL^ai\ (dahfc) to guffaw, laugh boisterously 

t^^f karkara rumbling noise; bubbling 
sound; prolonged boisterous laughter, 
horselaugh 

fjf kurkum (bot.) turmeric (Curcuma longa 
L. ; plant and rootstock); curcumin 

JuT/' karkand spinel ruby (gem) ; (eg.) lobster 
(zool.) 

jjfjf karakuz shadow play 

4jT£" Jcarkuk 2 Kirkuk (town in N Iraq) 

ojfjf karakon {eg.) police station 

ifjf karuma u (karam, i*jT karama, l*\^" 
kardma) to be noble, high-minded, 
noblehearted, magnanimous, generous, 
liberal, munificent; to be precious 
II to call noble and high-minded (» s.o.); 
to honor, revere, venerate, treat with 
deference (« s.o.); to exalt (J* * s.o. above 
another), bestow honor (J* o upon s.o. 
before others) | <^j <iil rj>* (wajhahu) 
may God honor him! Ill to vie in gen- 
erosity (» s.o.); to meet reverentially, 
with deference, politely (* s.o.) IV to 
call noble and high-minded (• s.o.); 
to honor (« s.o.); to treat reverentially, 
with deference, politely, hospitably (o 
s.o.), bestow honors {» upon s.o.); to 
prove o.s. to be high- minded and gen- 
erous; to honor, present (l_j a s.o. with), 
confer (^ & upon s.o. s.th.) V to feign 
generosity; to show one's generous side; 
to be noble; to be friendly, kind, kindly; 
to be -*o kind, have the kindness (u to do 
s.th., Jp with regard to or in behalf of 
s.o.) ; to present (^ Jp s.o. with), gracious- 
ly bestow (t-» Jp upon s.o. s.th.) 

s-jf harm (coll.) pi. ?j_f kurum vine, 



grapes, grapevines; vineyard; garden, 
orchard | f^$3l cJj bint al-k. wine 

1.^5* karma grapevine, vine 

AjS* karam noble nature; high-minded- 
ness, noble-mindedness, noblehearted- 
ness, generosity, magnanimity; kindness, 
friendliness, amicability; liberality, munif- 
icence; Ltjf karaman most kindly, 
obligingly, out of kindness | JhU-^1 *f 
noble-mindedness, noble character; *jC 
JcJ^\ k. al-mahtid noble descent 

ijJJ i*^f kurmatan laka and dil UL^f 
kurmanan laka for your sake, as a favor 
to you, in your honor 

<.\JS* kardma nobility; high-minded- 
ness, noble-heartedness; generosity, 
magnanimity; liberality, munificence; 
honor, dignity; respect, esteem, stand- 
ing, prestige; mark of honor, token of 
esteem, favor; (pi. -at) miracle that God 
works through a saint or allows to happen 
to him {Islamic popular belief) | <*^j U- 
till {hubban wa-karamatan) for your sake 
and in your honor ; most gladly, with the 
greatest pleasure; OLIOS'" t-^-Lo s.o. 
through whom God works a miracle or 
to whom miracles happen; sy!\ <uljf 
k. al-fard the dignity of the individual 



x* jf karlrn pi. *\*jf kurama' 2 , * I j5" kirdm 
noble; distinguished, high-ranking, emi- 
nent; high-minded, noble-minded, noble- 
hearted; generous, liberal, munificent, 
hospitable, beneficent; benefactor; kind, 
kindly, friendly, amicable, obliging, 
gracious; respectable, honorable, decent; 
precious, valuable, costly; thoroughbred; 
see also alphabetically; olx^^Ji the two 
noble things, namely Holy War and the 
pilgrimage to Mecca | j'^U-V' ^^high- 
minded, noble-minded, noblehearted, 
noble; J-^l fj> k. al-asl of noble 
descent, highborn, highbred; f jf J* 
(hayar) precious stone, gem; f jf uUa>. 



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thoroughbred horse; jr^S"J>o (dakl) a 
decent income; '** £ 4m*&> a respectable 
number (^ of); fj&\ [$j^ the gentle 
reader; ir^l j^UIl the precious metals; 
f^T olSL. j <u-?j (moto) to put s.th. 
in an appropriate, worthy place; j* j* 
AJ&\ see \f marra 

lx j? karima pi. f\jf karaim 2 precious 
thing, object of value, valuable; vital 
part (of the body; esp. eye); daughter; 
see also alphabetically; olxr J&\ the two 
eyes | (Jlj-Vl) Jill f\J? the most prized 



fl^T karrdm pi. ~Un winegrower, vine- 
dresser 

*£\ akram? pi. rjtTl akdri?n 2 nobler, 
more distinguished; more precious, more 
valuable; most honorable; very high- 
minded, very noblehearted, most gen- 
erous 

fjs* makram and i.^SC» makrama pi. 
fjl£* makarim 2 noble trait, excellent 
quality | (j^U-Vi rj&* noble character- 
istics, noble traits of character 

1*^* makruma pi. fjlC makarim 2 
noble deed 

f J& takrim and Su^So takrima honor- 
ing, tribute, honor (bestowed on s.o.) | 
*J le j& (takriman) in his honor 

Ajf\ ikrdm honor, respect, deference, 
tribute; hospitable reception, hospitality; 
kindness; honorarium | <d l*\jf\ (ikrdman) 
in his honor 

v'jS~' ikramiya pi. -at honorarium; 
bonus 

*Js.» mukarram honored, revered, 
venerated; venerable; ~a*J>S\ epithet of 
Mecca 

*jf jT and "<£ jf look up alphabetically 



fj^jf kartnasa (eg.) to pucker, be drawn 
into folds; to crinkle, become wrinkled, 
shrivel II takarmasa do. 

Xt^.J' karmasa fold, crease, wrinkle, 
crinkle, pucker; knitting 

1 J v r : J-^JI ahkarmal Mount Carmel (prom- 
ontory in N Palestine) 

J^T karmall Carmelite (Chr.) 
t^jf karamilla caramel (candy) 
3 Js-*L^** look up alphabetically 
^LjSOl al-Icremlin, al-kremlin the Kremlin 

«_J j* kurujib cabbage ; coleslaw 

aJ^ kurunba (n. un.) head of cab- 
bage 

l^SJjS' hurantlna pi. -at quarantine 

^6 J? look up alphabetically 

JfiiJjS' kurnaf pi. i^II^T" fcaram/ 2 palm stump 
*i\jjf kurnaf a pi. -at gunstock, rifle butt 

1 J^ J f (Engl.) krank pi. -at crank, crank shaft 

2 i*\jjT karnak a brand of Egyptian cotton 
(named after .iJj^^l, a village near Luxor) 

J^jj? and J^tSjj? (Fr, comiche) kornis pi. 
u t*j\ J $' karanis 2 cornice, ledge, molding, 
shelf; coast road, road skirting the shore- 
line | JjJI JimJ? street skirting the bank 
of the Nile (in Cairo) 

i^J* see VJ^ 

o^ kariha a (karh, kurh, h>\jT karaha, V»1j5" 
karahiya) to feel disgust (* at), be 
disgusted (a by); to detest, loathe, abhor, 
hate (* s.th.); to dislike (a s.th.); — 



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karuha u (^aI^S" karaha) to be repugnant, 
offensive, hateful, odious, detestable II to 
make s.o. (J* or e) hate s.th. (a), arouse 
aversion (a Jl or a * in s.o. to s.th.) 

IV to force, compel, coerce (J* o s.o. to) 

V to have an aversion (a to), feel disgust 
(a for), loathe, detest (a s.th.) X to have 
an aversion (a to), feel disgust (a for), 
loathe, detest (a s.th.); to force, compel, 
coerce (J* * s.o. to) 

*jf karli, kurh hatred, hate; aversion, 
antipathy, dislike, distaste; detestation, 
abhorrence, disgust, repugnance, loathing ; 
[&Jf karhan, kurhan and »^"Jp r ala hirhin, 
<o ojf J* unwillingly, reluctantly, grudg- 
ingly, forcedly; under compulsion, under 
duress 

»jf karih loathsome, repugnant, of- 
fensive 

4tj$~ karih unpleasant, disagreeable, of- 
fensive, bad, repugnant, repulsive, loath- 
some, hateful, detestable, abominable, 

ugly 

Ia\JT karaha hatred, hate; aversion, 
antipathy, dislike, distaste; abhorrence, 
detestation, disgust, repugnance, loath- 
ing; loathsomeness, odiousness 

a-j&IjS' karahiya aversion, antipathy, 
dislike, distaste, disgust, repugnance, 
loathing; incompatibility (as a reason 
of divorce); baseness, abominableness, 
reprehensibility (IsL Law) | \a\^~ J* 
unwillingly, grudgingly, forcedly 



4n^ karlha pi. <ui .5" ka 
misfortune, calamity 



Vih 2 adversity; 



ft^^Sv. makrah loathesome thing, un- 
pleasant situation 

IbjSl* makraha, makruha hatred, hate, 
detestation, abhorrence 

ojlSv. makarih 2 loathsome things; ad- 
versities, calamities 



o\jf\ ibrah compulsion, coercion, con- 
straint, force; use of force | ol^T^L by 
force 

^jT\ ikrahi compulsory, coercive, 
forced, enforced 

»_;So takarruh aversion, antipathy, dis- 
like, distaste, disgust, repugnance, loath- 
ing 

ojtT karih reluctant, grudging, un- 
willing, averse 

ejjC* makruh detested, abhorred, hated, 
hateful, odious, loathsome, disgusting, 
distasteful, disagreeable, unpleasant; rep- 
rehensible (Isl. Law); ajj^ and h^jS^ 
makruha inconvenience, discomfort, nui- 
sance, adversity; accident, mishap, mis- 
adventure 

s^SC mukrah forced, compelled 

ft^ci. mutakarrih unwilling, reluctant 

l (jJ^ and tsjf) \jf kard u (karw) and ^f 
kard i (kary) to dig (a s.th.) 

j^ karw digging, excavation 

Kjf kura pi. -at, ^j? kuran globe, sphere; 
ball | ^jJ>j^\ Ijf k. al-ard and *~J>j\ "*/ 
(ardiya) terrestrial globe, globe; *?-Jj\ Sjf 
(also:) ground shot (soccer); g\i}\ aj" 
k. at-talj snowball; aLJI I J? k. as-satta 
basketball; <~>\j$ »jS"* {Surrdb; eg.) ball 
made of a stocking stuffed with rags 
(used by children); iJjUaJI lj> k. at-tavrula 
table tennis; SyUJl S^&l volley ball; •/* 
\J>jC- see^yt; p-laJI Ijik. al-qadam foot- 
ball, soccer; <-£" \j& I S^" celestial sphere; 
*i- £j\^ k. lahm small meatballs; »lil Ijf 
water polo; oJI Zjf k. ahyad (European) 
handball; S^SOl ^Ju-aJ nisf al-k. hemi- 
sphere; (^UiJl) *\jJ-\ oljSOl (hamra\ 
baidd") red (white) blood corpuscles (bioh) 

tf^kuriy globular, ball-shaped, spher- 
ical 



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**ji kuraiya pi. -at globule; pellet; 
blood corpuscle (biol.) \ »\j«X\ ol^&l 
(»LauJl) (hamra*, baida*) the red (white) 
corpuscles (biol.) 

^jjfkuram globular, globate, globose, 
ball-shaped, ball-like, spherical; soccer 
(in compounds); pi. &\jjjf cocci, spher- 
ical bacteria (biol.) 

\j^ kuraimya globosity, sphericity, 
roundness | ^jVl \j£ k. al-ard the 
sphericity of the earth 

LJijjS' kuruwdtiya Croatia 

b\jjf karawdn and o\jj&" a variety of plover 
(Charadrius oedicnemus L.; zool.) 

t-jjjf karub and <Jjjf Jcarubl pi. -wn, *jjjf 
karubim cherub, archangel 

i-jjT (It. carozza) karosa pi. -at state carriage, 
coach 

Ajij^T (Fr. crochet) kru$eh crocheting | 
*tAj^ *j} crochet needle; ^jj* ^ 
h$l k. crochet work 

SjJ" (Fr. croquis) kroki pi. CslSjJf krokiydt 
sketch, draft, croquis 

<fj£ krokeh croquet (game) 

MJfkrom chrome, chromium 

tj*j*j£ kromosom pi. -al chromosome (biol.) 

'tjji'krdna pi. -at krona, krone, koruna, etc. 
(as a monetary unit) 

\sj_f karawyd caraway (Carum carvi L. ; 
hot.) 

^jT kariya a (karan) to sleep, be asleep, 
slumber; — kard i (kary) to dig (a e.g., 
a canal) III and IV to rent, lease, let, 



let out, farm out, hire out (a » to s.o. 
s.th.) V to sleep, be asleep, slumber 
VIII and X to rent, hire (a s.th.); to 
lease, take on lease (a s.th.), take a lease 
(a of s.th.); to hire, employ, engage (« 
s.o.), engage the labor or services (• of 
s.o.) 

<jjf karan sleep, slumber 

• \jf kircb rent, hire, hiring; lease; 
rental, hire; wages, pay; pi, Su^f akriya 
(magr.) rent money, rents 

*\jf\ ibrd? renting, rent; leasing, let- 
ting on lease, farming out 

*\j$ \ iktira renting, rent; leasing, 
taking on lease; hiring 

jlSv. mukdrin pi. -un hirer (esp. one 
of horses, donkeys, mules, etc.); donkey 
driver, muleteer 

$i* mukrin hirer, lessor; landlord 

tjjSl* mukran rented, let, hired out, let 
on lease 

jSL muktarin and J$<l~* mustakrin 
renter, tenant, lessee | jU j&* (ianiri) 
subtenant, sublessee 

2 <£j*> *i^see 2 Sounder jj? 

3 i £ J f Icarrl curry 

Cj j5" Hrit, Jujf kirid Crete 

Jb-j^T kristdl crystal, crystal glass 

*h.J~ (Span, carreta) karrlta pi. ^j\J" kardrit 2 
(tun.) cart, wagon, dray 

J^ji^T kararitl carrier, carter, drayman 

dbjT (Turk, korek) kurek pi. -at shovel 

f£ (Fr. creme, Engl, cream) krem, krim, 
m. and f., pi. -at cream | «t>UJ fj^k- <d- 



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hilaqa shaving cream; jjUl f j&1 cold 
cream (cosm.) 

*£ jT(It. crema) krema pi. krtmat (eg.) cream; 
a kind of thick sauce (served as a condi- 
ment) 

j5~ Jcazza (1st pers. perf. kazuztu) u (tj\jT 
kazdza, ajjjS' kuzuza) to become dry 
and tough, dry up, shrivel; to be with- 
ered, shriveled, shrunk; to contract, 
shrink; (eg.) to have an aversion (j-.to), 
feel disgust (^ at), have a distaste (j* 
for) ; — (kazz) to contract, shrink, narrow 
(a s.th.); pass, kuzza to have tetanus | 
4JU--I Jp j5" {eg.) to gnash one's teeth 

£ kazz pi. jT frraz dry, dried up, 
withered, desiccated; shriveled, shrunk; 
tough, inflexible, unyielding, rigid, stiff | 
If oJl j5" k. al-yadain closefisted, miserly, 
niggardly 

jjf kazaz miserliness, niggardliness 

jlj5" kuzdZy kuzzaz tetanus 

SjljS^ kazaza dryness; boringness, dull- 
ness, tediousness; stinginess, niggardli- 
ness; stiffness, rigidity 

»yjT kuzbara, kuzbura coriander (Corian- 
drum sativum L.; bot.) \ ^l*i]\ Ijjf k. at- 
ta f lab pimpernel; *\jJ*+ tj-jf (kadra) 
chervil; J>*~ai\ ojjS k. as-sakr hair- 
cap moss (Polytrichum communis L.; 
bot.) 

lijjji* (eg.) hazarona (from It. casseruola) cas- 
serole, cooking vessel 

jSjT kazkaza (syr.-leb.) to gnash one's teeth 

»_— f kasaba i (kasb) to gain, win, acquire 
(a s.th.); to earn (a s.th.); to profit, win, 
gain; to gather, acquire (a knowledge); 
to obtain, get, attain (a s.th.) | J lib* <* r ~S' 
(hivtafan) win acclaim for, be applauded 



for; J-Jb c^S U (yadahu) what he has 
earned in the hereafter by his (good and 
evil) deeds II to make or let s.o. (*) gain, 
win or obtain (a s.th.); to let s.o. {<>) share 
the profit IV to make or let s.o. (a) gain, 
win or obtain (a s.th.), secure (a » for s.o. 
s.th.) ; to impart (a * or e to s.o. or to 
s.th. s.th., also e.g., to the face a certain 
expression) | XJ> *£-\^ ^ rr S\ (mana'atan 
didda) to make immune to ... V to earn {* 
s.th.); to acquire, obtain (a s.th.); to 
gain, win (a s.th.) VIII do.; to possess, 
have, own (a s.th.); to take on (a a new 
quality, a color, a different aspect, and 
the like) 



kasb acquisition; earnings; gain, 
profit; winnings; s.th. acquired or gained, 
acquirement; acquired knowledge, learn- 
ing 

kusb and Z~S kusba oil cake 



i ^Si» maksab, maksib and SL-iL maksU 
ba pi. «_—!£. makasib 2 gain, profit 

^^Ss takdssub earning, gaining; acqui- 
sition; earnings; gain, profit 

<_jLl5"l iktisab acquisition; gaining, 
winning | OLjH jjy ^UlTi (bi-mururi 
z-zaman) prescription, usucapion, acqui- 
sition of property or rights by un- 
interrupted possession of them for a 
certain period (jur.) 

i_— -£* kdsib winner; earner, provider 

i rr ~Sl> muksib profitable, lucrative 

t_. So. mufakassib gainfully employed 

or occupied; intent on income or profit 

oL«lSC» muktasabat attainments, 
achievements 

I j\^S kusbara coriander (bot. ; = aVjT, q.v.) 
i\\zjf kusiak see dix^j" 



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jULi" hustubdn pi. ^\JLS" kasatibin 2 thimble 

■jl - - < " (Turk, kostek) kustak and ^iLL-i" 
pi. iJjLi" kasdtik 2 watch chain 

eJbX (It. costoletta) kustuleta, kustaleta 
cutlet, chop 

»lx*T kastana? chestnut; chestnut tree {hot.) 

jLJLi" kastanai maroon, chestnut- 
colored 

«**5" kasaha a (kash) to sweep; to clean, 
clean out, empty; — kasiha a (kasah) to 
be lame, have lame or crippled legs II {eg.) 
to cripple (* s.o.); to bend, twist, warp 
(a s.th.) VIII to sweep away (a s.th.); 
to wash away, flush out. remove (a s.th.) ; 
to overrun {a s.th.); to flood, overflow 
(a s.th.), spread, fan out (a over s.th.}; 
to plunder, pillage, sack (a a captured 
town); to snatch up, seize (a s.th.), take 
hold (a of) 

«-jT kash sweeping; cleaning; clearing; 
emptying (e.g., of a latrine); lameness, 
weakness in the legs 

JlS hisah rachitis, rickets {med.) 

drf-U-T kusaha sweepings; refuse, gar- 
bage, rubbish, trash 

^S kasih lame, palsied, paralyzed; 
having crippled legs; rickety 

r~f\ aksah % lame, palsied, paralyzed; 
having crippled legs 

l>^Ji* miksaha broom 

^LlTl iktisah a sweeping away, sweep; 
removal, elimination; flooding, over- 
flowing, submersion, inundation; rape, 
seizure, usurpation 

**-lT kasih sweeping everything away 
(hurricane) | ItflT f ljA crushing defeats 



i^S" kasiha: fUJV' 4^K~ k. al-algam 
minesweeper; r^lill "<£v snowplow 

*.*»&• mukassah crippled; paralyzed; 
having lame or crippled legs; cripple; 
lame person 

juT kasada and kasuda u (-sl—T kasad y *j«S 
kusud) to find no market, not to move, 
sell badiy (merchandise); to be stagnant, 
dull, listless (business, market) IV to be 
dull, listless (market) 

sLS kasad unsalableness of merchan- 
dise; economic depression, dullness of the 
market, stagnation of commerce, re- 
cession; slump 

O Sju &C* mukdsada dumping 

jl-IT kdsid and JU~5" kasid selling badly, 
little in demand (merchandise) ; stagnant, 
dull, listless (market) 

l j^S~ kasara i (kasr) to break, shatter, frac- 
ture (a s.th.); to break open, force 
open, pry open (a a door, and the like); 
to break (also fig.: power, resistance); 
to violate, infringe (a a legal duty); to 
destroy, annihilate, rout (a s.th.); to 
defeat (a an army); to fold (a s.th.); to 
provide with the vowel i (a a consonant; 
gram.) \ oj^zi ^ jS (basarihi) to lower 
one's eyes; *J»\»~ jr -T*to disappoint, dis- 
oblige, offend, affront s.o.; to discourage 
s.o.; to humble, humiliate, dishonor 
8 * -? £j\ ^j^f husirat ar-rih the wind 
has calmed down; c.**s>\\ jj£ (samt) to 
break the silence; *ij? <y jS (tarfihi) 
to lower one's eyes; jtkJi jS ^ataS) to 
quench the thirst; <o!^» <j* *J~^ ( mwr< * 5 
dihi) to dissuade or hinder s.o. from carry- 
ing out his intention; «C-* jj£ ("ainahu) 
to wink with one's eye, give a significant 
glance (J to s.o.); (also 4-JLc r ainaihi) to 
shame s.o., put s.o. to shame; to humble, 
humiliate, dishonor s.o.; «uljf j*£ (qal* 
bahu) to break s.o.'s heart; to discourage 



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s.o. ; 4jO»- ^ jj£ (hiddatihi) to blunt the 
edge of s.th., tone down s.th., curb, tem- 
per s.th. or s.o. II to break into pieces, 
fragmentize (a s.th.); to shatter, smash 
(a s.th.); to crack, cleave (a s.th. into 
many parts) V to be broken to pieces, be 
shattered, be fragmentized; to break, be 
refracted, be diffracted {also light, rays, 
pkys.); to be refined, civilized VII to get 
broken; to be defeated, be routed, be 
broken (force, violence); to break; to be 
refracted, be diffracted ; to abate, subside 
(e.g., heat), be quenched (thirst) | 0^-5^1 
«wL- (saquhu) he broke his leg 

j~£ kasr breaking, fracturing; shatter- 
ing, fragmentation; — (pi, jj~f fcusur) 
break, breach, fracture; crack, rupture; 
fracture of a bone; (pi. Jy S lemur \ 
oljj^S") fraction (aritk.); pi. jj—T small 
fragments, pieces broken off (j* from); 
fractions (of s.th.) | ( i £ J \Jie\ ) ^^ ^S 
( r u$ri, cfsdri) decimal fraction ; j j—^j wa- 
Jcusur (after figures) . . . and some, a little 
over . . ., e.g., jj~ fj <u^- one pound and 
some, a little over a pound; ^S^ Jjl* 
fragile, breakable 

jj? kasr, kisr: c^J\ j~£ k. al-bait 



nook of the house ; < 



j^ 



to live 



in seclusion, stay in one's four walls 

lj~S kasra defeat, breakdown, col- 
lapse; the vowel point for i; nook of the 
house 

Ij^S" kisrapL j*S kisar, -at fragment; 
a small piece | y>- l^S k. kubz a crust 
of bread 

jru-T ka8lr pi. £j£ kasra, ^jLi" kasdrd 
broken, fractured, shattered; defeated | 
jWU-'l juS with broken courage, humil- 
iated; see also iSj*^ alphabetically 

O SjL—T kassara nutcracker 

»>. $* kusaira diopter (phys.) 

j~£l> maksir pi. ^t^L. makdsir 2 place of 



fracture | j*£l\ jj and ^-IS^ll jj fop 
yin al-m. soft, gentle, fragile, tender; 
j~£l\ J& halls' al-m. weak, trail, soft, 
yielding (person) ; j~£l\ «JU> sulb aim. 
hard to break, robust, sturdy, hardy, firm, 
strong; ^Sl\ uJ» tayyib al-m. standing 
the test, proving its value, of excellent 
quality 

jwSj taksir breaking, fracturing; shat- 
tering, fragmentation | j~Jsz}\ »*■ jam' 
at-t. broken plural (gram.); j^Sd 
a^rjj^k (hidrozen) hydrocracking (oil 
refining) 

^~£5 takassur a being broken, break- 
ing; refraction, diffraction (opt.) | ^ 
4j*2V1 t. al-asi"a refraction of rays 

jLiOi inkisdr (state or process of) 
being, broken, brokenness, breaking; 
fracture; breach, rupture; fragility; de- 
feat, rout; brokenness in spirit, broken- 
heartedness, dejection; contrition; re- 
fraction, diffraction (phys.) | ^iljl jLSjl 
ink. al-qalb dejectedness, despondency, 
contrition 

_,-£" kdsir breaking, shattering, etc.; 
(pi. j^\jf kawasir 2 ) rapacious, ferocious, 
savage (predatory animal) | ^>S\ ^X 
k. al-hajar saxifrage, stonebreak (bot.); 
jX ji* (fair) bird of prey; ^LJI jjjf 
k. at -pair predatory birds 

jj~£L» maksur broken, fractured; shat- 
tered, fragmented; defeated; unsuccess- 
ful, thwarted, frustrated; bankrupt; 
having a kasra (consonant; gram.) 

^-5C mukassar fragmented, shattered, 
smashed; broken (also, e.g., language); 
ol^-iC almonds and nuts | j-Sl* *> (jam*) 
broken plural (gram.) 

z juJf\ ikslr elixir 

4ijj~S kasarona (eg.) see ^JjjjT 



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*-*o 



<£jS kisrd pi. S^lTl akdsira, ^ITI ahdsir 2 
Khosrau; designation of the Persian 
kings in general 

a-5" kasa'a a to chase away (« s.o.) ; to strike, 
shove, push, kick (» s.o. from behind) 
VIII to put its tail (<_j) between its legs 



kasafa i (C*j~S' kusuj) to be or become 
dark, gloomy; to be eclipsed, pass 
through an eclipse (sun) ; — to reprimand, 
reprove (* s.o.); to abash, shame, put to 
shame (• s.o.) VII to be eclipsed; to be 
shamed, be ashamed; to blush 



Icasf darkening, occupation, 
eclipse; dark, darkness, gloominess 

Jjj*S kusuf occultation, eclipse, solar 



iJsLiCit inkisaf occultation, eclipse, so- 
lar eclipse 

iJ*JC kasif dejected, downcast, sad, 
worried, grieved; gloomy 

jiLT kaskasa to pound, bray, grind, 
powder, pulverize; (eg.) to retreat, fall 
back, withdraw 

^pSLS kuskus and j«S~S kuskusu 
couscous, a dish prepared of steamed 
semolina grains, used as a base for many 
meat and fish dishes (staple food in NW 
Africa) 

^SiS kuskusl Egyptian variety of 
couscous 

jJSLS kuskds, kashas sieve for prepar- 
ing couscous 

\S kasila a (kasal) to be lazy, idle, sluggish, 
indolent, negligent; to idle, loaf II to 
make lazy or negligent (* s.o.) VI = I 

J-f kasal laziness, sluggishness, idle- 
ness, inactivity, loafing, indolence, neg- 



J— T kasil lazy, idle 

iJj^S kasul idler, lazybones 

o'^LS' kaslan, f. S, ,1—5* kasld, pi. JL-j 
kasdld, kusdld, J~5" kasld lazy, sluggish, 
slothful, indolent, idle, inactive 

JLjSv* mikstil lazybones, sluggard, idler, 
loafer 

j-t£j takasul laziness, sluggishness, 
indolence 

J^.t&u mutakdsil lazy, sluggish, sloth- 
ful, indolent 

~5~ kasama i (bism) to make a living 
(«JLp Jp 'aid Hydlihl for one's family) 
II to give form (a to s.th.), shape, 
fashion (a s.th.) 

*S kasm cut, style (of a dress); 
clothing, clothes, costume, fashion: form, 
shape; manner, mode 

£-5" kasim duty, rate, tax 

^—Ssj takslm forming, shaping, fashion- 
ing, molding; O milling 

~5l. mukassam well-shaped, shapely 

[j*S and iS S) LS kasd u [kasw) to clothe, 
dress, garb, attire (a a s.o. with or in); 
to hang, drape, face, line, case (u or * * 
s.th. with), incase (<_j or a a s.th. in); 
to cover (<_j or a a s.th. with), put, slip 
(<_j or a a over s.th. s.th.) J \JS~ Ak^ oLi" 
(sibgata) to give s.th. the appearance 
of . . . , make s.th. look like . . . ; — (S S' 
kasiya a (l™f kasan) to be or get 
dressed; to dress IV to clothe, dress, 
garb, attire (a « s.o. with or in) V to be 
dressed, be clothed, be garbed; to clothe 
o.s., array o.s., attire o.s. (<^> with or in); 
to cover o.s. VIII do.; to burst into leaf 
(tree) 

6j~S kisiva pi. t^S kusan, kisan, JLS" 
kasdwin clothing, clothes, apparel, attire, 



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raiment; dress, garment; suit of clothes; 
uniform; draping, lining, casing, facing, 
paneling, wainscoting {e.g., of walls) ] 
(SjjjJjl) Sj~50i the kiswa, the covering of 
the Kaaba (black, brocaded carpet cover- 
ing the walls of the Kaaba, made an- 
nually in Egypt and transported with 
the pilgrimage caravan to Mecca) ; "*yS 
*jiij-iUI full-dress uniform, gala uniform 

.Li" kisa pi. a~S\ aksiya garment; 
dress; clothes 

Z^Sj taksiya clothing, dressing; drap- 
ing, lining, casing, facing, paneling, 
wainscoting (e.g., of walls); course of 
stones (of a macadam road) 

^iT kassa i to recoil (^ from) 
XtS~ kussa lock of hair 

oLl^f kustubdn, kustibdn pi. j^Jltf ka$d* 
tibln 2 thimble 

«i5** kasaha a (Jcash); ojl-uJb a} *JL5~ (bi-l- 
r adawa) to harbor enmity toward s.o., 
hate s.o.; — to disperse, scatter, break 
up {j& a crowd), send away, dismiss, 
drive away, chase away {* s.o.) Ill a& K* 
SjIjuIU (bi4~ f addvxt) to harbor enmity 
toward s.o., hate s.o. "VII to be dispersed, 
be scattered; to disperse, scatter, break 
up; to be dispelled 

,Jt5" kash pi. v-j£$* kusuh region of 
the hip, haunch, flank, side, waist; 
Venus's-shell, cowrie | Jt (U*JlT) 4*+t£' i jjb 
(tawa kashahu) to lock s.th. (a secret) in 
one's bosom, keep s.th. secret, secrete, 
conceal, hide s.th.; ^ (UJt5") **j£ ^Jb to 
turn from s.o., break with s.o.; fU-Jt^oVj 
(walldhu) to turn one's back on s.o. 

l^ltS" kusdha secret enmity, rancor, 
grudge, resentment, hate 

«Jiir kdsih secret enemy 



ji^ kasara i {kasr) and II to bare one's 
teeth; to grimace; to grin, smile (Jl at 
s.o.); to scowl, glower, bear a grim 
expression | 4JL-I jp jZS" to bare or 
show one's teeth; (4jLjI) <uU jp ^ do. 

l^iS" kisra grimace 

S^iSo taksira (n. vie.) flash of the teeth 

t^tlx* ^jU- j* huwa jdrl mukdsirl he 
is my nearest neighbor 

^jLiSCj! look up alphabetically 

Izlf kasata i (kast) to take off (a a wrapping, 
a covering); to pull off (a s.th.); to erase 
(a s.th. written); to remove (a s.th.); 
to scratch off, scrape off (a s.th., uj e.g.. 
with a knife so as to clean it) 

JUJiiC* miksat erasing knife 

(JlIT kasafa i (kasf) to pull away, remove, 
take off, throw open, lift, raise (a a 
covering, a curtain, a veil, etc., jc from); 
to reveal, disclose, uncover, expose, 
bare (a or ^ s.th.); to clear up (a or p 
s.th.), shed light (a or j* on); to show, 
demonstrate (a or jc s.th.); to open up, 
lay open, lay bare (a or ^ s.th.); to bring 
to light (a or jp s.th.); to study, scruti- 
nize, investigate, examine (^ s.th.); to 
examine medically ( Jps.o.) | jp pLiJl JaJS 
to unveil, unmask s.o. or s.th.; iJiiT 
LJ* <LL (tibbiyan) to examine s.o, 
medically; I4SU ^ <^i.i cJitf (harbu) 
the war was or became violent, flared 
up; war broke out III to disclose, reveal, 
manifest, demonstrate, show (<_> « to 
s.o. s.th.), evince (<_-> toward s.o. s.th.); 
to make known (<_-» or a a to s.o. s.th.), 
inform (u or a « s.o. of) | SjIjuJU <uLJlf 
(bi-V adawa) to manifest open hostility 
toward s.o. V to be uncovered, be 
exposed, be laid open, be bared, be dis- 
closed, be revealed, be brought to light; 
to come to light, become visible, manifest 



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^r 



itself, show; to open, be opened up 
(*a? Cf* so aa to revea * s.th.) | ^^1 ^JJLSo 
*t5* ^ a* { amru ) t ne matter turned out 
to be of no consequence; t ^- & Ja±S^ 
j^jJI (muntaha l-'ajz) to show o.s. utterly- 
helpless VI to reveal secrets, thoughts or 
feelings to one another VII to be removed, 
be lifted, be raised (veil) ; to be uncovered, 
be disclosed, be revealed, become mani- 
fest (J to s.o.) VIII to discover (a s.th., 
esp. scientifically); to find out, detect, 
uncover (a s.th.) X to seek to discover (a 
s.th.); to explore (a s.th.); to investigate 
(a s.th.), search, inquire (a into s.th.); 
to scout, reconnoiter (mil.); to discover 
(a s.th., scientifically); to detect, spot, 
seek out, search out, find out (a s.th.) 



kasf uncovering, disclosure ; 
baring, exposure, unveiling; revelation, 
illumination (myst.); investigation, in- 
quiry, search, quest, study, examination, 
scrutiny; prospecting (mil); discovery 
(of mineral resources) ; prospection area ; 
inspection; boy scout movement; — (pi. 
o^iT kiduf, otijiT kusujdt) report, ac- 
count; statement, specification, enumer- 
ation; table, schedule, chart; list, roster, 
index, register, inventory; pi. J^jjS" dis- 
coveries | ^ (JtiS* (tibbi) medical ex- 
amination; f-IJWf «Jl1T muster roll; 
yUi-l t_AiS*bill, invoice; ULaLU «JtiS"pay- 
roll, pay-sheet; oU-jO)! jAJtS" k. ad-darajdt 
report card, class report, school record 

^tf kaSfi of or pertaining to boy 
scouts j ZJJlS" '^j>- (haraka) boy scout 
movement 

<J»LiT kaUdf pi. <jLiT kassdfa dis- 
coverer, inventor; explorer, reconnoiterer, 
scout; boy scout; discloser, revealer: {eg.) 
appraiser (of cotton sorts and qualities) ; 
detector (for locating radiation; phys.) \ 
Jj^ JsLlT (dau* i) searchlight; O oLij 
& tJ £ (kahrabd'i), JsliT ^Um (mis* 
bah) and J»U5~ jj> (nur) pi. «il$5*jljjl do. 



^illf kiSdja exploration; reconnais- 
sance, reconnoitering, scouting (mil.); 
boy scout movement, scouting 

jLiS* kisdjl of boy scouts, boy scout 
(adj.) 

^JuJtS' kasif uncovered, open, ex- 
posed 

O <J»Li£» mikSaf detector (for locating 
radiation; phys.) 

(JsLilS'l iktisdf uncovering, disclosure, 
detection, spotting, location; {pi. -at) 
discovery 

JsliS^u-1 istiksdf uncovering, clarifi- 
cation, elucidation; discovery; close ob- 
servation; reconnaissance, reconnoiter- 
ing, scouting (mil.) | JsLiS^-Vl 2yU» 
reconnaissance plane; ^.dl juJI i_!sli5o-Vl 
(madd) long-range reconnaissance 

jLt^L-l istiksdf i explorational, ex- 
ploratory, of discovery, reconnaissance-, 
scout- (iii compounds) 



.JoilT kd$if pi. aJJS ka£afa uncover- 
ing, revealing, etc.; serving exploratory 
purposes, instrumental in reconnaissance, 
conducive to discovery, detection or 
disclosure; examiner, investigator, dis- 
coverer; supervisor, inspector; (Eg.) head 
of a mvqdtcCa, district chief (obsolete); 
detector (radio); iJ^lT and ILlib reagent 
(chern.) j i_A*£l£~ »^*» (dau") pi. SjLi& *\j^>\ 
and kJaiS* jjj (nur) pi. iii IT j\y\ search- 
light; C fWVl iJiilT 3jjj (zauraq) mine- 
locating craft, mine sweeper; ^jj^ ^JtilT 
(billauri, ballori) crystal detector (radio) ; 
ja-jil w^lT k. al-muhlt periscope; uIj 
,Jtil£jb (bdna) to manifest itself clearly 
and unmistakably 

(Js^ASC* maksuf bared, exposed, un- 
covered; open, roofless; open-air, out- 
door; opencut, open-pit (mine); cover- 
less, unveiled, naked, bare; shameless, 
indecent, unchaste; (mil.) open, un- 



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defended, devoid of military instal- 
lations or fortifications; uncovered {com.) \ 
,j»\J\ tju-tiv. m. ar-ras bareheaded, 
hatless; «Js>t5vilj or i^^tSl\ Jp open- 
ly, publicly, overtly, for everyone to 
see 

<JjJLl£» muktasif discoverer, explorer 

Cj\JJjSL muktasafdt (scientific) dis- 
coveries 



mustakHf pi. -un discoverer, 



explorer 



^dLtSkusk pi. i\\j£"\ ak$dk kiosk; stall, booth 
(also at a fair) ; newsstand ; log cabin, hut, 
shed; beach cabin; telephone booth; 
pavilion, summerhouse j f|j>»x-Vl ^XiS~ 
bathing cabin; beach chair; oijU^l dXtS 
k. al-isarat block station, signal box 
(railroad); JLjuaJI SjS k. ad-daidabdn 
sentry box; Jj£ iitT (mukawwil) trans- 
former house (el.); J~*>1< *iiii~ k. al-mu- 
siqa music pavilion, bandstand 

8 dJU5" kisk a dough made of bulgur and sour 
milk, cut into small pieces, dried and 
used for the preparation of other dishes 
(so in Egypt; there are several other 
ways of preparing it) | (eg.) jlil liLtf 
kisk almdz asparagus 

^jSiiS" kaskasa to rustle; to flee, run away; 
(eg.) to pleat 

J^.SitS' kaskas pi. u zfltS' kasdkis 2 
seam ; hem, edge, border 

ZJl&S' aj^j riwdya kiskislya bur- 
lesque, popular comedy 

J^SClT kaskul beggar's bag; scrapbook; 
album 

»JS kismis a kind of curra nts 

i-iT kasmir 2 Kashmir (region in NE India); 



ka$mir cashmere (a soft, twilled woolen 
fabric) 

^tS' kusnd lentil tare, slender vetch (bot.) 

□ u ^f (for JsT) V to be replete, overfull, 
overloaded, overburdened VIII to be 
overfilled, be replete (^ with s.th.), be 
chock-full 

^j^-iSsj takaddvd overexertion, over- 
strain, overburdening 

JiT kazza u (kazz) to fill, overfill (a s.th.); 
to burden, weight, encumber (a s.th.); 
to overstuff, surfeit, cloy (a the stomach) 
VIII to be crammed full, be jam-packed, 
be or become overcrowded (^ with, esp. 
with people) ; to fill up, become full (u 
with people) ; to stuff o.s., eat one's fill; to 
be overstuffed, be surfeited, be cloyed (y 
with) ; to be abundant, copious, plentiful 

4&T kizza gorging, cloying, overstuff- 
ing (of the stomach) ; surfeit 

ii-kT kaziz overfilled, overstuffed, cloy- 
ed, surfeited 

JiUaT i iktizdz overcrowding, overfilling, 
jam packing 

Sk&L muktazz overcrowded (^ with, 
esp. with people), crammed full, jam- 
packed (^ with), chock-full (^ of) 

J& kuzr suet; fat on the kidneys (ami.) \ 
J&\ 3 Op gvddat al-k. adrenal gland (anat). 

^jja^kuzrl suprarenal, adrenal (anat.) \ 
hj&\ S.UJI (gudda) — J&\ ;j£ } see 
above 

JaT kazama i (kazm, ^J^kuzum) to conceal 
or suppress (a one's anger); to be mum, 
keep silent 

-U5~ kazim filled with anger 



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^aT Jca'aba u i (^j^S' ku'vb) to be full and 
round, be swelling (breasts) II to make 
cubic, to cube (a s.th.); to dice (a s.th,) 

u^S" kcfb pi. ujjUT hi'ab, ^y& ku'ub 
knot, knob, node (of cane); joint, ar- 
ticulation; ankle, anklebone; heel (of 
the foot, of a shoe); (= Fr. talon) stub, 
counterfoil, coupon; ferrule; die; cube; 
high rank, fame, glory, honor | l-jU&I <^S 
(pi. v>*0 8 P me 0I * a t>°°k; U*T jjl anja 
ha ban abler, more capable, more qual- 
ified, more efficient; <^jS^\ <JU J*-_> rajul 
r ali l'k. a distinguished, capable, success- 
ful man; ^^SOI J* 'uluw al-k. high rank, 
outstanding position; **-*f ^J their 
days of glory are past 

^jS" ku T b breasts, bosom 

'^S Jca r ba pi. ka'abat cube, cubic 
structure; l~*&\ the Kaaba (in Mecca); 
(fig.) shrine; object of veneration, focus 
of interest 

cC *T ka f bi cubic 

L*T &w r 6a virginity 

l^UT fca f a6 having swelling breasts, 
buxom (girl) 

^^ y\ abu ku'aib {eg.) mumps (med.) 

^^3 tak'ib cubing, dicing; raising to 
the third power, cubing 

<~*& tak'iba trellis, espalier; arbor, 
bower 

i $j& tak'ibi cubic; cubistic (art) | 
^ja&JI ji]l (fanri) cubism 

u-plf kdHb pi. ^IjT kawa'ib 2 well- 
developed, full and round, swelling 
(bosom) ; having swelling breasts, buxom 
(girl); <->*\jf buxom girls 

u-*£* mukcf'ab cube- shaped, cubiform, 
cubic; (pi. -at) cube | <~*Sl» *£ (qadam) 
cubic foot ; l^sSI* JU (mitr) cubic meter 



SjwT ku'bura and Sj^.nS' ku'bura pi. _/U5~ 
ka'abir* knotty excrescence, knot, knob, 
node; 3^*5" radius (ewwii.) | Sjw&l Jit 
'azm al-k. radius {anal.) 

j^Si, muka'bar knotty, knobbed, gnarl- 
ed ' 

J^*T ka'bala {eg.) to trip up (o s.o.); to make 
(» s.o.) stumble 

^£1*5" &a f & (coll.; n. un. I) cake; designation 
of various kinds of pastry, also of small 
baked goods; pretzel {syr.) 

j£ ka'ama a (ka'm) to muzzle (a a camel); 
to gag {o s.o.); to cap, seal (a a vessel) 

fLT^ram muzzle; gag 

OpIT pi. OpijT and .Utf pi. Jail^T look up 
alphabetically 

jS" abbreviation of ^\jhjiS kilogram kilo- 
gram 

L JaS' kaff a u [kaff) to border, edge, hem (a a 
garment); to desist, refrain (^ from), 
cease, forbear (^ doing s.th.), give up, 
stop (jp s.th.); to renounce, waive, forgo 
(jc s.th.), abstain (^ from); to hold 
back, restrain (je a s.o. from); to hinder, 
prevent (^ « s.o. from); to avert (jp 
s.th.); to check, curb, restrict {^* s.th.) | 
a^^j ij&f kaff a (and pass, huff a) ba$aruhu 
to become blind II to hem (a a garment) 
V to beg VII to desist, refrain, abstain 
(^ from) X to hold out the hand 
with an imploring gesture, beg, practice 
begging; to shade one's eyes with the 
hand; to coil (snake); to surround (J or 
J_j*. s.o., s.th.), flock around s.o. or s.th. 
(J, Jj-) 

<Ji5" kaff desistance, refraining (jp 
from); abstaining, abstention (^e from); 
cessation, suspension, stop, stoppage, 



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discontinuation (jt of s.th.); — kaff f., 
pi. iJ^^jS' kufuf, ^Jj&~\ akuff palm of the 
hand; glove; paw, foot, claw (of an 
animal); slap; scale (of a balance); hand- 
ful; quire; bar (of chocolate) | fj* iJsS" 
k. maryam (eg.) agnus castus, chaste tree 
(Vitex agnus-castus; bot.); rose of Jer- 
icho, resurrection plant (Anastatica 
hierochunticaL.;6o(.);»L.JU-1 «Ja50l (jadma > ) 
star a in the constellation Cetus; tJtSCll 
»-«-<*£ I star fi in Cassiopeia; A*- VI *J*5" 
k. al-asad lion's-leaf (bot.); «u"U- *~*j 
diS" Jc (hayatahu) to risk one's life; 
■_aS"V! j Jt*- 1 istadarra I -akuff a to secure 
generous contributions 

US' kiffa, kaff a pi. (JuiS' H/a/, »J»U5~ 
ii/a/ palm of the hand; scale (of a bal- 
ance) 

US' kaff ax ijjU <if k. bdrud (eg.) 
cartridge pouch 

*i5* kuffa pi. kJajS" kufaf edge, seam, 
hem, border 

(JsUS" kafaf sufficiency, sufficient means 
for a living 

uiU5" £»/&/ border, edge, fringe, seam, 
hem 

A3 US" kifafa hemming; hem 

(JuiT kaflf blind; blind man | iJlUT 
^aJ\ k. al-ba$ar do. 

XLjS kaflja pi. -at blind woman 

<Ju5sj takajfuf beggary, mendicancy 

iitf ^a/jfa totality, entirety ; (with foil, 
genit.) all; the people, the masses, the 
populace; kdffatan all without exception, 
one and all; altogether, in the aggregate, 
collectively 

<Js^i5^ makfuf pi. ~un, ^ajL^L. makafif 2 
blind; blind man | ^^aJI Js^iSs^ m. al- 
ba$ar do. 



IiT kafa'a a (kaf) to turn around, turn over, 
reverse, invert (a s.th.); to turn away, 
turn aside, turn back (j^ from) III to 
reward (» s.o., a s.th.); to requite, repay, 
recompense (<-* a s.th. with); to com- 
pensate, make up (*^> a for s.th. with) ; to 
be similar, equal (a to s.th.), equal (* 
s.th.), be commensurate (a with); to 
measure up, come up (a to s.th.), compare 
favorably (a with) IV to turn over, 
reverse, invert (a s.th.) VI to be equal, 
be on a par; to (counter) balance each 
other, be perfectly matched VII to be 
turned away, be turned aside; to be 
changed, be altered; to recede, change, 
fade (color); to turn back, withdraw, 
retreat, fall back, give way; to be 
inverted, be reversed, be turned around 
or over; to fall down, tumble, topple 

»^aT kaf, kif\ kuf pi. »UTl akfa, 
*US" kifa equal, alike; adequate, ap- 
propriate, suitable, fit (J for); equal (J 
to s.o.), a match (J for); qualified, capa- 
ble, able, competent, efficient 

*jj6~ kufu\ jJS' kufu' equal, compa- 
rable (J to), a match (J for) 

»U5" kifa 1 an equivalent 

*UT kaf a' equality; adequacy, ade- 
quateness 

solas' kaf a' a equality; adequacy, ade- 
quateness; comparableness; fitness, suita- 
bility, appropriateness; competence, effi- 
ciency, ability, capability; pi. oUU5* 
qualifications, abilities, capabilities | SiLfi 
3»U&1 §ahMat al-k. certificate of com- 
petence (for practice of a trade, Alg.; 
formerly for school teachers, Eg.) 

SlilS^ mukdftia pi. -at requital; rec- 
ompense, remuneration; compensation, 
indemnification, indemnity; reward; sti- 
pend; premium (J* for) 

JslSo takafu' mutual correspondence, 



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equivalence; homogeneity, sameness; I 
equality | ^y»y^ J»^j t. al-furcts equal 
chances, equal opportunity; ^JU*)1 J»^ 
t. a4-diddain ambivalence 

*USv»l inkifa retreat, withdrawal 

*J1SL mukdfi 3 equal, (a)like, of the same 
kind, homogeneous, corresponding, com- 
mensurate, equivalent 

jl&u mutakafi* alike, (mutually) cor- 
responding, commensurate, equivalent, 
equal 

zJtf" kafata i (haft) to restrain, detain, turn 
away, prevent, hold back (j* * s.o. 
from) II to plate {^> a s.th. with) ; to inlay 
(a s.th.) 

cJS" kift cooking pot 

oi5~ kufta meat balls, hamburgers, ob- 
long or round | ^iT iir" (samak) fried 
fish cakes; ^-kU** 5xiT potato dumplings 
stuffed with meat 

£~j& takfit inlaid work, inlay; plat- 
ing, platework 

f £j&* mukaffat inlaid ; coated, overlaid, 

I plated 



^jf kafaha a (kafh) to face frankly, con- 
front, encounter or meet face to face 
(*s.o.) Ill = I; to combat (o s.o., a s.th.), 
fight, battle, struggle, contend (* against) ; 
to defend (jp s.th.), fight ( jp for) | ^JlT 
6jja\ (um,urahu) to manage one's affairs 
personally 

*-UT kifdh pi. -at fight, battle, conten- 
tion, strife 

^-UT kifahl fighting, battle (in com- 
pounds) 

4»J15L. mukafaha confrontation, coun- 
tering; struggle, battle {against s.th.,esp. 
an abuse, a disaster), fight (against, with) | 



**»V1 ^*o^4 m. al-ummlya battle against 
illiteracy; Jj^A»\ ^J\£* fire fighting 

♦tiT kafaka a to strike (« s,o.) on the head 

x j j6' kafara i (kajr) to cover, hide (a s.th.); 
— {kufr, o^jjS" kufrdn, j y£ kufur) to 
be irreligious, be an infidel, not to be- 
lieve (axLj in God); «uil> yS" also: to 
blaspheme God, curse, swear; to re- 
nege one's faith, become an infidel; to 
be ungrateful {•_-> or a for a benefit) 
II to cover, hide (a s.th.); to expiate 
(jp s.th.); to do penance, atone, make 
amends (*-> jp for s.th. by or with); to 
grant remission (a jp to s.o. of his sins); 
to forgive (jp or J a s.th. to s.o.), grant 
pardon (^ or J a for s.th. to s.o.); to 
make (a s.o.) an infidel, seduce (e s.o.) 
to unbelief; to accuse of infidelity, charge 
with unbelief (* s.o.) IV to make (» s.o.) 
an infidel; to call (& s.o.) an infidel, 
accuse (o s.o.) of infidelity 

jjS" kajr pi. jy& kufur small village, 
hamlet 

jjS" kufr and jl^iS** kufrdn unbelief, 
infidelity; — kufr blasphemy; hubris, 
hybris | *uL> J& godlessness, atheism; 
blasphemy, profanity ; 1**J b jljiT {nima) 
ingratitude, ungratefulness 

jjS kafar pi. -at (saud.-ar., eg.) rubber 
tire (for cars, bicycles) 

jli5~ kaffar infidel, unbeliever 

sjU5" kaffdra penance, atonement (jp 
for a sin), expiation (jp of); reparation, 
amends; expiatory gifts, expiations (dis- 
tributed to the poor at a funeral) 

joiSo takflr expiation (jp of), atone- 
ment, penance (jp for a sin); seduction 
to infidelity; charge of unbelief 

jilf kajir pi. -un, j\J5 kuffar, IjjS" 
kafara, jU5" kifdr irreligious, unbeliev- 



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ing; unbeliever, infidel, atheist; ungrate- 
ful | i*juJt) ytT (ni'ma) ungrateful 

^^tflook up alphabetically 

{J J&' Jcafisa a {kafas) to bo bandy-legged 
VII do. 

U JS'\ akfas 2 , f. »L*i5" kafsa 2 , pi. ( _ r JS' 
kujs bandy-legged 

iJaSCflT Jcafkafa to hold back (a tears) 

Ji5~ kajala u {kafi, ^laS" kafala) to feed, 
support (t> s.o.), provide (o for s.o, ; 1LJU 
'ailatan for a family); — kafala u i f 
kafila a and kafula u {kafi, cyS" kuful, li U5" 
kafala) to vouch, answer, go bail, be 
guaranty, be or stand sponsor, be 
responsible, liable, answerable ((_j for) ; 
to guarantee, sponsor (o s.o.); to be 
legal guardian (a of s.o.); to secure; to 
warrant, ensure (a s.th.) ; to guarantee 
{J a s.th. to s.o.); O to cover, back 
(currency with gold) II to feed, support 
(e s.o.), provide {* for); to admit as 
security, sponsor or bail (i s.o.); to name 
as sponsor, ask to be security or to go 
bail, appoint as security or bail (» s.o.) 
Ill to conclude an agreement, make a 
contract {» with s.o.) IV to appoint as 
security, sponsor or bail (» s.o.), make 
(e s.o.) go bail V to be security, go 
bail, vouch, be or become responsible, 
answerable or liable (^ J to s.o. for), be 
sponsor (^ J of s.o. for s.th.), guarantee 
(.— - J to s.o. s.th.); to obligate o.s., 
pledge o.s. (i_j J to s.o. to do s.th.); 
to undertake, take upon o.s. (l-> s.th.) 
VI to vouch for each other, guarantee 
each other 

Ji^ kafi guaranty, warranty 

JiT kafal pi. JliTl akfal, dyS' kuful 
rump, buttocks; croup of a horse 

SJU5" kafala bail, guaranty, security, 



sponsorship; pledge, deposit, surety, 
collateral J aJU 4JU5* {mdliya) surety, 
security ; bail ; caution money ; ^JcS b «J U5" 
(nafs) bail (esp. for due appearance of c 
person in court; Isl. Law); 0^3 HJU5" j 
under the protection or tutelage of s.o., 
in s.o.'s custody 

l jJ&' kafll pi. »^}jS' kufala' 2 responsible, 
liable, answerable; bail, bailsman, se- 
curity, surety, sponsor, bondsman; 
guarantor (<_-> of s.th.); vouching (o for 
s.th.), guaranteeing (»_j s.th.); ensuring, 
assuring (c^ a certain outcome) ; suitable, 
adequate (<~* for); protector; legal guard- 
ian J ,^-iJLj J-iT (nafs) bail, bailsman (esp. 
one guaranteeing the due appearance of a 
person in court; Isl. Law) 

Jj t& takdful mutual or joint responsi- 
bility; solidarity; mutual agreement 

Jitf kafil pi. Ji5" kuffal breadwinner, 
supporter, provider; bail, bailsman, se- 
curity, surety, sponsor, bondsman; pro- 
tector; legal guardian 

(<u) djjSL* rnakful (bihi) guaranteed; 
covered, backed (banknotes in circulation) 

l yi&' kafana i (kafn) to cover with a winding 
sheet, to shroud, dress for the grave (a 
the deceased) II do.; to wrap (<_j a s.th. 
in), cover («_-> a s.th. with) 

( y$' kafn saltless 

( yS' leaf an pi. oU5"l akfdn shroud, 
winding sheet 

j+aS' IV ikfaharra (j'^^^iTl ikfihrdr) to be 
dark, grow dark, darken, be or become 
gloomy 

jl^rfflS"! ikfihrdr darkness, dark; dusk, 
gloom, gloominess 

^^iSL. mukfahirr dim, dusky, gloomy; 
clouded, overcast; grave, sullen, mel- 
ancholy 



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jT kafd i (ajUT kifaya) to be enough, 
sufficient (o for s.o.), suffice (o s.o.); to 
meet all requirements; to protect (a « 
s.o. from s.o., a » s.o. from s.th.); to save, 
spare (a » s.o. a trouble) | JS*^ wa-kafd 
and that's all! enough of that! that's 
enough! dh* «u>l jT may God give 
satisfaction in your stead, or, may God 
make up for your shortcoming (said to 
s.o. making a mistake, or showing him- 
self inadequate); "^Sj «u>L> J5" (wakllan) 
God is the best protector; d I \jj>- ^ 
(hazanan) it is sad enough that . . . ; 
Uitf jT (sakfan) enough of this non- 
sense! \Jf4jjA tlif (mu'nata) to save s.o. 
the trouble of . . .; ^1 *ul jT (Sarra) 
may God protect from evil ! Ill to be suf- 
ficient, enough (» for s.o.), suffice (» s.o.); 
to requite, repay, recompense, reward 
(^ e s.o. with) VIII to be content, content 
o.s. (<_» with s.th.); to have enough, be 
satisfied (after eating) | LflSJ^I (ddtiyan) 
to get by without outside supply; to be 
independent, be self-sufficient, be self- 
contained X to be sated, be satisfied 

AjLiT kifaya sufficient amount, degree, 
extent, etc., sufficiency; that which suf- 
fices for performing a duty, a task, etc.; 
capability, capacity, ability, qualification; 
appropriateness, suitability, fitness; com- 
petence, efficiency, skill | 4jU&1> suf- 
ficiently, enough; J bill «jU5" fighting 
power; 4*JwU SjlaS3i aJ& 'adam al-k. 
al-jinsiya sexual impotence; 4jU£" IJU j 
enough of that, that's enough; ajLoSOI Cj 
(polite formula) lit.: in you there is suf- 
ficiency, in you I have enough, you re- 
place all else for me ; aJ U 4j UTjS of high 
efficiency (e.g., technical equipment, 
person, esp. physically) ; ^Lp-UjI 4jUS""(m= 
tdjlya) productivity, productive efficiency 

J5* kafiy sufficient, enough 

SUI£* mukdfah reward; gratification 

►LkS"! iktifa 3 contentedness, content- 



ment J Jli *\Jc£"\ self-sufficiency, inde- 
pendence from foreign imports 

<J»lT kdfin pi. SU^ kufdh sufficient, 
enough, adequate; appropriate, suitable, 
suited, fit; capable, able, qualified, 
skilled, skillful, competent, efficient 

yJicS^ muktafin contented, content 

1 -^fkild, f. IsiT kiltS (with foil, noun in genit. 
du. uninflected ; with foil. pron. suffix in- 
flected: obi. JT kilai, f. ^ kiltai) both 
of I <uJb LdLSCj bi'kiltd yadaihi, t M .rir «uJLj 
(kiltaihimd) with both of his hands; see 
also alphabetically 

2 Jf kalla i {kail, US' killa, J^T kaldl, 4]^ 
kaldla, J^iT kulul, SJ^iT kulula) to be or 
become tired, fatigued, weary, exhausted, 
weak; to be dim, dull, languid, ex- 
pressionless (glance, eyes); to become 
blunt (sword) | J£j V indefatigable, un- 
tiring II to crown (0 s.o., also fig. a s.th.); 
(Chr.) to perform the marriage ceremony 
(priest); to become dull, obtuse, ex- 
pressionless (face); to become blunt 
(sword) j £-l^ ! L> JJ$* kullila bi-n-najdh to 
be crowned by success IV to make 
languid or tired, to weary, tire, fatigue, 
exhaust, wear out, harass, torment (o 
s.o.); to dim (a the glance) V to be 
crowned; to wear a crown; (Chr.) to be 
married 

Jf kail weariness, tiredness, fatigue, 
exhaustion; dimness, dullness; dull, dim, 
feeble (glance, mind) 

l!S killa pi. -af, JJT kilal thin veil, 
drape, curtain ; mosquito net 

JiT kalal, J ^ kaldl and U^T kaldla 
weariness, tiredness, fatigue, exhaustion; 
dimness, dullness | JL j\ Jif Jji (malal) 
tirelessly, indefatigably 

JJS kalil exhausted, tired, weary, 
faint, languid; weak, feeble; dull, blunt 



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JJf I iklll pi. JJTl afcaZiJ 2 , <JS*I afcflto 
crown; diadem; chaplet, wreath, garland, 
festoon; tonsure {Chr.); wedding, mar- 
riage ceremony {Chr.); umbel {bot.) \ 
JJJ JjTl i. al-jabal rosemary {bot.); 
^r* JUS"! (iawwi) corona, solar halo; 
ij^ji JJS"I ». as-sauk crown of thorns; 
«£iU.I JJS"! i. al-malik yellow sweet clover, 
melilot (Melilotus officinalis L.; bot.) 

JslTl tAftft coronal, coronary | ub^iJl 
JJT^l {sir y an) coronary artery (anat.) 

JJ& (aM coronation, crowning 

J IT &o# tired, fatigued, faint, languid 

JJSv. mukallal adorned with a wreath, 
crowned; married (Chr.) 

3 JT hull totality, entirety; everyone, each 
one, anyone ; (with foil. def. noun) whole, 
entire, all; (with foil, indef. noun) every; 
jCli the whole, all, everything | JSCjb on 
the whole, in the aggregate, taken alto- 
gether, in bulk; JSCJI j JSCJI everything, all- 
embracing, all -comprehensive, all-power- 
ful; o-^ij J^ij u^i j* JT {kullun min) A as 
well as B as well as C; l&^lj ^jjj' <> J^" 
both Europe and America ; J5" Jt f aJa Am?* 
Wn in any case, at any rate; AiS'kulluhu he 
entirely, all of him, it entirely, all of it; 
jJJi JS* AtiWw dalika all that; C*jJ1 j£ 
kullu l-baiti or JS* c-jJI al-b. kulluhu the 
whole house; jU-__Jt JT or -^JS* JU-^i all 
men; «iJLU JS* 4JLJUJ (kullu l-h.) the 
whole truth, nothing but the truth; 
jj\ JT ^J! (sirr) a very great secret; 
jJ-1 J^ j^-' (Aair) true or complete 
happiness; J>-j JT favi/?/, rajulin every 
man; •^ JS" &. sai'in every thing, 
everything, all; Jb-I JT A. ahadin and JS" 
o^lj A. wahidin every (single) one, each 
one; j* JS" kullu man everyone who, 
whoever, whosoever; U JT kullu ma all 
that ..., whatever, whatsoever; U JS* 
ol ^*Vi j k. ma fl l-amri anna there is 



no more to it than . . . , it's nothing 
but . . . ; cJj JS" kulla waqtin at any 
time, always; At\ 4*~- JjT j fl Mli 
sab'ati ayyamin in each seven days, 
every seven days; *_jJi J& U-kuUi aljin 
per (one) thousand; JbJU- JT (fcttta) a 
new whole, a new entity 

yS" kullamd whenever; the more..., 
in the same measure as . . . | )j£ — \fi 
the more — -the more; <JU» LIT the longer 
it lasted (or lasts) 

JS* kulli total, entire, all-round, over- 
all, sweeping, comprehensive, complete; 
absolute, universal | O J^ *jLi3 {UUSbuh) 
total assimilation (phon.) 

aJ^ kulliya totality, entirety; in- 
tegrity, wholeness, entireness, complete- 
ness; (pi. -at) faculty, school (of a uni- 
versity); college; institute of higher 
learning, academy, secondary school; 
C> US' the complete works (of an author); 
oU£J! the five logical predicates or 
general conceptions (philos.); kulliyatan 
wholly, entirely, totally, absolutely | 
y£Jlj on the whole, in the aggregate, 
altogether ; iJSv! L — V not at all, abso- 
lutely not; 4xJSCj in its entire being, 
completely, totally, entirely, wholly; 
SjU^iJI SuiT commercial college; "Ltj^lS 
(harbiya) military academy 

4 iJS* kulla pi. JJT kulal bullet; cannon ball; 
shell, grenade; a marble 

*& kalld not at all, on the contrary; by 
no means \ certainly not ! never ! no ! (see 
also 1 JT) | ^T * *$s (tumma) a thousand 
times no ! not at all ! 

*^T kalaa a (»JT kal\ **& kila, **& kild'a) 
to guard, preserve, watch, protect (» 
s.o.) VIII to find no sleep (eye) 

"tJS' kala pi. f& 1 aklS grass, herbage, 
pasture 



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*j£ kalu : ^1 *J& k. al-ain sleepless, 
awake 

^ASClt al-mukaUd Mukalla (seaport in 
Southern Yemen) 

^^f see JLif 

JL-'^r HlasiH and Jl- -^T kldsiki olassic(al) 
<SL*y&' kilasiktya, kldslkiya classicism 

^S ~$£ kalaks pi. -at horn (of an automobile) 

C^T^fFr. claqueUe) klaket {eg.) clapper, clap 
stick (moviemaking) 

i^iT kaliba a (kalab) to be seized by hydro- 
phobia; to become mad, crazy; to covet 
greedily (J*, s.th.) II to stir up, rouse (» 
s.o., J* or JU* against s.o.) VI to rage, rave, 
storm; to fall, pounce, rush in (^ upon), 
assail (Jp s.o.); to assail each other, 
rush against each other X to be raging, 
raving, rabid, furious, mad, frenzied, 



^JS" kalb pi. <^^ kildb dog | ,_J&1 
j^TVl the constellation Canis Major with 
its main star Sirius; ji**y\ i-J&l the 
constellation Canis Minor with its main 
star Procyon; j>*J\ ^JT k. al-bahr shark; 
»lil t_JS" otter; beaver 

ILlS" kalba pi. -of bitch; du. obJLT 
(«£., sai«?.-ar.) (pair of) pincers, tongs, 
forceps 

^JS fca£6£ canine (adj.) 

uJT fcaZa6 rabies, hydrophobia; burn- 
ing thirst; greed (J* for) 

<_JT &aZi& affected with rabies, rabid; 
mad; greedy 

cjj ^ kullah and ^JS* kallub pi. (--J^ 
kalallb 2 hook; cramp 



Ij^T kulldba, kalldba pi. -a( (pair of) 
pincers, tongs, forceps 

*_*JT JfcaZSfc pi. JS* kalba affected with 
rabies, rabid, raging 

^J6J takltb agitation, incitement 

,_JISo takdlub fierce struggle, dogfight, 
free-for-all, melee, brawl; avidity, greed 

i_j J&C* maklub rabid, frenzied, crazed, 



(J tAS' kalab§ pi. -a£ (e#.) manacles, handcuffs 
cJ? fcaZato i to pour, pour out (a s.th.) 

Uif, Jif see Sunder JT 

j£ kalaha a {£& kuldh, q& huluh) to 
frown, scowl, look gloomy IV and V 

do. 

4*JT kalaha zone around the mouth, 
mien, facial expression 

*J IT kalih , stern, austere, somber, 
gloomy, dark; dingy, dull (color); livid, 
ashen 

«JS" kalk giant fennel (Ferula communis L.; 
Ferula sinaica B.; boL); — {eg.) kalak 
ammoniac 

ol-U&l al-kalddn the Chaldeans 

tiUJT kaldanl Chaldean (adj. and n.); 
astrologer 

'^.JT II to plaster with lime, whitewash (a 
s.th.); to calcify (a s.th.) V to calcify, 
be calcified {med.) 

<J J$' kils lime 

lS J&' kilsl calcic, limy, lime- (in com- 
pounds) | S-JT Sjlifr limestone 

<-^S* kalldsa limekiln 



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(j-iSo tahallus calcification, calcareous 
degeneration (med.) 

( _ r J^ mukallas calcified 

2 i*JS* (It. calza) Icalsa pi. -at stocking 

^pJl^jT* see u ~jJ_>5'" 

j^-jT (Fr. caJeccw) kalsun pi. -d( (pair of 
men's) drawers 

ik-jr (It. calzetta) kalsita pi. Ja-t>*f kalasip 
stocking 

^-JT kalsiyom calcium 

•uidiTlook up alphabetically 

iiT abbreviation of *\J>^£ kilogram 

(JiJS"" kalifa a (kalaf) to become brownish 
red (face); to become freckled, be 
covered with freckles; to like (u* s.th.), 
be intent, bent, set, keen (uj on), be 
very attached (t_j to s.o. or s.th.), be 
very fond (<~> of s.o. or s.th,); to be in 
love, fall in love (<_j with s.o.) II to 
commission, charge, entrust (« s.o., 
uor jt with), assign (<j or a * to s.o. a 
task, a job); to cost (a * s.o. a certain 
amount) | »J»U- (_iJT (katirahu) (eg.) to 
take the trouble, go to the trouble, 
bother ; to put s.o. to the trouble, bother 
s.o.; U*ki *ulT (satatan) to overtask s.o., 
expect or demand too much of s.o.; 

(...4JLL* or ...aJjja) ...*Up <t— jaJ « JaJS 

( r ana f a, maunata, masaqqata) to take the 
trouble to ... , to bother to ... , go to the 
trouble of...; UiAb Lc <uiT (tamanan) 
to cost s.o. dearly; j, VI <wiT L^* (mahmd, 
amru) whatever it may cost him, at any 
cost V to burden o.s., be burdened (a or 
t-j with s.th.); to take upon o.s. (a a job, 
a task, costs, an office, etc.) ; to take over, 
defray, have to bear (a s.th., e.g., ex- 



penses) ; to do reluctantly or unwillingly, 
do in a studied or affected manner, 
simulate, feign, affect (a s.th.); to force 
o.s. (a to do s.th.), do s.th. (a) with dif- 
ficulty, e.g., <£JL**iJl ,JJ& (dahk) to force 
a laugh; to be affected, mannered, un- 
natural, stiff, formal, ceremonious, punc- 
tilious, stand on ceremony; to employ 
(a e.g., care), spend (J*, a an amount for); 
to cost (Jp s.o., a so-and-so much) | Jj£ 
. . . »Up = . . . >h*. <*ij (JJtf", etc., see II; 
*J\ »Ut (JiiSo 1 ('and' a r-radd) he did 
not even take the trouble to answer 

(JilT kalaf affection, love ; (coll. ; n.un. ») 
freokles | ( _ r ~JtJI ,JJT k, aS-Sams sunspots 
»+Jl}\ (JtiT k. aS-Sams sunspots 

tJiiT kalij very much in love (y with), 
very attached (<^> to), very fond (o 
of) 

<iJT kvXfa pi. (JaJS* kulaf discomfort; 
trouble, inconvenience; nuisance; cere- 
monial, ceremony, formality, ceremo- 
niousness, affect edness of behavior, af- 
fectation, mannerism, pose; costs, ex- 
penses, expenditure, outlay; trimmings, 
fittings, accessories, notions, ornaments 
(buttons, buckles, clasps, braiding, lace, 
etc.); lady's maid 1 4 J ,.., > ,.t i ,JI <Jj£jl (Sanmya) 
the sunspots 

groom 



kallaf stable hand, hostler, 



j^ kalldfl hirer of donkeys 

*J*&\ aklaf\ f. ,UJf kalfa 2 , pi. ^if 
kulf brownish red, russet; freckled; 
spotted 

<JaJ£j takllf pi. .JJISL" takaHf* burden- 
ing, bothering, troubling, inconvenienc- 
ing; commissioning, charging; burden, 
annoyance, nuisance, bother; trouble, 
inconvenience, discomfort; fuss, ado; 
formality, ceremonial of courtesy, cer- 
emony; constraint; obligation; inflic- 



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tion; taxation, encumbrance with a tax; 
obligation to pay, cost computation (for 
s.o.); commandment (of God); religious 
obligation, obligation to observe the pre- 
cepts of religion (IsL Law) ; legal capacity 
(Isl. Law); pi. <J*J15*j duties, taxes; ex- 
penses, costs, charges | JaJ& *& in- 
formally), unceremoniously ), without 
(standing on) ceremony; ^JJSjJI iJiiT 
kaSf at~L terrier; iiwJJ t_iJl£) t. al-ma'Ua 
cost of living 

4a15*j taklifa cost computation 

«JiJ& iahalluj constraint, unnatural - 
ness of manner; mannerism, airs, af- 
fectation, affected behavior; studied, 
unnatural manner; dissimulation, hypoc- 
risy; strain, exertion, endeavor 

.JiJSv. mukallaf commissioned, author- 
ized, charged (c-> with); obligated, under 
obligation, liable {^> to do s.th.), respon- 
sible (<-> for); bound, obliged (u-> to do 
s.th.); subject to taxation, taxable; tax- 
payer; obligated to observe the precepts 
of religion (Isl. Law); legally capable 
sane in mind, compos mentis, = Jai£* 
U^i (Sar'an; IsL Law); s.o. subject to 
military duty; authorized agent (<-# for) | 
bj}JtS \t JaSSl* charge d'affaires, diplomatic 
envoy; aL^'SII Jl^b JtSSi* (quTtsullya) 
agent responsible for consular affairs 

4A&* mukallaf a pi. -at (eg.) terrier 

,JiJS*jl» mutakallaf formal, ceremonial, 
ceremonious; affected, studied, forced, 
outward, sham, false, artificial | l&e? 
Ia&<u (dakka) forced laugh 

iiJf kalak pi. -at (ir.) raft of inflated 
skins 

cSiS" look up alphabetically 

l&f kalkattd Calcutta (city in NE India) 



pS"^ kalaki' 2 : j»Ua*II ^S^ k. al-'izam bone 
fragments 

J&T kalkala and II takalkala to become 
callous (skin) 

J£JS* kalkal pi. JS^ kalakil 2 chest, 
thorax | JSVS" dJ-, *&Jf cJ- under the 
oppressive burden of s.th.; tJSCJSCj *U to 
oppress s.o. gravely, weigh heavily upon 
s.o. 

iJSOT kalkala callosity, callus 

J&S*-. mukalkal callous (skin) 

1 lT II to address (» s.o.), speak, talk (• to 
or with s.o.) Ill to speak, talk, converse 
(» with s.o.) V to speak, talk (« with or 
to s.o., ^ or J* about, of); to utter, 
express, voice, say (<-> or a s.th.) 

Jf JfcaZm pi. pi^ kulum, a*^ kildm 
wound, cut, slash 

4*JS" kalima pi. -a£ (coli. IS* kalim) 
word; speech, address ; utterance, remark, 
saying; aphorism, maxim; brief announce- 
ment, a few (introductory) words; short 
treatise; importance, weight, influence, 
authority, ascendancy, powerful position [ 
*J& <J& kalimatan fa-kalimatan word by 
word, literally ; ^y- 1 <*JS*j (ufcrd) in other 
words; ZJS* IJi alqa kalimatan to make 
a speech, give a public address ; <±\** l+.o J 
I've got to talk to you; J* &4 1 *" \j**~. 
(jama'u kalimatahum) they decided u- 
nanimously to . . ., they were unanimous 
about . . . ; rt^JS* C-*^>- 1 ijtama T at kalima* 
tuhum they united, joined forces, came to 
an agreement ; J* *-&■+» C-**^-l they were 
agreed that...; <JS*J1 4j*yJ or <JS*JI ^ 
/am' aZ-&. union, joining of forces, unanim- 
ity; 4-J&1 j>UH ittihad al-k. concord, agree- 
ment, harmony; <JS*Jl ~J£ dissension, 
variance, disunion; <uJb JpI (a* la) to 
raise the prestige of s.o. ; aJ&I Jlp r uluw 
al-k. and LJLJi U&l ( r ulyd) supremacy, 



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hegemony; <£*J£" jUhe said what he had 
to say, he had his say; Zi\ US' the word 
of God, the Holy Scriptures; O jjJ>\ i+K' 
password, watchword, parole; ^JljJI CjUSCJI 
( r asr) the ten. Commandments; <uJ~$/ i*JT 
(tamhidiya) preface; ^~J! <*J£* k. as-sirr, 
sJ\ ]S~ &aZtm. as-sirr parole, password, 
watchword, countersign; ^Lliu oUiT 
(mutaqdtV a) crossword puzzle 

>»^5 kaldm talking, speaking; speech; 
language, mode of espression, style; 
talk, conversation, discussion; debate, 
dispute, controversy; words, word, say- 
ing, utterance, statement, remark; apho- 
rism, maxim, phrase, idiom, figure of 
speech; (gram.) sentence, clause | ^^SCjb 
orally, verbally; f&U «*i «3 (famahu) 
to open one's mouth in order to say 
s.th., prepare to say s.fch.; pj!i *^T idle 
talk, prattle, poppycock, bosh, nonsense; 
p^Wl *iij» manner of speaking, diction; 
j»:>0 J* r ilm al-k. scholastic theology 
(IsL); a'^SOI jiS~ talkative, loquacious, 
garrulous; ^^501 UJ foyfltf a^&. colloquial 
language, everyday speech 

t/tJS kalami of or pertaining to speech 
or words, speech-, word- (in compounds), 
verbal; spoken, oral; scholastic, theo- 
logical | v^ s -*^* {musddda), iT^. 
V^* (ma'raka) battle of words, dispute, 
altercation 

^JS fcaZim pi. ^.JT fca/ma wounded, 
injured; sore; — (pi. ,[& hilamd" 2 ) 
person addressed; speaker, spokesman, 
mouthpiece | *al JT epithet of Moses 

^JS see also alphabetically 

oL-lS" kulaim&t a few short words 

J^iS kalmani, kalamdnl, killimani elo- 
quent; fluent speaker 

/•^Xj tikldm, tikilldm and i»*$^j tiklama, 
tikillama eloquent; good talker, con- 



versationalist; talkative, loquacious, gar- 
rulous 

*L\Sl* mvkdlama pi. -at talk, conversa- 
tion, discussion | *JjaJS U15C telephone 
conversation 

^" takallum speaking; talk, conversa- 
tion; speech 

i£u mutakallim speaking (act. part,); 
speaker, spokesman; first person (gram.); 
Muslim theologian, scholastic 

2 p? abbreviation of J^JS kilometer 

y$" kullamd see 3 JT 

UjJlT look up alphabetically 

•^S ' Hid see under JT; kalld look up alpha- 
betically 

•jAS", <j!j^ (j^^see ~*J& kulya 

jJS'kalwara to chlorinate (a water) 

^jjijjJS'kldroform chloroform 

Lj^K"see Wl*L^" 

4 5 JS* &%a and S^JT &wfcm pi. J& kulan, 
n {^j^* kalawi kidney 

fjj^" kvlwl of or pertaining to the 
kidneys, renal, nephric, nephritic, nephro- 
(in compounds) | ^JT vW^' inflamma- 
tion of the kidneys, nephritis; ^iS* fJ *i A 
(mags) renal colic 

t-tAS' kili$ek , kliseh pi. -a( cliche^ 

^iS killm pi. i*JTl aklima kilim, carpet, rug 
(usually long and narrow) 

^ kam (interrogative and exclamatory par- 
ticle with foil, noun in ace.) how much? 



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how many? how much! | dil IjU^ f* (wa* 
ladan) how many sons do you have? f 
Ija (marratan) or Zj* j* jf how many 
times? how often? how often! (Sj^^i *f 
(harly) how much more . . . ! how much 
rather . ..! <£> for how much? how much 
(is it)? *^. f (nakaituhu) how often I 
forbade him ! 

2 r kamm amount, quantity | 5sJl aj^^ wzzet* 
nya( aZ-&. quantum theory (phys.) 

^ kamml quantitative 

<S kammiya pi. -a( amount, quantity, 
magnitude 

— 5o takmim quantification, reduction 
of phenomena to measurable amounts or 
quantities 

3 f kamma u (kamm) to cover, cover up, con- 
ceal, hide, cloak (a s.th.) ; to plug up, stop 
up (a s.th.); to muzzle (o s.o.) | <i f* 
(famahu) to stop s.o.'s mouth, silence s.o. 
II to muzzle, gag (» s.o.); to muffle s.o.'s 
(*) mouth; to silence by authority or 
violence (o s.o., a the press, etc.); O to 
spike {a a cannon); to provide with 
sleeves (a a garment) IV to provide with 
sleeves (* a garment) 

if kumm pi. j»u I akmdm, XS kimama 
sleeve 

f kimm pi. aLTI akmam, if I akimma, 
f ! J" kimdm, — ITI atow 8 calyx (6o£.); 
perianth (6o(.) 

ptT kimam muzzle 

Uir kimama pi. -<z£, /Uf kamaim 2 
muzzle; cloth for muffling the mouth; 
mask; O gas mask; perianth, calyx 

£*So to&mim gagging, muzzling; sup- 
pression (esp. of the press) 

*f and > 6 abbreviation of j^j^ kilometer 



►5** &am s pi. jf\ akmu* truffle; mushroom 
slT ham' a (pi.) truffles 

^ ka-md see 2 iS fca 

j^" kamdn violin, fiddle 

^ ^T kamdn ji player of a a*^jT (q.v.) 

l-X (Engl.) km& camp 

^-jUT (Fr.) kumbdrs extra, supernumerary 
(theat.) 

rjS kambrij and r^j^ bambrid£ Cambridge 

C-j jS kambarit batiste, cambric 

\*sjS kambodya, kambodyd and (Magr.) 
^jS}\ al-kambod£ Cambodia 

*ZjS kambusa (eg.) prompter's box (theat.) 

yL-5" (It. cambiale) kambiydla pi. -at bill of 
exchange, draft 

j~S (It. can /bio) kambiyo exchange, money 
exchange ; rate of exchange 

cS kamuta u (kamt) to suppress (a one's 
anger) 

C~S kumait (m. and f.) reddish-brown, 
chestnut, bay, maroon 

^JS kummatra (coll.; n. un. SijtT kum* 
matrdh pi. oly kummatraydt) pear 

«5 kamaha a (kamh) to pull up, rein in 
(a an animal) IV do. 

X *S karnaka a (kamk) with <uil> bi-anfihi: to 
turn up one's nose, be haughty IV = I 

fAj kumdk pride, haughtiness, over- 
weening, self-conceit 



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r fX" kdmak, kdmiJc pi. f\jf kaiuamik 2 vine- 
gar sauce, pickle; (mixed) pickles 

Z \±S kamkd silk fabric, damask 

jlT kamida a (kamd) to be sad, grieved, 
distressed, heartsick; to be smutty, 
swarthy, dull, fiat (color); to fade, lose 
color, become discolored II to apply a 
hot compress, a hot pack (* to a limb) 
IV to sadden, grieve, worry, make heart- 
sick (» s.o.) IX to become smutty, swarthy, 
dull, flat ; to darken, become dark (color) 

jLT kamd, kamad and SaT kumda 
dull, swarthy color; dullness, duskiness. 
Bwarthiness; sadness, grief 

JJ kamid and xS kamid sad, grieved, 
worried, heartsick; gloomy, dark 

j \(5 kimdd and ol^ limdda compress, 
pack, warm bandage 

jCi I akmad 2 dark- colored, blackish, 
swarthy 

lS3 takmid application of hot com- 
presses, fomentation 

JL.lT kamid sad, grieved, worried, heart- 
sick; gloomy, dark; swarthy, dark-colored 

JL$C mukammad and S-iX. mukam* 
mada pi. -at compress, pack, warm band- 
age 

X J? kamar pi. j\Tl akmdr belt 

aji kamara pi. -at beam, girder, specif., 
iron girder; arm, jib | yU- S^f (hamm&la) 
and (jii^JI uL^a5 J^*^ ~*Ji (qudbdn al-win$) 
beam, bridge (of a traveling crane) 

z jj$l> makmuT (eg.) dish of chopped meat 
and vegetables 

8 ij^*lT, Sj^iTlook up alphabetically 



i\jf (syr.) gumruk pi. ilj\f gamdrik 2 customs; 
customhouse 

Sj* gumruki customs-, tariff- (in com- 
pounds) 

ijjj&\ al-kamirun, al-kamrun Cameroon 
(country in W Africa) 

(3j[~S kumsdrl pi. SjjI-JT kumsdriya (eg.) 
(streetcar, railroad, etc.) conductor 

jS kamasa u (kams) to seize, grasp, grip, 
clutch (* s.th.) V to become wrinkled, 
to wrinkle; to shrink; to contract; to 
recoil within o.s., cower, quail VII to 
become wrinkled, to wrinkle; to shrink; 
to contract; to tighten, become cramped, 
be convulsed; to recoil within o.s., cower, 
quail; to withdraw within o.s., become 
or be preoccupied with o.s., be self- 
absorbed; to collect one's thoughts, 
gather one's strength, concentrate (also 
with <l~joJ Jp) 

<tf kamsa a handful 

jS kamis, ^jf kamis adroit, skill- 
ful, skilled ] jijVi JtS k. al-izdr do.; 
efficient, active, diligent, industrious 

a^]^ kammdsa pi. -at (pair of) pliers 

^ijj&l inkimds absorption, preoccupa- 
tion, self- absorption 

^Scjk munkamU shrunk; cramped, 
clenched, convulsed; absorbed, preoccu- 
pied, self-absorbed, introverted 

S III to sleep ( 6 with s.o.), embrace (»s,o.), 
have sexual intercourse (« with s.o.) 

*S kaml r bedfellow 

jf kamala, kamula u and kamila a {<}\f 
kamdl, Jy kumul) to be or become 
whole, entire, integral, perfect, complete; 
to be finished, done, completed, ac- 



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complished; to be concluded, come to a 
close II and IV to finish, wind up, 
conclude, complete, consummate (a B.th.) ; 
to carry out, execute (a s.th.); to perfect, 
round out, complement, supplement 
(a s.th.) VI and VIII to be perfect, 
consummate, integral, be or become 
complete, finished, done, accomplished, 
concluded; to reach completion, fulfill- 
ment or perfection, to mature, ripen; to 
be perfected X to complete (a s.th.); to 
perfect (a s.th.); to round out, comple- 
ment, supplement (a s.th.); to carry 
out, meet, fulfill (a s.th., e.g., condi- 
tions) 

(j\f kamal pi. -at perfection; complete- 
ness; completion, consummation, con- 
clusion, termination, windup; maturity, 
ripeness | <d )*sj in its full scope, complete- 
ly, entirely, wholly, totally; aU^I J if 
bodybuilding 

i±\f Jcamdli luxury, luxurious, de luxe; 
oU^ luxuries; luxury; comforts, amen- 
ities 

*}}f kamdla (colloq.) that which fills up 
or completes a weight or number, a com- 
plement; addition, supplement 

jTl akmal 2 more complete, more 
perfect | <JLTLi entirely, wholly, totally; 
l«lf L u-d all London 

J-& talcmll completion, complement- 
ing, perfecting, perfection; conclusion, 
termination, windup; consummation, 
execution 

JJi takmill completing, complement- 
ing, complementary, supplementary | 
J-ft <-jUcjI by-election; ^LSj o.jJi* 
{imdrasa) and «JL& pi. -at (Leb., Magr.) 
approx.: intermediate school (grades 
complementary to primary education) 

ilivj takmila supplement, complement 

lHjTI ikmal completion, complement- 



ing, perfecting, perfection; conclusion, 
termination; windup; consummation, ex- 
ecution 

J,.l£j takamul integration; unification 
to a perfect whole j ^.sL^ijI J«»15o econom- 
ic integration; J^l&Ji ,_jL*- integral cal- 
culus (math.) 

J^lxJ takamuli integrative; all-in- 
cluding and unifying to form a perfect 
whole | 4JLIS0 lu-jJL* (madrasa) compre- 
hensive school (integrating all grades) 

j£5"l iktimdl completion; maturity, 
ripeness 

J^XL-I islikmal conclusion, termination, 
finishing 

J^tf kamil pi. "*!& kamala perfect, 
consummate; genuine, sterling; complete, 
full, plenary, full- strength; completed, 
concluded; whole, entire, total, integral; 
name of a poetic meter; folio format 
(paper) | 4LI& wholly, entirely, totally, 
altogether, in its entirety; O J*&~ frl 
(laban) unskimmed, full-bodied milk 

Jx. mukammil; pi. Cj'^SL* appurte- 
nances, accessory objects; accessories (esp. 
for stylish women's clothing) 

J^tXz* mutakd?nil perfect; total, com- 
plete; integrative; integral; integrated 

J* kamana u and kamina a {Ojf kumun) 
to hide; to be hidden, concealed, latent; 
to have its secret seat ( j in) ; to ambush, 
waylay (J s.o.) | J (*V*I) <uuJ j£j 
(qlmatuhu, ahammlyatuhu) its value (or 
its importance) lies in . . ., consists in 
the fact that ... V to lie in wait (J for 
s.o.), ambush, waylay {J s.o.) X to hide, 
lie concealed 

iJf kumna black cataract (med.) 
d\f look up alphabetically 



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djf kumun: O ^^0' 
al-k. latent phase, latency (med., psych.) 

djf kammun cumin (Cuminum cy- 
minum L. ; hot.) | i^-i Ojf black caraway, 
black cumin (Nigella sativa L.; bot.); djf 
£j (barri) do.; J^ Qjf (hulw) anise, 
aniseed 

{jS kamin pi. *L5" kumand' 2 hidden, 
lying in ambush; ambush, secret attack | 
\^S j 3 (dabbara) to hatch a plot; i_~- ii 
hS «J to set a trap for s.o. 

^yC makman \A. ^S^* makdmin* 
place where s.th. is hidden; ambuscade; 
ambush, hiding place; subterranean de- 
posit or reservoir {of minerals, crude oil) | 
jj\ Jk* bj> huna m. as-sirr that's where 
the secret lies 

^yC kamin hidden, concealed, latent; 
secret; pi. ^jS" kawdmin 2 underlying 
factors, hidden background, latent depths 

U*xJ" kamanjd and lUjjf kamanja oriental 
stringed instrument having one or two 
strings; (Western) violin, fiddle 

jjf kamah blindness (from birth) 

if\ akmah 2 , f. *L$jf kamha 2 , pi. «tf 
kumh blind, born blind 

jf kamly pi. Z\f kumah, Af\ akma' armed 
and ironclad, in full armor; brave, 
valiant, courageous 

djjS}\ al-kamirun Cameroon (country in 
W Africa) 



calm down, subside, abate (wind) II to 
hide, conceal, secrete, keep secret (* 
s.th.); to calm, quiet, still, assuage (* 
s.th.) IV to hide, conceal, secrete, keep 
secret (a s.th.) VIII to be hidden, be 
concealed X to be hidden, be concealed; 
to seek shelter; to lie comfortably, nestle, 
cuddle, snuggle; to calm down 

^ kann, kinn pi. o\S\ aknan, iSl 
akinna place where one is sheltered;, 
cover, shelter, retreat, refuge; nest; 
home, house, hut; arbor, bower 

<S" kanna pi. $\S kand'in 2 daughter- 
in-law; sister-in-law 

i5~ kinna shelter, cover, covering 

iiT kunna pi. -at, obi"" kinan shed 
roof, pent roof, awning 

0b5* kinan pi. *S\ akinna shed roof, 
pent roof, awning 

*j L5^ kindna pi. -at, Jtb5* kanain 2 quiv- 
er (for arrows) | aJLT ^y»j\ ard kindna, 
4j*U53l Egypt (land of the Kinana tribe) 

Oji^ kdnun pi. ,> J I^T kawdnin* stove 

u^jlT kdnun: JjVI JjJlT k. al-aunwl 
December (Syr., Leb. y Jord., Ir.); OyK 
JUJl k. at-tdni January (Syr.> Let., 
Jord., Ir.) 

^'S kanln hidden, concealed; well- 
kept 

0j&* maknun hidden, concealed; well- 
kept; hidden content; pi. Cj\j j^L* hidden 
things 



OjS (Ft. camion) kamiyon pi. -at truck, b^~ hanar edge, rim, border, fringe, hem, 
lorry 

^ kanna u (kann, bjS kunun) to hide (a 
s.th.); to conceal, cover, cloak (a s.th.); 
to shelter, ensconce, contain (a s.th.); 
to harbor (J a friendship toward); to 



i f jj\^kandrl canary | ^jbSDl jj»- juzur al-k. 
Canary Islands 

1 « r Ji" kanab callosity, callus 



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987 



J& 



kanib and <_-i$C muknib callous 



(skin) 



2 <ji' (Fr. cana'pi) kunaba pi. -a* and 4-fT 
kanabeh pi. -of sofa 

tSjjz£'. hjj£ bj**~ totiut kontiiriya con- 
tours, outlines 

Jjf ^T kangaru kangaroo {eg.) 

l i^T kunud ingratitude 

zjf kanud ungrateful 

a lA^ kanadd Canada 

tfxfkanadi Canadian; (pi. -un) a Cana- 
dian | tf&f 3jjj (zauraq) Canadian canoe 
(sport) 

l jxf hundur frankincense 

*"*jxf kundura pi. jjL5** Icanadir 2 (syr.) 
(Western-style) shoe 

jjX^kanduz (eg.) beef 

J>xf kundus magpie 

jbT look up alphabetically 

jS" kamza i (kanz) to bury (^jV I j in the 
ground, a a treasure); to pile up, heap 
up, lay up, accumulate, amass, collect, 
gather, save, hoard (a s.th.) YIH to be 
firm, compact, sturdy, strapping; to ac- 
cumulate, amass, gather (a money, treas- 
ures); to hide (a money, treasures) 

jf kanz pi. j^S~ hunnz treasure 

jS" kaniz firm, compact (flesh) ; sturdy, 
strapping (body) 

t'jZkinza (syr.) pullover 

}\^\ iktindz strong, sturdy build, 



sturdiness, compactness, stoutness (of 
the body) 

3^^. muktaniz firm, compact (flesh); 
sturdy (body); compressed, pinched 
(lips); massive, strong; — muktanaz accu- 
mulated, amassed; hidden, buried 

J$' kanasa u (leans) to sweep (a the house) 
II do. 

^JS* kans sweeping, cleaning 

i~iS3l al-kansa visit of the uleina to 
the tomb of the Imam al-Shafi'i where 
they sweep away the dust 

^LT kannds sweeper; street sweeper, 
street cleaner 

S^U5~ kundsa sweepings, refuse, gar- 
bage, offal 

^-juS" kanis nose bag 

^f kanls synagogue 

4~ju5" kanisa pi. ^\S' kana'is 2 church 
(Chr.); synagogue, temple (Jud.) 

lS Jf kanasi and ^\S kanaial ec- 
clesiastical) ; clerical 

"LJSL miknasa pi. ^KC* makdnis 2 
broom; O sweeper, street sweeper (ma- 
chine) | yb^T i«iSC (kahraba'iya) vac- 
uum cleaner 

^USC miknds 2 , S-LSC miknasa 2 Meknes 
(city in N Morocco) 

4-JlT kanisa: pUJl i*JlT minesweeper 
(boat) 

^bS'kunndS pi. i J^\S kandnli 2 (mar., tun.) 
notebook; exercise book; booklet, bro- 
chure 

iiUT kunndSa pi. -at notebook; mem- 
oranda; miscellany, miscellaneous col- 
lection of notes, remarks, principles, etc. 



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988 



J^^T (Fr. console) kunsol pi. -a£ console 

oLo5~ kan T dn 2 Canaan 

Jl^T feon'ont Canaanitic; (pi. -un) 
Canaanite; 4JLcS3l Canaanitio (language) 

j*^ kangar kangaroo 



kanafa u (kanf) to guard, protect (« 
s.o.) ; to fence in, hedge, provide with an 
enclosure (a s.th.); to surround (a s.th., 
» s.o.); to help, assist (« s.o.) Ill and IV 
to shelter, protect, help, assist (» s.o.) 
VIII to surround (on both sides), enclose, 
embrace (a s.th.); to encircle, encompass 
{» s.o., a s.th.) 

JfiSkanaf pi. JsUTi aknaf wing; side, 
flank; shadow, shelter, pale, fold, bosom | 
.Ja'.C j under cover of . . ., in an atmos- 
phere of . . .; •uLS' ,j ^iU he lived under 
his wing or his protection; 6\£\ j under 
his aegis, under his sponsorship 

dibs' kundfa, pi. -af vermicelli baked 
in sugar, melted butter and honey 



kanlf pi. oJiiS - " kunuf water 
closet, toilet; public lavatory 

JstsSL* muktanaf surrounded, enclosed 

(vW 

^iliiT (Engl.) kanjd& canvas 

yijXfcT and SJlj-ufcT konfidrdltya, famfidi* 
raliya confederation 

~&f kanaka ( = SSuj; eg.) pi. -a( coffee pot 

1 J&5' kankana to stay at home; to settle 
down, make o.s. at home; to nestle, snug- 
gle, cuddle up 

2 L*£J5* kanaklnd quinine 

*S VIII to fathom, probe, sound, in- 



vestigate, explore (a s.th.), look (a into 
s.th.); to get to the bottom (a of s.th.); 
to understand thoroughly, grasp in its 
entirety (a s.th.) X to seek to explore 
or find out (a s.th.); to fathom, discover, 
find out, grasp, understand (a s.th.) 

«cT kunh utmost degree, extreme; 
core, essence, substance, true nature, 
essential being | ii^*il *S asjm ya'rifuhu 
kunha l-ma f rifa he understands it most 
thoroughly, he grasps its very essence 

ol.$i£j iakannuhdt = oU^SjT 

ftl^Tl iktindh and »U&J istikndh 
fathoming, penetration, exploration 

jj^S" kanahwar cumuli 

(jS' and JT) UT kand u and J5* hand i 
(4jUT kindya) to use metonymically 
(^ c-i s.th. for); to allude (^ t-> with 
s.th. to); to express indirectly (^ s.th., 

V b y) J — <i^ kcma i ( \& kunya) and 
II to name by the kunya (instead of by 
one's own name), designate as "father 
of . . .", "mother of . . ." (« s.o., *_> ac- 
cording to the name of the son) | jf\j ^ 
l£Lt\ {tukannd) she is named after her 
oldest son (e.g., Umm Tammam, mother 
ofT.);^ j\j tjS they named him (by 
his kunya) Abu f Umar; jf 11 s^T do. 

V and VIII to be known or name oneself 
by the kunya (*j after the son, i.e., as 
"father of . . .", "mother of . . .") 

4^ kunya pi. jf kunan surname, 
agnomen (consisting of abu or umm 
followed by the name of the son) 

4jLT kindya indirect expression, meton- 
ymy (rhet.); allusion; indirect declara- 
tion of (legal) intent (Id. Lata) | SuUSClb 
indirect, not clear and unequivocal (as 
opposed to fcj*)\ & 5jUT jt* it is tanta- 
mount to ... , it means . . . , it stands 
for ..., it consists in ...; a& hbS~ ku 



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zf 



ndyatan r an tantamount to; in lieu of, 
instead of 

alp ^SU makmy 'anhu metonymically 
expressed 

j£. mukannan named by a kunya (see 
above) 

C— juS31 al-kneset the Knesset (Israeli parlia- 
ment) 

^l^and wU^see iS *d* J if 

V_^T kahraba to electrify, electrize (a s.th.); 
to ionize (a s.th.) II takahraba to be 
electrified, be electrized, become electric; 
to be charged with electricity; to be 
ionized 

\j^~ kahraba electrization, electrifica- 
tion; electricity 

^j^ kahrab pi. vjW^ kahdrib 2 elec- 
tron 

J jif kahrabl electric ; electrician 

i^j^r kahrabiya electricity 

Vjh^ kuhairib pi. -at electron 

<_3jv$5* kuhairibi electronic, electron- 
tin compounds) [ (J^n^&l _^l (mijhar) 
electron microscope 

J j l$5~ kaharibi electronic, electron- (in 
compounds) 

»ljj*T kahraba 3 , kahrubd' amber; elec- 
tricity; »bj|^Jl (egr., obs.) the streetcar, 
the trolley 

J^^S* kahraba? i, kahrubd'i electric(al) ; 
electrician | Jlj^^T jU , {tayydr) elec- 
tric current; ILIl^S" *jmU- storage bat- 
tery, secondary battery, accumulator; 
d*jif rU« (mi$bdk) electric lamp, 
lightbulb; Jb^T ^^ diathermy; iU 
^.j*f electrophysicist; Jlj^T t^H^** 
(maj/na/ts) electromagnet; <j\jj^~ : „ ; l,: - 



electro magnetism ; dhj^? jy (nur) electric 
light 

yLj^S" kahraba' iya, kahriibd'iya elec- 
tricity 

Vj4^-» mukahrab electrically charged, 
electrized, electrified; O electrically con- 
ductive, conducting, ionized; O electri- 
cally ignited, provided with electric 
ignition 

(S ^ >j4$~ hahratisi electromagnetic 

*j£ kahratisiya electro magnetism 



dltj+f kahmmdn amber 

(Jl* j£ kahramani made of amber 

(Ji^T kahf pi. J*,>^r &«Aw/ cave, cavern; 
depression, hollow; cavity (also med.) \ 
ijjjj <Ja^ (nawl) pulmonary cavern 

(med.); Ca^}\ ^Ufl the Seven Sleepers 

tJo^Xj takahhuf cavitation (med.) 

J^T kahala a (J>g5" kuhul), kahula u (5J_^T 
kuhuh) and VIII to be middle-aged, be 
at the height of one's life 

J^5" kahl pi. J^5" kuhhal, Jt$5" kihal, 
J^T kuhul, u*^$" kuhlan middle-aged, 
man of mature age 

U^r kuhula maturity of age 

JjhlT kdhil pi. JaIjS* kawdhil 2 nape of 
the neok; upper part of the back; withers | 
jlUIT JJa? (taqqala) to load, burden, en- 
cumber s.o. or s.th., e.g., o\yl\ JaIT JJ*j 
(A;, al-mlzan) to burden the budget; 
«1aIT <%£ n_-<JI ^Jl^ (f. aZ-W) unburden- 
ing, disencumbrance of s.o. or s.th. 

I»l$5" kahlma dullness, bluntness; lassitude 
languor, weakness 

J j$5* kahuna a u (^lg5* kahdna) to predict 
the future, tell the fortune (<j of s.o), 



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990 



prophesy (J to s.o.) V to predict, fore- 
tell, presage, prophesy (<_j s.th.) 

iJl^S' kakdna prediction; prophecy 

ULfS* kihdna divination, soothsaying, 
fortunetelling 

CjjLqS* kahnut, kahanut priesthood | 
oy^&l JU-j the clergy, the ministry 

dyif kahanuti priestly, sacerdotal, 
ministerial, clerical, ecclesiastic(al) 

aJj^ kahanuti y a priesthood 

^£. makhan (place of an) oracle 

j^£j takahhun pi, -at prediction, 
prophecy; conjecture, surmise 

^S" kahin pi. jl^T kuhhan, ^T 
kahana diviner, soothsayer, prognostica- 
tor, fortuneteller ; priest j a^S3I ^-a? j and 
i^SOl jS high priest 

j^So> mutakahhin diviner, soothsayer, 
prognosticator, fortuneteller 

2 <^5* kuhna rags, shreds, scrap, junk; rag- 
ged, tattered 

j>*^r kuhnaji ragman, ragpicker 

<Xfi kihaya administrative district (formerly, 
Tun.) 

ijb^* kahiya pi. «i_jT kawahin chief 
officer of a iA*f ( formerly, Tun.); deputy, 
vice- (Tun.) 

Zjf kuwwa pi. -at, ^jf kuwan, Ajf kiwa 
aperture; small window; attic window, 
skylight; peephole 

j\j\jf kwdzar pi. -at quasar (astron.) 

j*ilj$" (Fr. coiffeur) kuwafer hairdresser; 
o^vil^S lady hairdresser 

JJ \jf kawalini pi. -ya locksmith 



1 <-j» -> T faib pi. ^'jTI ctoofc drinking glass, 
tumbler; cup 

*jj5" Hi&a drinking glass, tumbler; 
hearts (in a deck of cards) 

2 \jjf kubd Cuba 

tj j* kvhi Cuban (adj. and n.) 

4jj>j5~ (It. coperta) kubarta deck (of a ship) 

(_$ j ^ (Turk, koprii) kubri pi. D tSj\^~ kab&n 
bridge {eg.) 

A^j$~ kdbinhag, {fr^rtj* kobinhdgin (Eg. 
spelling) and ^{^jf Copenhagen 

o_^_jT(Fr.) kubon, kupon pi. -a J coupon 

Lj_jT* (It. copia) kobiya copy j Lj^S" ji gakm 
A. copying pencil, indelible pencil 

J-j^ (Engl, cobble) cobbled pavement, cob- 
blestones 

o^T (It. copia) kobiya copy 

Co^SsJi al-kuwait Kuwait j *l~j_>£Ji *Jji daw* 
2a* aJ-A\ State of Kuwait 

JjT (Engl, cutter) kotar pi. J\jf kawatir* 
(eg.) cutter, yawl 

ijSJ* kauiiti pi. -at see J^jT (alphabetically) 

oJiJjT kut$ina see ijJuT 

<y £a«|a fertility; abundance, profusion 

JjT kautar much, ample, abundant, plenti- 
ful; large quantity; jj£& al-kautam&me 
of a river in Paradise 

Jj^5" kautal stern (of a ship) 

^jZ* see ^jT 



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1 r-jf kuk pi. rl^i ahmk hut 

2 4^ IT look up alphabetically 

1 (ijT) :>£" &&&i (1st pers. perf. kidtu) imperf. 
jISCj yakadu to be on the point (jl of 
doing s.th.), be about {jl to do s.th); 
(with imperf.) it wouldn't have taken 
much more . . . , he (it) all but . . . ; he 
(would have) almost ... | c>j£ •iS" he 
almost died; «_-*:> I OaT kidtu adhabu I 
almost went; fJul! S^- j OjSi^ il$o 
(hukmi l-'adam) it is almost as good as 
nonexistent; (with neg. corresponding 
to Engl, "hardly, scarcely, barely; no 
sooner..., as soon as...":) >jJJj .sCT U 
no sooner had he got up ...; (jj :>!& V 
(tard) you will hardly ever see, or, you 
barely see, or, the moment you see ... ; 
Ulj- JtSo i lam yakad yardha no sooner 
had he seen her, the moment he saw her; 
JL»- — jlSo J and JU- — jS" U no sooner — 
than, as soon as he — he ... , the moment 
he — he ...; alSCj Vj (foil, a verbal 
clause) . . . and barely even that, and 
hardly that 

alT kdd: ilSCjlj almost, nearly; see also 
alphabetically 

'ijT II to heap up, pile up (a s.th.) 

ZijT kauda pi. aIjTI akwdd heap, pile 

tilj ^ji" (e^.) kvdyit zdr woman leader of 
the Zar ritual 

'(pjT kodl encoded, enciphered; code (in 
compounds) | l^T JjUj code messages; 
tpjT *5j (rfiwym) code number 

bjT II to roll, roll up, coil, roll into a ball 
(a s.th.) ; to wind (a the turban) ; to make 
round, ball-shaped (a s.th.); to clench 
[cJlS qabdatahu one's fist) V to become 
round, be or become ball-shaped, glob- 
ular, spherical; to curl up (in a lying 



position); to conglomerate, form or 
gather into a ball 

jjf kur pi. j\jT\ ahwdr, j^5"l abwur, 
o\jS" kiran camel saddle; forge; furnace, 
smelting furnace; bellows 

Sj^* kura pi. jjf" kuwar district, rural 
district; small town; village; ball (= Zjf) 

ijjjf see below, alphabetically 

Sjl^T kuwdra pi. J\jf kaivd'ir 2 beehive 

ijjjjf kurawl ball-shaped, globular, 
spherical 

jjSi» mikwar and ojj$L> mikwara turban 

jjSi, mukawwar ball-shaped, globular, 
round 

z jC look up alphabetically 

Jlj^T(Fr. chorale) kordl pi. -at (eg.) choir | 
Jlj^T "<iij firqat k. do. 

IU-jjSOIj bil-kauraja in the bulk, wholesale, 
in the lump 

OjSjjS" (Ft. cordon) kordon pi. -at cordon; 
ribbon, braid, lace, trimming 

^jjT (Engl.) koras chorus (also fig.); choir 

\SL^j J S' korsikd Corsica 

•u-j^S" (Fr. corset) korseh pi. ol^-j^S** korse* 
hat corset 

£jjjT, dLjjf (Turk, kiirek) kurek forced labor 

^r^jj? (Er. corniche) see J^^ 

Lj^ koriyd Korea | 4-JUiJI {jjjf^amdliya) 
North Korea; S-jj^' kjjf (fanubiya) 
South Korea 

ijj jf kori Korean 



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^jf kuz pi. ji^l a&waz, b\j£ klzdn small 
jug of clay or tin; mug, tankard | SjJUl J_j5~ 
k. ad-dura (eg.) corncob 

2 jC look up alphabetically 

1 < j*^ kus pi. -at small drum 

^IT &as pi. (-r ''^5'l akwds — ^k^S"" 

\r2j^* kwwayyis {eg.) nice, fine, pretty, 
comely, handsome, beautiful 

^r-jTi a&was 2 more beautiful, prettier, 



4 L-^S"or ^jfkusa (coll.; n, un. aU^ kusah, 
□ ^UjTfcusaj/a; eg,, «>/r.) zucchini 

ISo jU-'jS* kostarikd Costa Rica 

^-jT kausaj sword fish (Xiphias gladius) 

(jijTlI to amass, heap up, gather up, snatch 
{a, eg. J*, s.th.) 

<£jf ku$a pi. Jijfi kmcctS kiln (specif,, 
limekiln) 

£jS"fcfl' pi. £JjTl akwa% o\»S kVan projecting 
carpal end of the radius (anat.); elbow 
(anat., also of a jacket); elbow, angle, 
bend (of a pipe); curve, turn, bend 
(of a road) | S^j^-UI Pp knee piece or 
elbow of a pipe; fjjl ^ fj&\ *->yi V 
(ya'rifu) he doesn't know his knee from 
his elbow (proverbially of a stupid person) 

fC ka f carpal end of the radius {anat.) 

i-f^T V to band together, throng together, 
gather in a crowd 

4ij&\ al-kufa Kufa (town in Iraq) 



jjT kufi Kufic; Kufic writing; OjJ$l 
the Kufic (school of) grammarians 

Ajjf kufiya pi. -at kaffiyeh, square 
kerchief diagonally folded and worn 
under the 'iqdl as a headdress 

uy^jS' kufa' In caffeine (chem.) 

<ijijf kuvarta coverlet 

iy II to coke, char (a s.th.) 

^(Engl.) kok coke 

dL^So J^jc ma'mal takwik coke oven, 
coking plant 

^Sjf kaukab pi. ^[jf kawakib 2 star (also, 
fig., of screen, stage, etc.); leucoma, 
white opacity in the cornea of the eye 
(med.) J (j-ij'iM <-^0^* k- (d-twd talc (min.); 
C-jIj »--Sy fixed star; jL* ^j? (eayyar) 
planet; tit*** ^Sj^ (sinamSl) filmstar 

<£jf kaukaba star; group, troop, par- 
ty; (pi. ^Tt^T taaAit 2 ) squadron (of 
armored units, of cavalry; formerly mil) 

J'jf kaukabi star-shaped, stelliform, 
starlike, stellular, stellate, stellar; starry, 
starred; astral 

<~£jj? kuwaikib pi. -at little star; 
starlet 

^jfkoktel cocktail 

JjT(Fr.cd) collar 

o^jf kaulan, kulan papyrus (Cyperus pa- 
pyrus; 6of.) 

jj£j> kolkuz pi. -a* kolkhoz 

j-^jijf kolombo Colombo (capital of Ceylon) 

L-^J^T kolombiya Colombia 



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993 



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t^ji^ kolombi Colombian 

Lijijf koloniya Cologne; {eau de) cologne 

J-j^jT (Fr.) kolonU colonel (in non-Arab 
armies; mil.) 

IjrJ^T (Fr. choUra) Jcolird cholera 

^jf hulls pi. ^-il'^5*" kawdlls 2 side scene, 
coulisse, backdrop | ,-Jlj53l *\jj behind 
the scenes, backstage (also fig.) 

jA\jf pi. of JjJtT, which see (alphabetical- 

* ly); JJljTibid. 

j^T II to heap, pile up, stack up (* s.th.) 
V to be piled up; to pile up; to accu- 
mulate; to sink to the ground, crumple, 
collapse in a heap 

pT kaum pi. Ajf\ akwam, b\f klman 
heap, pile; hill; pi, OlfS" kimdn esp. gar- 
bage piles, refuse dump 

itjf kauwa, kuma pi. -at, fjf kuwam, 
fljTi akwam heap, pile; mass | i r S*L\ hj$" 
i. al-hafab pyre, stake 

oUUjT kcymandan commandant, commander 

(£;L»jT see ^jLS 

Jr^r-fiji kumisyonp commission merchant 

fityy (It. commodino) komudino bedside 
table 

Wj^ffM komidiya, komediyd f. comedy | 
oj>-U I Jy.^T satirical comedy 

oUOy^T (Fr.) komidydn comedian; 
actor 

HV) oK* Hna it (kaun, oiS kiydn, ^Jj^S 
kainuna) to be; to exist; to happen, oc- 
cur, take place; with ace. of the predi- 



cate: to be s.th.; with foil. perf. denoting 
the pluperfect; with foil, imperf. express- 
ing duration in the past — Engl, progres- 
sive past: was doing (often correspond- 
ing to Engl, "used to...", "would ..."); 
with J : to belong to, be one's own (<d OS" 
c**j he had or owned a house) ; with J and 
s.th. : to be the right man for, be qualified 
for; with ^i to belong to, pertain to ; with 
J*: to be incumbent on, be the duty of; 
with Ji : to be assigned to, be the lot or 
share of, be left to, be due (s.o.) | 01 OlSCi 
(an, with foil, perf.) so it happened or 
came to pass that . . ,, thereupon he 
actually . . .; O^SC U foil, the elative: Jp 
oJsj L c\ (atammi) in the most perfect 
manner conceivable, as perfect(ly) as pos- 
sible; ^\j^sl>\ JI O^Su U L-jyl *$j\ (so* 
wab) what they said came quite close to 
the truth; J J& 1 (lam yakuri) or OlT L. 
J (with foil, subjunctive) he is (or was) not 
the right man for, he was not capable of, 
he was not in a position to . . . ; it is (or was) 
not apt to...; o\ *uU *_-A^aJ ^SC 4 (U~yas* 
e uba) it wouldn't have been difficult for 
him to..., there was no reason why he 
couldn't have ...; jl VI «n- 0&~ L. (or 
jSo ji) (ilia an) he had no other choice 
but to ... , there was nothing for him to 
do but to . . , ; he did no more than . . . ; L 
01 <J OS" it is (or was) impossible for 
him to ... ; he is (or was) unable to ... ; 
Oo jJ- ,j ^--^i asbdha fi kabari k. to 
disappear, become dated, belong to the 
past; OETj 05" a popular form of poem 
consisting of quatrains; OlT L. 05" (open- 
ing of a tale) once upon a time; ^i ^ 
£j$" 4^- (ayyi jihatin) from any di- 
rection II to make, create, produce, 
originate, bring forth, bring into being, 
form, shape, fashion (* s.th.); (Magr.) to 
educate, train (a s.o.) V to be created, be 
formed; to come into existence, form, 
arise, develop; to consist, be composed, 
be made up (j- of), be formed (j* by) 
X to become lowly, humble, miserable ; to 



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994 



submit, yield, surrender, humble o.s., 
abase o.s., eat humble pie; to abandon 
o.s., give o.s. over (Jl to s.th.) 

djf kaun pi. b\J?\ akwan being, esse; 
existence; event, occurrence, incident; 
bjQ\ the existent, the existing, reality; 
the world; the cosmos, the universe | 
J* VI 0>S3l {a'ld) the Supreme Being, God; 
with foil, genit. or suffix of the logical 
subject and ace. of the predicate: the 
fact that s.o. or s.th. is . .., Uj^ *}j$ii 
li-kaunihl majnunan because he is 
mad, LJj^a -o^T *» although he is mad 

jj5* kauni of or relating to tho 
universe or cosmos, universal; cosmic, 
cosmo- (in compounds) | vLj^ U-V 
{aH"a) cosmic rays; J^T pU» cosmic 
system; O Vj^' **JUJ1 (falsafa) cosmol- 
ogy; (Jj5" <oli {malldh) cosmonaut 

oLf kiydn being, esse; existence; es- 
sence, substance; nature; entity, a being 

(jj£jl al-yakun the sum total 

ol£» makdn pi. kSi>\ amkina, j5"Ll 
amdkin? place where one is or stands; 
place, site, spot, location; passage {in a 
book); locality, locale; seat, place (e.g., 
in a railroad compartment); position, 
standing, rank, dignity; importance, 
consequence, weight; space (philos.); 
presence; situation, conditions, circum- 
stances; utsL. makana in the place of, 
in lieu of, instead of | diilS^. c^S" ji lau 
kuntu makdnaka if I were in your place, 
if I were you; <0t5v* makdnahu on the 
spot, at once; <tijl£* makdnak stop! 
ol£* JS" j everywhere; UlSC J^-l (akld) 
to make room; LS~* UlSL. J^-l {ihtalla) 
to have or hold a strong, powerful 
position; utSLc ^l^iJI ,>» ^ (sajd r a) he is 
extremely brave; olSCx *^V1 j* tfJJj 
(ahammiya) that is of considerable 
importance; ul£x t_JuwaJS ^» 4j^4^' ^^* 
(nazariya, du T f) this theory is rather 



weak; <uij j* f^! jlSv. (nafsihi) the 
importance of s.th. for s.o., the place 
that s.th. has in s.o.'s mind; doU-1 o& 
site of action, scene of the crime, locus 
delicti; ot£U J>^ zarf al-m. adverb of 
place {gram.); Ij^j ^5*1*! {tvefra) dif- 
ficult terrain, rugged country 

£)!&• makana pi. -at place; location, 
situation; position, office; standing, au- 
thority, influence, rank, dignity | Z&* 
jJUtJI m. as-sadr first place, precedence, 
priority; SJlSs* ji (person) of rank and 
reputation 

jl£. makdni local 

Ijlx* makdnlya spatiality {philos J) 

J>j& ta&ttfin forming, shaping, for- 
mation, creation, origination; structure; 
constitution, condition; physical consti- 
tution; {Magr., loan translation from Fr. 
formation) education, training; (pi. -at, 
,jyl5o takdioln 2 ) formation (of rock; 
geol.) | *~>rjlj~>r ^l^& (pyolojiya) geo- 
logical formations; {Magr.) ^l*- ,^j£j 
academic education, ^a ^^So {mihn%) 
vocational or professional training; j,j& 
(S ^aj {nafsi) mental make-up; ,^>53l J^ 
well-shaped, shapely; ^ jScJ! ju* sifr at-t, 
Genesis (first book of the Old Testament) 

o^5o takawwun genesis, birth, nascency, 
origin, incipience, rise, development; 
formation 

Sbl&u-I istikdna yielding, submission, 
resignation, passivity 

^K" ka'in being; existing, existent; 
situated, located; — (pi. -at) a being, a 
living being, creature; created thing; s.th. 
existing, an existent | jilail ^i&l 
{mutlaq) the Absolute Being, God; 
C-LJl&l the created things, the universe, 
the world; oK" j* UK" {man) whoever 
it may be; OtT L. UlT be it what it may, 



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995 



jlT 



whatever it may be; hjj^ oLjIT (ustii* 
riya) fabular, mythical beings 

j^Sl* mukaivwin creator; — (pi. -at) 
component; formative, constituent (also 
gram.) ; factor, element 

OjSC* mukavnmn made, created; con- 
sisting, composed, made up (j* of), 
formed (<>* by); pi. Cj\jj&* structures, 
formations (also geol.) 

{j&z~*» mustakln humiliated, oppressed, 
resigned, submissive 

2 o\jS look up alphabetically 

^jIju^ (It. contralto) kontrdto agreement, 
accord, treaty, contract 

j*[t jyjT konterba? pi. -at double bass, con- 
trabass (mus.) 

y*j*}\ al-Jcongo Congo (country in Africa) 
J^ojT Jcongoli Congolese 

ulfcjf Jconkdn popular card game in Egypt 

yli^f&jS* (It. concordato) konkurddto settle- 
ment, composition (between debtor and 
creditors) 

ilUjf konydk cognac 

□ »j£* for (Sj&i see 1 t gjT 

\$/" kawd i (S kayy) to burn (a s.th.); to 
sear (a s.th.); to cauterize, treat with a 
cautery (» s.o.; med.); to brand (a s.o.); 
to bite, burn (acid) ; to sting (scorpion) ; 
to press, iron (* laundry, and the like) 
VIII to be burned, be seared; to be 
cauterized; to be pressed, be ironed; to 
burn o.s., burn one's skin 



S kayy burning; cauterization, cau- 
tery; pressing, ironing | J31 J? hajar 



al-k. lunar caustic, silver nitrate; O S^ 
Jb^Sol (kahrabd'i) diathermy 

*S kayya a burn, a brand 

>\jf kawwd" slanderer, calumniator; 
ironer, presser 

y^T kawwaya ironing woman, ironer 

hjf kawlya (syr.) press, crease (in 
troupers) 

SljS^. mikwah and <_£^5C« makwan pi. 
j&L. makdwin flatiron; hot iron (for 
cauterizing), cautery (med.) \ j*li\ o\jS^ 
m. as-sa r r curling iron 

iSjSi* makwan ironing establishment 

□ _>-^5C makwaji ironer, presser; 
laundry man 

jlT kawin caustic 
2 <jj$' kuwan see IjT 

1 ,5* kai, J3 li-kai so that, in order that, in 
order to | V(5" and Vjfi in order not to, 
lest 

[S" kai-md, \SJ U-kai-md that, so that, 
in order that, in order to 

2 S kayy and IS kayya see 1 ( jjf 

l C~5* kit Indian dress material 

2 £~fj C*S kaita wa-kaita, kaiti wa-kaiti so 
and so, such and such, thus and thus 

1 (jlT) itf kdda i (kaid, SJL&. maklda) to 
deceive, dupe, outwit (t> s.o.); to harm 
by artful machinations (J s.o., s.th.), 
lay snares (<J for s.o.), plot s.o.'s (J) 
downfall, conspire (J against s.o.) Ill to 
deceive, dupe, outwit (» s.o.); to seek 
to double-cross (o s.o.) 

jlT kaid pi. -sLT kiydd ruse, artifice, 
stratagem; craftiness, slyness, cunning, 



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996 



subtlety; deception, deceit; artful plot; 
trick, dodge 

2jl£* makida pi. OjISC* makayid 2 ruse, 
artifice, trick; smart action, clever 
approach, shrewd policy; stratagem; 
plot, conspiracy, machinations, schemes, 
intrigues 

2 .slT look up alphabetically 

jS" kir pi. jLT! akydr, o\jS" Hran bellows 

l^^jjf (Engl.) kirusin kerosene 

1 {J >jf II to pack in sacks or bags (a s.th.) 

{J ^S kis m. and f., pi. {J »\S\ akyas, 
4— S kiyasa sack; bag; pouch; purse; 
Turkish towel | SLaL-jJI fJ ^f' pillowcase, 
pillow slip; •lyuojl ^-aT k. as-sajra' gall, 
bile; i£JLl*-tAj o*^ &> hlastik plastic bag; 
^U j-aT A;, iay tea bag; <uoT J* at his 
expense 

2 ( cr iT) ^IT Msa i (fcais, a^LS" kiyasa) to be 
smart, clever, intelligent; to be nice, 
fine, pretty, comely, handsome, attrac- 
tive, chic II to refine, make elegant 

Lr j5~ kais smartness, cleverness, in- 
telligence; subtlety, finesse, gracefulness, 
elegance 

^-aT kayyis pi. lJ ^S\ akyas, {S ~S 
kaisa, f. <*£" kayyisa, pi. ^LS" ^ij/as 
sly, smart, astute, shrewd, sagacious; 
adroit, dexterous, skillful; nice, fine, 
elegant, stylish, chic, attractive, comely, 
pretty, handsome 

i-uT kiyasa adroitness, dexterity, 
skill; cleverness, smartness, astuteness, 
shrewdness, slyness, sagacity, subtlety, 
finesse; courtesy, civility, politeness; 
gracefulness, grace; elegance, chic, styl- 
ishness 

^^oTl akyas 2 , f. iS -£' ki$d, pi. (J ^S' kis 



smart, sly; — akyas 2 smarter, slier; more 
skillful ; more stylish, more chic, nicer 

(j-iC mukayyis and □ jLo£. <m 
kayyisdU [eg.) bath attendant, masseur 

^-S** mukayyas shrewd, subtle, astute, 
smart, sly 

II to form, shape, fashion, mold (* 
s.th.) ; to fit, condition, modify, conform, 
adjust, adapt (a s.th., <uJj o.a.); to 
regulate (a s.th.); to put in high spirits, 
exhilarate, amuse, delight (a s.o.); to 
intoxicate slightly, dope, stupefy (♦ 
s.o.; of a narcotic) V to be shaped, be 
formed; to assume a form, take on a 
shape; to adapt o.s., adjust o.s., conform; 
to be in high spirits, be cheerful, gay; 
to amuse o.s., enjoy o.s., have a good 
time, have fun; to revel; to be slightly 
intoxicated, be tipsy, fuddled; to smoke 
(a tobacco, etc.) 

JaS kaifa (interrogative and ex- 
clamatory particle) how? how...! | 
iiUUr «-J^ (hdluka) how are you? V uS 
... j why shouldn't it be so since...! 
*_> JaS* just imagine how much more 
(or less)...! and how much more...! 
and how much less . . . ! 

LjL5" kaifamd however, howsoever j 
<JLU ub UjLj whatever the case maybe, 
be that as it may; in any case, at any rate 

<JaS kaif state, condition; mood, 
humor, state of mind, frame of mind; 
pleasure, delight, well-being, good humor, 
high spirits; discretion, option, will; 
(pi. l^jS kuyuf) narcotic, opiate | J* 
^XaS at your discretion, as you please; 
as you wish, as you like; JaS1\ ^U?l bons 
vivants, epicures 

J-5" kaifi arbitrary, discretionary, op- 
tional; qualitative 

\aS kaifiya manner, mode, fashion; 



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997 



oS 



property, quality; nature, state, con- 
dition; particulars, particular circum- 
stances (e.g., of an event) | J**JI \jS 
k. al-'amal operation (e.g., of a machine); 
JljmX^VI \^f directions for use 

tJt^So iakyif forming, shaping, fashion- 
ing; formation; adaptation, adjustment, 
conditioning, modification ; regulation ; 
descriptive designation, qualification; air 
conditioning, — »I^Ji cJa~So t. al-hawa 

cJljSo takay.yuf adaptation, adjustment, 
conformity 

OS** mukayyifa, *\j^\ 'aaJs* m. al- 
hawa* pi. -at air-conditioning installation, 
air conditioner 

oU-£* mukayyifdt narcotics, opiates 

(J^&t mukayyaf provided with air con- 
ditioning, = f\j^\ iJl5C* m. al-hawd* 

1 &-T kaika pi. J'LT&a^a/a egg 

v &£ kika, 15LS* klkd (eg.) tag (game) 

'^5* (Engl.) keka (eg.) cake 

(J/") JT kdla i {kail, JlSC makdl, J-SC ma* 
kll) to measure (with a measure of capac- 
ity or cubic content, a s.th.); to compare 
by measuring (<~> a s.th. with), measure 
s.th. (a) by the standard of (<-j) ; to meas- 
\ire out, mete out, allot, abortion (J a 
s.th. to s.o.) | <LiJI <J J IT to heap abuse 
on s.o.; o\UI! J J IS" (latamdt) to box 
s.o.'s ears, slap s.o.'s face; CjLj^^JI <J JS* 
(darabat) to beat, thrash, trounce s.o. 
II to measure (see J IT, a several or 
many things) III to return like for like, 
repay in kind (« to s.o.) 

J-T kail pi. J US' I akydl measure of 
capacity; dry measure; holding capacity 

*LT kaila pi. -at kilah, a dry measure 
[Eg. = 16.721; Pal. = 361) 



J-f kaili and JJk. maHi (volumetri- 
cally) measurable, volumetric (al) 

JL5"* kayydl corn measurer; one who 
metes out, who determines the right 
measure, master, lord 

JL5L. mikydl pi. J~;l$v* makdyil 2 and 
J;^* mikyal, iLS^i mikyala pi. JjISv* ma* 
kayil 2 measure of capacity; dry measure 
for grain | J^l&ij <Jt->'-^ tlle weights and 
measures 

jiSkllo and p'yr\A^ ( E g* spelling) kilogram 
p]. -62 kilogram 

J5L- -? JLi' (Engl.) kilosaikil pi. -af kilocycle 
(radio) 

A j* JJf kilogram pi. -atf kilogram 

jvjLf kilomitr pi. -a< kilometer 

OjiS" = b jUS", look up alphabetically 

J^lj^i-TKIcwaf kilowatt 

lei" kai-md see 1 L f 

^j^" kaimus gastric juice 

•U-^5" klmiya chemistry; alchemy j »L*~$3i 
S-jL^-Vi (ahyalya) biochemistry; ^L^T 
\jb\ A;, at-turba agricultural chemistry 

^jf klml chemical 

JL-S" klma% chemical (adj.) 

^jU-T ftimawi chemical (adj.); — (pi. 
-un) chemist; alchemist; cAjjuS chem- 
icals 

jL*jf kimiyd'i chemical (adj.); — 
(pi. -un) chemist; alchemist 

(t>T) jlT kdna i (kain) to humble o.s., 
abase o.s., eat humble pie, submit, 
resign o.s. X do. 



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998 



U-5" kind quinine | LjOl ,_JL^ ka$ab al-k. 
cinchona, china bark, Peruvian bark 

LjLS* keniyd Kenya, (country in E Africa) 

^•^f kinin quinine 



dlfcT kiyahk, klhak the fourth month c 
Coptic year 

o\jS kaiwan the planet Saturn 

jlj^T (Engl.) kiyubid Cupid 



'J abbreviation of JJ liter and SjJ pound 
(monetary unit) 

2 J la (intensifying particle) truly, verily; 
certainly, surely; frequently after o! inna, 
introducing the predicate: f-*-J <Jj J I 
fU-dl inna rabhl la-saml'u d-du*a truly, 
my Lord hearg the prayer; also as a 
correlative of ji lau and V^J lau-ld: 
«ijl OtsJ 1JU Jjwu c-if y (la-kdna an* 
fa' a) if you did this it would be more 
useful; dIL$J ^ J V>J lau-ld iaba la-halaka 
if he had not repented he would have 
perished; (particle of oath) i}j**l la- 
'amruka by your life! j* ... J U ydla- ... 
min see b 

3 J & 1. (prep.) for; on behalf of, in favor of; 
to {of the dative); because of; for the 
sake of; due to, owing to; for, for the 
purpose of; at the time of, when, as; 
by (designating the author or originator) ; 
coming from, stemming from (s.o.); 
occasionally substituting for Jl; as to & 
paraphrasing the genit. and ace. see 
grammar | JL *JU J he owes me money; 
4J.P Uj 4J L* his right and his duty; his 
credit and his debit, his assets and his 
liabilities; jf J he has a right to ..., he 
is entitled to . .. , he may .. . ; it is possible 
for him to . .. , he is able to ... , he can .. . ; 
b\ J ^-jJ I have no right to ..., it does 
not behoove me to ...; IjLa dil or dili till 
you can have that! it's up to you; it's 



all right with me ! all right ! O.K. ! agreed! 
j <*JJ J* or j dJl! would you like ...? do 
you want . . . ? do you feel like . . . ? y^ ^J 
cJl VI {ilia anta) yon alone are qualified 
for it; only you are entitled to it; ^ *) 
*y£* (kutub) he has written many boob; 
,j-^li 4) jX*o a dictionary by him has 
been published; ULT 4) Cj\j» I read a 
book by Mm, I read one of his books; 
j^lU 4+A43 J {qahqaha) he utters a 
derisive, or sneering, laugh; <uV *j>-l 
4*1 j akuhu li-abihi wa-ummihi his brother 
on the paternal and maternal side, his 
full brother; JU- 4J pAJ "i| (iadumu) 
no state is of any permanence with him, 
he is never the same for a very long 
time; LJujLjJ. I^Li (li-mu'dwanatim) 
they set out in our support; JLJ ««J 
»JL*Ji ^ j^i>- li-saKi laydlin kalaum 
min sa'bdna when seven nights of Sha- 
ban had passed; Jj^l IjA li-l-marrati 
l-uld for the first time; *i*j JjV U- 
awwali wahlatin at first sight, at once; 

o* ^ k* u* W k» etc *» see k'> Z>\ *J uif 

and jl 4J Olf U see olf; 2. (conj. 
with the subjunctive) that, so that, in 
order that, in order to; J J& J, J jlTt 
see OIT; 3. (with apoc.) expressing an 
order, an invitation: t--xSlJ li-yaktub he 
shall write, let him write (with preceding 
j wa- or *J» fa- contracted to ioal- or fat-} 

J>-V li-ajli (with foil, genit.) because 
of. on account of, for 



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999 



jV li-an (conj. with the subjunctive) 
that, so that, in order that, in order to; 
{with V) }HsJ li-alla in order not to, lest 

uV li-anna (conj.) on the grounds 
that; because; for 

i*J!aJ U-ddWca therefore, hence, that 
is why, for that reason 

JJ" li-hai and \S^ li-kai-ma (eonj. 
with the subjunctive) that, so that, in 
order that, in order to 

11 li-ma why (chiefly in indirect 
questions); (shortened) J li-ma why? 
wherefore? for what reason? I ill li- 
md-dd why (on earth)? 

IJLgJ li-hadd therefore, hence, that is 
why, for that reason 

V la (particle) not; no! with apoc. expressing 
negative imperative: JjJ V Id taqul 
don't say! with indef. ace. expressing a 
general negation; there is not, there is 
no..,, e.g., «uil VI *!! V Id ildha Hid lldh 
there is no god but Allah; <*J j&- V 
{hair a) there is no good in it, it's no 
good; <c ^j V (budda) there is no 
escape from it, it is inevitable; fj>- V 
la jarama certainly, surely; i£li V 
la faklca no doubt, doubtless; vfil W V 
{aba) you have no father (term of abuse, 
= you poor bastard!); 1^-* V Id siyyama 
especially, particularly; VI a-ld see 1; 
"Aj bi-ld without; Vj wa-ld (with pre- 
ceding neg.) nor, . . . either; not even, 
also Vj JU- hatta wa-ld, e.g., <J)*m } 
^J ^J ti*- fam yu'tini, qirsan) he did 
not give me even a piaster, he did not 
give me as much as a piaster; Vj — V 
neither — nor; VI — V {ilia) only, noth- 
ing but, just ; not till, not before ; dLU V , 
Uc V, ul j* 4JU- V see J* 

4JLIV Id'Ubdlzya indifferent attitude, 
indifference 



^U^-IV la-ijtima'i asocial 

j^U-IV la-dkldql amoral 

^jjtlV la-adri pi. ~un skeptic; agnostic 

ajj-sIV la-adriya skepticism; agnosti- 
cism 

<_£.sljlV Id-irddi involuntary, uninten- 
tional, instinctive, unconscious 

UbUI al-ld-and the nonego {philos.) 

iLjlilV la-andnlya selflessness, unself- 
ishness 

JLrjIV la-intimal bound by no school, 
intellectual trend or ideology, non-com- 
mitted 

JUJlV la-in$dnl inhuman 

JjIx V la-tamdtul asymmetry 

^ULjV la-tandzur asymmetry 



4™jU-V la-jinslya statelessness, being 
without nationality 



~V ld-ha.trniya indeterminism {phi- 



los.) 

(i-oUl 



I j uij*-SUI <JU- A. al-ld-harb wa-l~ 
la-silm state of u no war and no peace" 

tJ>-V la-hizbl adhering to no party, 
independent 

Jj^V la-dlnl antireligious, irreligious, 
without religion 

aJu.>V la-dlnlya irreligion, godlessness 

t/UV la-sdml anti-Semitic; anti-Semite 

4-^LtV la-sdmlya anti-Semitism 

^X-V Id-silkl wireless, radio (adj.); 
radio, broadcasting; radio message | Sjlil 
yCLV {isdra) radio message 



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1000 



j_j*-^JI al-ld-su e ur the unconscious, un- 
conscious mind, unconsciousness 

t^jyJ^ ld-su r url unconscious, unaware 

JSCiV Id-Sakll amorphous 

»^V ld-$ai* nothing, nonentity; nil 

4JL£V la-sai'iya nonexistence, noth- 
ingness; nullity, nihility 

JicV la- r aqli irrational 

(£^V Id'faqrl invertebrate; oL^hu:AII 
the invertebrates (zool.) 

<jyi*V la-qanuni illegal, unlawful 

*jiUV la-maddlya immaterialism (phi- 
los.) 

•Vl^ la-mubalah and ^Jt^ la-muba* 
liya indifferent attitude, indifference 

«Ui.V la-mutandhin infinite 

4;-A-l.V la-madhablya non-denomina- 
tionalism, ideological indifference 

iSJfj*^ la-mar kazl decentralized 

4jj5^.V la-markazi ya decentralization 

iJjJ-^V la-mas' uli ya irresponsibility 

^si*V ld-muntaman independence or 
freedom from schools, trends, ideologies; 
secessionism (art) 

^jy^^i la-minhaji extracurricular 

fUaJV la-nizam lack of system, con- 
fusion 

4jI$J:AJI al-ld-nihaya the infinite 

cJI$JV ld-nihd i i infinite 

yi^ la-niha'iya infinity 

f IjV la-uwin unconscious (psych.) 



,y>j^\ al-ld-im f y the unconscious, un« 
consciousness (psych.) 

1 »—»*y Zdta (invar.) it is not, it was not, this was 
no . . . (with ace.) | ^U* j>*- oV (Aina 
mandsin) there was no time for evasion; 
it's too late to escape; {X~* 4*1— oV (sa'ota 
iwstndamin) it is (or was) too late for re- 
pentance 

2 O^Ul al4at name of an ancient Arabian deity 

oy^JI al-latln the (ancient) Latins 

JJV Zotim Latin | JJ^JI ^1 (Aayy) 
the "Quartier latin" (in Paris) 

Ijju^UI al-ldtiniya the Latin language, 
Latin 

Oj V ladan, ladin laudanum 

SJS^Ul see under JJU 

^rJjV (Lat. forts) Zarta larch (6of.) 

ijj j'i/ lazuwardy lazaward lapis lazuli; azure 

iPjjjV lazuivardi azure-blue, azure, 
sky-blue, cerulean 

*dAjjJ^/ Idzuwardlya azure, blue of 
the sky 

4~»V (Ft. lacet) Idseh lace, cord 

^^ IV to send as a messenger (Jl » s.o. to) 

£j^U maTak and ^iiL malak pi. itt^L 
mald'ik 2 , a& ^JU maWika angel; messenger, 
envoy 

(Jj^U maUFik* angelic(al); heavenly 
2 jp V look up alphabetically 

j5~V Za&m, lakinna however, yet, but 

HH la'la'a {S^^ Za'Za'a) to shine, flash, 



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1001 



glitter, glisten, sparkle, gleam, shimmer, 
glimmer, beam, radiate; to wag («*JJu 
bi-danabihi the tail) II tdkfla'a to shine, 
glitter, glisten, sparkle, gleam, shimmer, 
glimmer, beam, radiate 

• *i*2 la' la 9 a shine, glow, brightness, 
brilliancy, radiance, flash, glitter, twinkle 

»V^/ la? Id' glitter, flash; light, glow, 
gleam; perfect joy, unruffled gaiety; 
dealer in pearls 

Jjjj lu'lu' (coll.; n. un. I) pi. tTV 
la'dli* 2 pearls | Jjjiil y>j zahr al-l. daisy; 
jJjUl J jc 'irq al-l. mother-of-pearl, nacre 

iSjlj) lu'hfi pearly; pearl- colored, 
whitish | <j;JJjJ j*5 pearl barley 

jJ^j tala'lu* shining, radiance, bril- 
liancy 

*JSb* mutala'li* shimmering, glisten- 
ing, glittering, flashing, sparkling 

(V lam name of the letter J ; (among Arab 
philologists) name of la- (part., JuTtd! /}/ 
"the affirmative la"), of J li- (prep, and 
conj.), of the definite article (WJI or 
Jiujtdl j»V), and of the third root conso- 
nant of triliteral Arabic verbs (gram.) 

l*V lami lam-shaped, resembling the 
letter j 

fi laama a (lam) to dress, bandage (* 
a wound); to repair, mend (* s.th.); to 
solder, weld; — fjl la'uma (lum, i."V 
Ictama, i.^U maFama) to be ignoble, 
lowly (of character and birth); to be 
base, mean, vile, evil, wicked III to 
agree (* with s.o.); to suit, fit (gar- 
ment; « s.o.); to be adequate, appro- 
priate (* to s,th.), be suitable, fit, prop- 
er, convenient, favorable, propitious (* 
for s.th.); to be adapted (* to), be in 
harmony (* with), match (a s.th.); to 
agree (climate, food; » with s.o.), be 



wholesome (climate, air, food; » for s.o.); 
to bring about a reconciliation, make 
peace ((>j between), reconcile (j — ^3 
s.o. with); to make consistent or con- 
gruous, reconcile, harmonize, bring into 
harmony (^ different things) IV to act 
ignobly, behave shabbily VI to be mended, 
be repaired, be corrected; to go well (** 
with) ; to be in harmony, agree ( ** with) ; 
to act meanly VIII to be mended, be 
repaired, be corrected; to be joined, 
be connected, be patched up, be soldered, 
be welded; to match, fit together, 
harmonize, be in harmony, agree, go 
together, be congruous, conformable, 
consistent; to be tuned or geared to 
each other (fig.); to unite, combine; to 
cohere, stick together; to heal, close 
(wound); to gather, assemble, convene 
(persons); to meet (committee, congress, 
council, etc.) 

pV Mm dressing, bandaging (of a 
wound); joining, junction, connection; 
repair 

pjj Item ignoble mind, baseness, 
meanness, vileness, wickedness; nig- 
gardliness, miserliness; sordidness; in- 
iquity 

J lim peace; concord, agreement, un- 
ion, unity, unanimity; conformity, con- 
sistency, harmony 

I* *$ lama cuirass, pair of cuirasses 

^Jj la'im pi. *lij Warn, »UjJ lu* 
'arm"*, JLjJ luman ignoble, lowly, low, 
base, mean, evil, vile, wicked, depraved; 
sordid, filthy, dirty; niggardly, miserly 

i«»*>L mula'ama adequacy, appropri- 
ateness, properness, suitability, fitness; 
peacemaking, (re)conciliation; concord, 
union, agreement, harmony 

*"&» muld'im adapted, suited, appro- 
priate (J to), suitable, fit, proper, con- 



I 



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1002 



venient, favorable, propitious (J for); 
agreeing, harmonizing, in conformity, 
consistent (J with) 

U*^ lama llama {zool.) 

jli V (Engl.) lans pi. -af launch, motorboat, 
small steamer 

^U V lahay The Hague (city in SW Nether- 
lands) 

Oj*V ia^w* godhead, deity; divine nature, 
divinity | Oy> ^ i* *fc al-l. theology 

J^V lahutl theological; theologian 

iJyoUl al-lahuiiya theology 

j^*i lahur 2 Lahore {city in W Pakistan) 

*1j^ la'ica 2 severe distress, hardship 

^jV lawus Laos (country in SE Asia) 

^ leCy slowness, tardiness; tediousness, 
tiresomeness | ^ % 0*j after great dif- 
ficulties, in the end, finally, after all 

JoV (from Er. la'ique) laikl layman; secular, 
laic, lay 



LSo V laiklya laicism 



c-J labba u (labb) to remain, abide, stay 
(u in a place); — (1st pers. perf. la* 
bibtu) a (i_~J labab) and (1st pers. perf. 
labubtu) u (i>U lababa) to be sensible, 
reasonable, intelligent II to kernel, ripen 
Into kernels, produce kernels (grain, 
nuts) V to gird o.s., prepare o.s. 
(J for) 

oJ lubb pi. <-->jJ lubab kernels, core 
(of fruits); the innermost, marrow, pith; 
core, gist, essence; prime, best part; — 
(pi. t-iUI albab) heart; mind, intellect, 
reason, understanding 



4J labba pi. -at upper part of the 
chest; throat of an animal, spot where 
its throat is slit in slaughtering 

SJ libba (eg.) golden necklace 

,_-J labab pi. <_^UI albab upper part 
of the chest; throat of an animal, spot 
where its throat is slit in slaughtering; 
breast collar (of a horse's harness); 
martingale 

i^LJ lubab marrow, pith, core, quintes- 
sence, gist, prime, best part | O yU 
^Jt^~ I. kasab cellulose 

l^jJ labib pi. »Ul alibba 2 understand- 
ing, reasonable, sensible, intelligent 

yjuij talbib pi. <_~u t^j taldblb 2 collar | 
«uaj ^ JU-I to collar s.o., seize s.o. by the 
collar 

SjJ labu'a pi. -at lioness 

iuJ labia carp (zooL) 

£j labita a (labt, lubt, labat, <1> LJ lubdt) to 
hesitate, tarry, finger; to abide, remain, 
stay (u in a place); (with imperf.) to 
persist in an activity, keep doing s.th. j 
(Js-) ul (dJL> i) dJ U it did not take 
long before he ... , presently he ... , he 
lost no time in . . . ; <*i*jij ti*J he did it for 
a while; *?* £J he stayed away from 
them, made them wait for him Y to 
hesitate, tarry, linger; to abide, remain, 
stay 

dJ labt, lubt y labat hesitation, tarry- 
ing, delay; stay, sojourn 

4xJ lubta short delay, brief respite; 
pause; temporary stay or stop, stopover 

iJ labk, labak (coll.; n. un. S) a variety of 
acacia (Mimosa lebbec L.), also lebbek 
tree (Albizzia lebbek Bth.; bot.) 

ZS-J labka pi. labakdt cataplasm, poul- 



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1003 



U*> 



tice; soft mass, mush; emollient plaster, 
emollient 

«-J labik fleshy, corpulent 

jj labada u (tjJ lubud) to stick, adhere, 
cling (^ to s.th.), get stuck {«^> on); to 
abide, remain, stay (u in a place) II to 
cause to adhere and mat together, to 
felt, mat (a wool); to line with felt (a 
s.th.); to beat down, weigh down (a 
s.th., e.g., the hail — ■ grass); to full (a 
s.th.) IV to cling firmly, adhere, stick 
(^ to s.th.) V do.; to stick together; to 
become felted, matted, entangled, inter- 
woven; to be compressed; to become 
clouded; to become overcast {r^iih with 
clouds ; sky) ; to become gloomy (face) 

oJ Ubd pi. >jJ lubud, jUI albdd felt | 
f t»N ,>• *j^ thick masses of clouds 

oJ labad wool 

jj tabid coherent; compact 

JLJ lubad the seventh vulture of Luq- 
man (whose death ended Luqman's life; 
metaphor of longevity) 

o-U libda pi. oJ libad mane (of a 
lion); {eg.) skullcap of felt, worn under 
or without a tarboosh; felt hat (of the 



SjJ lubda pi. jU lubad matted and 
pressed wool or hair, felt 

i\J labbdd feltmaker; felt 

SjU lubbada pi. -at horse blanket, 
saddle blanket; — (pi. juU labdbld 2 ) 
felt cap 

JUL. mulabbad: r^JJb -Ui* (bi-hguyum) 
overcast, heavily clouded (sky) 

JLh* muialabbid: fjJdU -aJLl. overcast, 
heavily clouded (sky) 

jJ labisa a (lubs) to put on, wear (a a dress, 



garment); to dress (a in), clothe o.s., 
garb o.s. (a in or with) II to dress (a o 
s.o. in), clothe, garb, attire (a <• s.o. 
with); to cover, envelop, overlay, coat 
(uj» a s.th. with a layer); to drape, line, 
face, case (^-» a s.th. with); to inlay (e.g., 
wood with ivory); to suffuse (« s.o., e.g., 
pallor), seize (» s.o., e.g., a tremor); to 
make obscure, unclear, abstruse, in- 
volved, complicated (Jp a s.th. for s.o.); 
to deceive, dupe (J* s.o.) Ill to be 
on intimate terms, associate closely, 
hobnob (» with s.o.); to be in close 
contact (a, « with s.o., with s.th.); to 
surround (* s.o.; environment, milieu, 
conditions) ; to accompany, attend (a s.th., 
of concomitant symptoms, phenomena, 
circumstances) IV to dress (a o s.o. in), 
clothe, garb, attire (a a s.o. with); to 
drape, envelop, coat, overlay, cover, 
face, lino, case (a s.th.) V to dress, get 
dressed (i_-> in), clothe o.s. (t-> in or with); 
to be dressed, clad, attired; to be covered 
(*_j with), be enveloped, wrapped (<^ in); 
to get involved (e-» in s.th.), be drawn 
(t_j into s.th.); to meddle, bother (^ 
with), go into s.th. {^); to enter (» into 
s.o.'s body, of a demon or devil), take 
possession {* of s.o. by assuming his 
shape) ; to be obscure, incomprehensible, 
dubious, equivocal, ambiguous (Jp for 
s.o.) VIII to be obscure, dubious, equi- 
vocal, ambiguous (J* for s.o.); to get 
mixed up (<-> with); to mistake (a s.th., 
<_j for) 

(j-J labs, lubs and a~*jJ lubsa tangle, 
muddle, confusion, intricacy, obscurity, 
uncertainty, abstruseness, ambiguity | 
tj*\ £* -J J utf to be uncertain about 
s.o. ; to have doubts about s.o. 

^-J libs pi. ^jJ lubus clothes, cloth- 
ing, dress, apparel; costume 

2L. J libsa manner or style of dressing, 
costume 



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1004 



j^LJ libds pi. -at, ILoJI albisa clothes, 
clothing; costume; apparel; garment, 
robe, dress; (eg., syr.) (men's) drawers | 
o^J^ u*y '• ar - ra > Is headdress, headgear; 
jjidl ^LJ L at-taqwd decency, modesty; 
<yi> ltW (twwww*) and ^jSi** ^U ('asfom) 
uniform; S^^^-JI ^-LJ I. as-sahra evening 
gown, evening clothes, formal dress; ^U 
J*j (watanl) national costume ; j*J I ^U 
I. al-bahr bathing suit; swim trunks; <~J1 
«J*U- ready-made clothes 

^^oJ Za&ts worn; worn clothes, second- 
hand clothes; Nile carp (Cyprinus niloti- 
cus; zool.) 

^jJ labus clothing, clothes; suppos- 
itory (med.) | j? j ^yS (rasml) uniform; 
<^jj JU- JS3 ^ (labisa) to accommodate 
oneself to all circumstances 

<«juI labbisa (eg.) shoehorn 

(j-^L malbas pi. ^^A* malabis 2 garment, 
dress, robe, apparel, suit; pi. also: cloth- 
ing, clothes, costume | O *il*>" cr^ P ro * 
tective clothes; IUj^JXH ^-J'iU dress uni- 
form; IL>-jU-j LJU-U ^h^* (dakiliya wa- 
kdrijlya) underwear and outer clothes; 
4-j^j ,j^k» (rasmlya) livery, uniform; 
O Oi-Lil j-j"^ wt. al-maiddn field uniform ; 
cr o"^Ul Jit mahall al-m. read3''-made- clothes 
store 

^j-julS &iZfcJs clothing, dressing, garb- 
ing; draping, lining, facing, casing; over- 
laying, coating; wall facing, wall plaster, 
paneling; inlay work; deception, deceit, 
fraud 



jJj talblsa suppository [med.) 

~L*s^k* mulabasa intercourse, intimate 
association, close relations; oLj'iU re- 
lations, connections; concomitants, ac- 
companying phenomena ; surrounding con- 
ditions, environment 

(j^LJI ilbas clothing, dressing, garbing 



(J ^\j tahbbus-. ^-wJLJi UUi* qaddya U, 
(jur.) cases of "flagrante delicto", criminal 
cases in which the perpetrator was caught 
in the act 

^LJI iltibas confusion, tangle, intrica- 
cy, obscurity, ambiguity, dubiousness, 
doubt | ,^-LxJ VI £Jj raf al-ilt. correction, 
rectification, clarification; ^UJ^I <u J»U 
(ahdta) to be wrapped in obscurity, be 
completely ambiguous 

^jJ* malbus worn, used (clothes) ; (eg.) 
possessed, in a state of frenzy or religious 
ecstasy; pi. oL-^^JL* articles of clothing, 
clothes 

^L mulabbas involved, intricate, ob- 
scure, dubious; inlaid, coated, incrusted; 
sugar-coated, candied; (pi. -at) bonbon, 
candy; dragee 

^j^* mutalabbis: "<£ JAt LJbu (he 
was caught, and the like) redhanded, in 
the act, flagrante delicto 

ur Axi. multabis involved, intricate, am- 
biguous, equivocal; dubious, doubtful, un- 
certain, unclear 

iJ labata u (labt): ^jVI a* J*J (arda) to 
throw s.o. to the ground, fell s.o.; — i 
to kick; to gallop about (animal) 

jj labuqa u (35U labdqa) to be clever, slick, 
adroit, skilled, skillful, versatile, suave, 
elegant, have refined manners; — labiqaa 
(labaq) do.; to fit, suit, become (clothes; 
<~> s.o.) II to fit, adapt, adjust (a s.th.) 

jJ labaq cleverness, smartness, slyness, 
subtlety; skill, adroitness, slickness, in- 
genuity; seemliness, propriety, decency, 
decorum 

4j LI labdqa cleverness, smartness, sly- 
ness, subtlety; skill, adroitness, slickness, 
ingenuity; seemliness, propriety, de- 



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1005 



4 



cency, decorum; elegance, refined man- 
ners, suavity, gracefulness 

,£j labiq clever, smart, sly, subtle; 
slick, adroit, skilled, skillful, versatile; 
elegant, suave, of refined manners ; fitting, 
proper, becoming, seemly 

J-J labiq clever, smart, sly, subtle; 
skillful, adroit; elegant, suave, refined 

J iLJ labaka u (labk) and II to mix, mingle, 
intermix (a s.th.); to confuse, mix up, 
muddle, jumble (* s,th.); — labika a, V 
and VIII to get confused, be thrown into 
disorder, be disarranged, become dis- 
organized 

dXJ labk and i£J labka mixture; con- 
fusion, muddle, jumble 

2 4J see ^ 

uJU lablaba to fondle, caress {l-» her child; 
mother) 

<_JU lablaby lubliib affectionate, tender 

i^^U lablab English ivy (Hedera helix ; 
hot.); (eg.) lablab, hyacynth bean (Doli- 
chos lablab; hot.) 

VjV lablub (eg.) pi. «_-JU labdlib 2 young 
shoot, sprout, vine 

jjJ II to make brick VIII to suck milk 

jJ libn, labin (coll.) unburnt brick(s), 
adobes 

iJ Ubna, labina (n. un.) pi. -at unburnt 
brick, adobe; (saud.-ar.) a sort of cheese | 
V*W ^^ (asaslya) basic structural units 

,>J laban pi. 0U1 albdn, OU libdn milk; 
[syr.) leban, coagulated sour milk; pi. 
jUI dairy products, milk products | <>J 
j*L\ I al-kadd buttermilk; ±J\j ^ cur- 
dled milk, curds; jj\ (jJ I. az-zlr (eg.) 
and JU ^J curds, cottage cheese; J^jZ 



O^JI sirsal-l. whey; O u^' j'>» miz&n aL-U 
lactoscope; OlJVt fj> far* al-a. dairy 
department 

<^J libanl lactic, milk (adj.); milky, 
milklike, lacteous, lacteal 

ZJJ labanlya a dish prepared of milk 

obJ labanat lactate j jJ~\ oLJ I. 
al-jir calcium lactate 

OU laban breast 

uU Ivtbdn frankincense, olibanum ; 
chewing gum (= i^iil OU L al-madg) \ 
tiji>oU (jdwl) benzoin; ^Ti OU Z. dakar 
(eg.) olibanum, oriental frankincense 
(resin oi Boswellia carteri; bot.); t/U OU, 
(eg.) a pitchy resin used as a depilatory 
(resin of Pinus BrutiaTen.); »ljJUI OU I. 
aVa&ra magnesia, Epsom salts, bitter 



OU libdn sucking, nursing; (eg.) tow- 
line 

OU labbdn brickmaker; milkman 

Z\J lubdna pi. -at, OU luban wish, 
desire, object, aim, goal, end; business, 
undertaking, enterprise 

«JU libdna selling or production of 
milk products, dairy 

kJi labina, <J^J labun, 11 jJ labiina 

pi. OU libdn, ^J lubn, lubun, £\J 

labain 2 milch, giving milk | O^J o\j^ 
(hayawiin) mammal 

JJ lubnd storax tree 

OLJ lubndn 2 m. and f. Lebanon 

JLJ lubndnl Lebanese; (pi. ~un) a 
Lebanese | v^' Hjj4~^\ (jumhurlya) 
Republic of Lebanon 

(>L malban a sweet made of corn- 
starch, hugar, mastic and pistachios 

*o-!» malbana dairy 



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*> 



1006 



« *J labwa pi. labawdt lioness 

J II to follow, obey (a a rail, an invitation), 
respond, accede (a to), comply (a with a 
request), carry out (a an order); to say 
labbaika (esp. of pilgrims to Mecca before 
entering the city) | <uj pIoj J (nidaa 
rabbihl) to be called away by the Lord, 
pass away 

dLJ labbaika here I am ! at your service ! 

!LJj talbiya following, obeying, observ- 
ance, accedence, response, compliance | 
J IJlj (talbiyatan) in compliance with; 
aj^oJ 4-Jj (li~da"watihi) upon his in- 
vitation 

U^nJ liberiya, libiryd Liberia {country in 
W Africa) 

cJ latta u (latt) to pound, bray, crush (a 
s.th.); to mix with water (a flour); to 
knead (a dough); to roll (<_j a s.th. in), 
coat (v a s.th. with); (eg.) to prattle, 
chatter | 4JL— j ^£ j cJ [wa- r ajana, 
mas'ala) not to tire of raising a problem 
anew, discuss a question back and forth 

cJ latt (eg.) idle talk, prattle 

£j\si lattdt (eg.) prattler, chatterbox, 
windbag 

J3 litr pi. -at liter 

^j^ (Engl.) litmus litmus 

LjIjJ lituwaniya Lithuania 

Jil allatl see ^JUl (alphabetically) 

"S see jiJ 

kii latiga a (latag) to pronounce defectively 
(esp. the lingual r), lisp (O for ^-) | ^J 
,>.J U (si?i) to lisp the s 



*i£} lutga defective pronunciation, lisp, 
ing 

iiJI altag 2 , f. *Ui) latgd' 2 , pi. iiJ Z^j 
having a speech defect, lisping 

J latama i (Htm) to kiss (a s.th.); to strike, 
hit, wound, injure (a s.th.) II to veil 
(a the face) with the litam (q.v.); to veil, 
cover (a s.th.) V and VIII to veil one's 
face; to cover o.s., wrap o.s. up, muffle 
o.s. 

4*tl latma kiss 

Alii litam veil (covering the lower part 
of the face to the eyes) ; cover, wrapping 

JL. mulattam and Jbu mutalattim veiled 

4iJ lita pi. -at, J litan gums 

,jj!d litawi gingival, alveolar, of or per- 
taining to the gums | SjjiWl *-Ajj^ the 
interdental sounds <i-> , i and J* (phon.) 

£■ lajja (1st pers. perf. lajijtu) a and (1st pers. 
perf. lajajtu) i (*i- lajaj, g-U- lajaj, 4*-LL 
lajaja) to be stubborn, obstinate, un- 
yielding, relentless; to persist, persevere 
(j in) ; to insist (j on) ; to continue { j 
s.th.), keep doing s.th. (j); to importune, 
pester, trouble, bother, inconvenience 
(Jp s.o.); to bear down (<-> on s.o.), hit 
hard, wear out, weaken, exhaust (y 
s.o., e.g., battle), torment, harass (»_> s.o., 
e.g., hunger) III to argue or dispute 
obstinately (* with s.o.) VIII to be noisy, 
uproarious, tumultuous; to roar, storm, 
rage 

£- lujj and U- lujja pi. gJ. lujaj, ^IJ. 
lijaj depth of the sea ; gulf, abyss, chasm, 
depth 

J- lujjl fathomless, of tremendous 
depth (sea) 

U- lajja clamor, din, noise, hubbub 



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IU.U- Za;aja stickling, disputatiousness ; 
obstinacy, stubbornness; insistence, per- 
sistence 

^jJ- tojttj and r-V Zaj? obstinate, stub- 
born, unyielding, relentless, insistent, 
troublesome, importunate, obtrusive, of- 
ficious 

li. ZajVa a (*A* fotjT, »ji- luju) and ij^L ZajVa a 
(U- kfa ) to take refuge (Jl in), resort, 
have recourse (Jl to), fall back (Jl on); 
to seek asylum (Jl in a country); to 
seek information (Jl from), refer (Jl 
to) II to coerce, force, compel (Jl a s.o. 
to) IV do.; to shelter, protect, guard 
(» s.o.) ; to entrust, commit ( Jl *j*\ amrahu 
one's cause, one's affairs to) VIII to 
flee (Jl to), take refuge (Jl in), resort, 
have recourse ( J I to) 

►jj- luju' refuge; political asylum (J ( in 
a country) 

tJu malja 3 pi. •yr'^ "i^Udji' 2 (place of) 
refuge, retreat; shelter; sanctuary, asy- 
lum; home; base; pillbox, bunker, dug- 
out | JUL VI l*JU day nursery, nursery 
school, children's home; ^UjV LJL. 
orphanage; ^-jJtJi t>JU home for the aged; 
oU*JI tJL. m. aUumyan institution for the 
blind; Sj^JI LJL. m. al-ajaza infirmary; 
5j jA-1 oljUU jLa* LJL. (mudddd, jaw* 
wlya) air-raid shelter 

»Loll i&tja' resorting, recourse ( Jl to), 
Beeking refuge (Jl in, with); political 
asylum (Jl in a country) 

*jr^ &*?'*" one seeking refuge; refugee; 
emigrant; inmate of an asylum 



[j>JL. mulj%: 4iJLi *jjs* {darura) ur- 
gent necessity 

*jyL multaji' one seeking refuge, a 
refugee 



^J- lajab noise, uproar, tumult; huge, bois- 
terous army 

^J- la jib uproarious, tumultuous, noisy, 
clamorous 

JU- lajlaja and II talajlaja to repeat words 
in speaking; to stammer, stutter 

iJLL lajlaja stutter; stammering, stam- 
mer 

r-^U- fa/la?' stutterer, stammerer 

j-JUl. mulajlaj constantly repeated, 
reiterated 

JL lajama u {lajm) to sew (* s.th.) II and IV 
to bridle, rein in (a a horse); to restrain, 
curb, hold down, silence (» s.o.); to put 
the bridle (« on s.o.) VIII to be bridled, 
be curbed, be tamed, be harnessed (e.g., 
energies) 

fU. lijam pi. IujU aljima, *J- lujum 
bridle, rein 

/.^JL. vmljum and *aJU muljam bridled, 
curbed, harnessed 

jJL lajina a (lajan) to cling, adhere, stick 
( v to) 

£J- Zaj'na pi. -af, OU- Wyam, ^ lijan 
board, council, commission, committee | 
jJi^Jl hX. investigating committee; 4ii- 
ojlil {iddriya) administrative board, 
committee of management; jUjuVi <J- 
board of examiners, examination board; 
J? LjaVI ^4- disciplinary board; hJ^kS SiJL 
(tanfidiya) executive committee; iJL 
4-»JL? {sulhlya) arbitration committee, 
board of arbitration; 4^y iJL {far'iya) 
subcommittee; (^ucAi***) SjlS "<cX- (qarra, 
mustadlnm) standing committee, per- 
manent committee; 4—Jl^l <*-JLjL £• &Z- 
murdqaba board of directors; \pj* U- 
(mar&azt^a) central committee; 
{munazzima) organizing committee 



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,>i- lujairi silver 
J^ lujainl silvery 

X lahha (lahh) to be close (relationship) IV to 
implore, beseech, request with urgency; 
to insist (j on); to beset, importune, 
pester, harass (J* s.o.); to urge, press 
(^ or J Jp s.o. to do s.th.); to be ob- 
trusive, persistent, importunate 

«Ju lahih and *-V Za^ close, narrow 

^L lahuh obstinate, stubborn, per- 
sistent 

^LJL milhah obstinate, stubborn, per- 
sistent; importunate, obtrusive 

*-li-l ittaA urging, pressing, urgency, 
insistence; emphasis; urgent solicitation, 
earnest request; obtrusiveness, importu- 
nateness | r^-k or *-U-l j insistently, 
earnestly, urgently 

mL mulihh pressing, urgent; persistent; 
insistent, emphatic; importunate, obtru- 



t-^"^ ZaM6 open, passable (road) ; O electrode 

«4- ZaAa/ 2 Lahej (sultanate and city in the 
Aden Protectorate) 

jX lahada a (lakd) to dig a grave; to bury, 
inter (« s.o.); to deviate from the right 
course, digress from the straight path; 
to abandon one's faith, apostatize, be- 
come a heretic; to lean, incline, tend 
(Jl to) IV = I; VIII to deviate, digress; 
to abandon one's faith, apostatize, be- 
come a heretic or unbeliever; to be 
inclined, lean, incline, tend ( Jf to) 

jJ- lakd pi. *j}. lukud, aU.1 dlhdd 
grave, tomb; (ancient meaning: charnel 
vault with a niche for the corpse in the 
lateral wall) 

j>UL lahhdd gravedigger 



iU- 1 ilhdd apostasy; heterodoxy, hei 
jj>LL I ilhadl of or pertaining to j 



4*J- mulhid heretical, unbelieving; 
— (pi. -un, oJb~:>L. maldhida) apostate, 
renegade; heretic 

ijj- lahasa a (lahs) to eat away (a s.th,, esp. 
a moth the wool), devour (a s.th.); - 
lahisa a {lahs, «LJ- lahsa, luhsa t ^^ 
malhas) to lick (a s.th.) ; to lick up, lap 
up, lick out (a s.th.) 

ifj^L* malhus licked; (eg.) imbecihc 

iiJ- lahaza a {lahz, jUU- Xahazan) to regard, 
view, eye (a, o s.o., s.th.), look (a, * at); 
to notice, see, perceive, observe (a s.th,, 
jl that) III to regard, view, eye (a, »s.o,, 
s.th.), look (a, e at) ; to see, behold (• s.o.), 
catch sight (» of); to notice, perceive, 
observe (jl that, a s.th.); to remark, say, 
make the remark (jl that); to consider, 
bear in mind, observe, heed, take into 
consideration (a s.th.); to pay attention 
(a to); to supervise, superintend (j 
s.th.) | Uui aJU Ji>-V to observe or 
notice s.th. in s.o.; jl Ji»-*^ If minima, 
yuldhazu awna it will be noticed that ..., 
obviously . . . , evidently . . . 

J«a- lahz pi. JjU-l alhdz look, glance 

&*- lahza pi. lahazdt (quick or casual) 
look, glance, glimpse; moment, instant | 
ijhljjl ik^l the present moment, the 
immediate present; Ski* j in a mo- 
ment, instantly; llkJi\ o-Xa j at that 
moment; oUii- lahazatin for a few mo- 
ments 

Jg&j- lahzata'idin at that moment 

Ji>*L. malhaz pi. ii*-*^ maldhiz* obser- 
vation, remark, statement 

&»-^U mvXahaza pi. -at seeing, noticing, 
perception; observation; notation, noting 



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(of a fact); remark, casual statement, 
note; observance, heed, notice, attention, 
consideration ; supervision, superinten- 
dence, surveillance, control | 51a»-^U ji 
considerable, notable 

«ib-V lakiza pi. &*-\ji lawahiz 2 eye; 
look, glance 

J*^»JL mathuz noted; clearly observ- 
able, visible; noteworthy, remarkable, 
noticeable, conspicuous (also «-*JU-' Je-^pJU, 
said of an effect, an event) 

ib^JL malhuza pi. -at observation; 
remark; note 

Jia-*^l. mulahiz pi. -«n superintendent; 
overseer, supervisor, foreman; observer 
(/own.) | J**)l Jw-"iU m. al- r amal t ii*- 1 ^ 
Jj^iDl work overseer 

Jb-->^ muldhaz : jl Ji»-^llj obviously . .. , 
evidently . . . 

JJ- lahafa a (lahf) to cover, wrap (« s.o.) 
IV do.; to request or demand urgently; 
to be importunate, obtrusive (J in re- 
questing, begging) V and VIII to wrap 
o.s. (tj in), cover o.s. (»-* with) 

(JisL ZtA/ foot of a mountain 

•J»U- lihdf pi. <Jai- fct/m/ (also <uXI 
aWU/a) cover, blanket ; bedcover, counter- 
pane, coverlet, quilt, comforter; wrap 

(J^*L milhaf and *i>JL* milhafa pi. 
Ji^^U malahip cover, blanket; wrap 

oU-l i7Aa/ importunity (of a petitioner) 

<Ji>«d. multahif wrapped («-*in), covered 
(^ with) 

| ji- foftiga a (Zafof, J IX lahaq) to catch up 
(y or « with s.o,), overtake (<-> or « s.o.); 
to reach (a, ^ s.th.); to catch, make 
(a, t-» e.g., a train); to touch (cj s.th.); 
to cling, adhere, attach o.s., stick, hang 
on, keep close (i_j to s.o.); to join (<_j s.o.), 



come along (t^> with s.o.); to follow, 
go after (o>, * s.o.); to follow in death (<_j 
s.o.); to unite {<~> with); to betake o.s., 
go (v to); to enter (i-jJU bi-madra* 
satin a school; i.4a£ bi-kidmatin a serv- 
ice; *uoi£ jjL to take up a position 
with s.o., enter the services of s.o.); to 
overcome, befall, aflfect, afflict (© s.o.; 
disease, fear, loss, and the like), come, 
descend (a upon s.o.; calamity, etc.); to 
be incumbent (« upon s.o.), be imperative 
(« for) III to follow (o s.o., * s.th.); to join, 
catch up with (», * s.o., s.th.); to go after 
s.o. (»), trail, pursue, chase (» s.o.); to 
persecute (» s.o.); to follow later on, hap- 
pen afterwards IV to attach, affix, join, 
subjoin, append, annex, add (<_> * s.th. to), 
enclose {«_> * s.th. in) ; to connect (<-> * s.th. 
with) ; to increase, augment (a «_j s.th. by) ; 
to take in as a member, admit (<_> » s.o. to 
an organization, and the like), enroll (v » 
s.o. in); to inflict (a «_> upon s.o. or s.th. 
s.th.), cause (a v s.o. or s.th. s.th.; esp. 
damage) ; pass, idhiqa to be admitted (<-• 
to an organization, a society, etc.), become 
a member (<_> of), enter («_j a service) VI to 
follow in close succession; to pursue or 
chase each other; to blend into a con- 
tinuous sequence, pass insensibly into 
each other VIII to reach (<^» s.th. or 
s.o.); to catch up (<-> with), overtake 
(lj s.th. or s.o.); to join (<~> s.o.), go or 
come along (t~> with); to enter (l-> a 
service, a school, a university), join 
(lj an army, an organization, etc.), be- 
come a member (^ of); to matriculate 
(<-> at a university), enroll (u in a 
faculty); to take up (<__> a position, a 
job); to be attached (^ to), be connected, 
be affiliated (4J with); to be attached, 
devoted, loyal | L^SCHj J*JI to go into 
government service X to annex (a s.th.) 



jX- lahaq pi. JU-1 alhaq cultivable 
alluvial soil left behind by a flood 



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Ji- lahaqi: iJoi- s\y (mawddd) detritus 
{geol.), alluvium, alluvial residues 

JjU- Uhdq accession (o to), entry, 
entrance (^ to, into), joining (<_j of), 
enrollment (<_> in); membership (lj in) 

a^-*>U mulahaqa pi. -<x£ pursuit, chase; 
legal prosecution 

JU-I i^acf joining, junction, sub- 
junction, attachment, appending, af- 
fixation, affixture, addition, annexation; 
admission (u to an organization, and the 
like), enrollment (<_j in an association, 
and the like); political annexation | JU-I 
jlj-iV damaging (^ s.th.) 

JjUcJl iliihdq entering (u* of), entry, 
entrance (^ to office, into a school, etc.); 
joining (^ of), affiliation (^ with); ac- 
cession (i_-> to) 

(jUJix^l istilhdq annexation; avowal of 
paternity (jur.) 

J^-V ZaAi? reaching; overtaking; sub- 
sequent, following; added, affixed, ap- 
pended, subjoined, attached, joined, con- 
nected j U*-V — Uj Lw sdbiqan — lahiqan 
previously — later on, at first — subse- 
quently; J»-V cij j (waqtin) later, sub- 
sequently, afterwards; in the time to 
come, in the future 

«ff-V Idkiqa pLjp-ljJ laivdhiq 2 append- 
age, appurtenance, adjunct; O suffix 
(gram-.); pi. J*-^ accessories, appurte- 
nances, adjuncts, de pendencies 

,^JL mulhaq added, affixed, appended, 
attached, subjoined (lj to s.th.), en- 
closed (<-* in s.th.); adjoining, adjacent, 
contiguous; written or printed in the 
margin, marginal; appertaining, ap- 
purtenant, incident, pertinent, accom- 
panying; incorporated, annexed; supple- 
ment; — (pi. -at, J^-^U maldhiq 2 ) appen- 
dix; addition, addendum, postscript; sup- 
plement, extra sheet (of a newspaper, 



periodical, book); enclosure (in a letter); 
appendage; pendant, locket; tag, label; 
trailer (of a truck, etc.); annex, sub- 
sidiary building, wing or addition to a 
building; — (pi. -un) attache (pol., difl.); 
pi. oU^JL. also: annexed provinces, de- 
pendent territories, dependencies j j>JL 
iSj^-. (bahri) naval attache; <jjbc jJu 
(tijari) commercial attache; jUJ jJL 
(taqdfi) cultural attache ; ^j>- jpJL {jaw 
un) air attach.6; ,jjSL^ Jp«L ( e askarl) or 
ijj>- jpJL (harbl) military attache; J*JL 
£& ($uhufi) press attache; t£^i jU* 
(fakri) titular attache; ^j^l <jp*L (w 
bu'%) weekly supplement (of a newspaper) 



mulhaqiya pi. -at (Ir.) attaches 
section in an embassy | XJ\^ v*>*L (top* 
fiya) cultural section of an embassy 

Js-^ju mutalahiq successive, consecu- 
tive, uninterrupted, continuous | j»-^b 
aT^LI m. al-haraka in continuous motion 

*J» lahama u (lahm) to mend, patch, weld, sol- 
der (up) ( * s.th.) ; — lahima a to get stuck 
II to solder (a s.th.) VI to join in battle, 
engage in a mutual massacre; to cling 
together, cleave together, stick together, 
hang together, cohere; to hold firmly 
together; to be joined, united VIII to 
adhere, cleave, stick (<~> to); to be in 
immediate contact (^ with); to cling 
(u* to), fit closely (<_^ s.th.); to grapple, 
fight, struggle (in a clinch or in close 
combat); to cling together, cleave to- 
gether, cohere; to stick together; to be 
inter joined, intermesh, be closely united; 
to close, heal up, scar over, cicatrize 
(wound) 

*i- lahm pi. fjJ- luhum, AX- Uhdm 
flesh; meat | <w^j «wJL (sahmihl) in his 
real human form; loj U- (daman) dyed 
in the wool, inveterate 

ZJ- lahma (n. un.) a piece of flesh or meat 



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ij- lahma, luhma pi. *i- luham woof, 
weft (of a fabric) ; decisive factor, motif; 
luhma relationship, kinship 

X~X lahmiya conjunctiva (anat.) 

*£. lahim fleshy, corpulent ; carnivorous 

fU- lihdm pi. -at soldering; welding; 
soldered seam, soldered joint; solder | j»U- 
jvfiySy^ (oksizen) autogenous welding 

fU- lahham butcher; solderer; welder 

-J- lahim fleshy 

liuU- lahama fleshiness, corpulence 



malhama pi. f-"&* maldhim 2 
bloody fight, slaughter, massacre, fierce 
battle; heroic epic, — • <ij*£ *+>Sa {H'riya) | 
**-tAii ujil adab al-m. epic literature 

L ywJL malhaim pertaining to a heroic 
epic or to epic literature ; epic (adj., litera- 
ture, poetry) | { j*^* j*^ (&i'r) heroic 
poem ; epic 

aUJI iltihdm close union; cohesion; 
conjunction, union, connection, coher- 
ence; adhesion {phys,) ; grapple, struggle, 
fight, close combat | fU»JV1 6& fakk al-i. 
disengagement of troops 

<«j*xL. multahama conjunctiva {anat.) 

I $* Jakarta a (lahn, OjX luhun, ^U- lahdna) 
t to speak ungrammatical Arabic (inter- 
spersed with barbarisms); — lahina a 
to be intelligent II to chant, psalmodize; 
to intone, strike up a melody; to set 
to music, compose (a s.th.) IV = lahana a; 
to mispronounce, esp. while reading the 
Koran aloud 

ji- John pi. oU-1 alhdn, dji- luhun 
air, tune, melody; grammatical mistake, 
solecism, barbarism 

$* hhin intelligent, understanding, sen- 
sible 



^jJ3 talhin pi. <>*"^ taldhln 2 musical 
composition, musical arrangement 

t^JS talhim singable 

Oj*Sa malhun incorrect, ungrammatical 
(language); (ma<jr.) poetry in colloquial 
language 

jpJL. mulakhin pi. -un composer (mus.) 

(ji* and i J~) U- lahd u (lahw) and ^J- lahd 
a {laky) to insult, abuse, revile (» s.o.) | 
Aitt ftU- God's plague on him (or on it)! 
VI to call each other names, heap abuses 
on each other V III to grow a beard 

jl- lahw and J~ lahy insult, abuse, 
invective, vilification, defamation 

^~ lahy, dual: uU- lahydn, pi. i-l 
alhin, X- luhly jawbone 

<LL Uhya pi. X luhan, lihan beard, 
whiskers (on cheeks and chin), full 
beard | 4=J- jIU atlaqa lihyatahu to let 
one's beard grow; ,j~£i\ <X- I. at-tais 
salsify (Tragopogon porrifolium; hot.) 

SJ- luhayya 2 Luhaiya (town in NW 
Yemen, on Red Sea) 

»U- liha' bast (of trees), inner bark 

J. I alhd long-bearded 

»dL multahin bearded, having a beard, 
e.g., *\ij** vJL ~cL (bi-lihya sauda) a 
black-bearded man 



]nS lajcbata to stir up confusion, bring into 
disorder (a s.th.) 

ikJ^ lukbata confusion, disorder, turmoil 

iJ a^ II to abridge (a s.th.); to summarize, 
sum up, epitomize, condense, compress 
(a s.th.); to excerpt (a s.th.), make an 
excerpt or extract (a of); to give the 
essence of s.th.; to sketch, outline (a 
s.th.); pass. { y^i yulakkasu it can be 



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summed up (<jl J to the efFect that) 
Y to be summarized, be epitomized, be 
condensed, be summed up (J in), amount 
briefly (,j to), be in its essence (j s.th.), 
narrow down (,j to) 

tj^J^j talkis abridgement; conden- 
sation; summary, resume^ epitome, ab- 
stract, synopsis, outline; brief, short re- 
port 

^^JL mulakkas abridged, excerpted, 
summarized, condensed; (pi. -at) extract, 
excerpt, essence, gist 

••U-' laklaka to shake, shake off (* s.th.) 
II talaklaka to shake, totter 

«UJU mulaklak shaky, unsteady, tot- 
tering 

<*£■ lukama. lukama, (eg.) lakma awkward 
fellow, oaf, lout; awkward, clumsy, 
oafish, loutish 

j»yJL. malkum (eg.) awkward, clumsy, 
oafish, loutish 

£JL" lakan putrid stench 

j£l alkan 2 , f »L£ laknd >2 > pi. ^ lukn 
stinking; uncircumcized (as an abusive 
term) 

1 SjJ lida see Jdj 

8 -dJI al-lidd Lydda (city and international 
airport in W Israel) 

3 jJ ladda u (ladd) to dispute violently, have 
a fierce quarrel (» with s.o.) II to defame, 
slander (^ s.o.); to bewilder, perplex, 
nonplus V to turn helplessly right and 
left, be bewildered, perplexed, confused; 
to be headstrong, recalcitrant 

i-J ladad vehement quarrel, violent 
dispute 



•>_j-d ladud, jJl aladd 2 , f. JoJ laMS\ 
pi. -J ludd, jljj Udad,*\j)\ aliddd' 2 fierce, 
grim, dogged, tough | oJI j.^ (adUw) 
mortal enemy, archenemy, foe ; jj.ll jj* do, 

aji aladd 2 more dogged, tougher | jA* J 
a. "aduw the grimmest enemy 

.soil, mutaladdid obstinate, recalcitrant, 
headstrong, rebellious 

£jj ladaga u (ladg) to sting, bite {snake, » 
s.o.); to taunt, hurt, offend (« s.o.) 

apaJ ladga sting; bite 

^jOJ ladig pi. »UjU ludagd' 2 , J,jS ladga 
stung; bitten 

1 (jj hxduimu {ijljj laddna, SjjOJ ludum) to 
be soft, supple, pliant, flexible, resilient, 
elastic II to soften (a s.th.); to mollify, 
attenuate, temper, ease, mitigate, allevi- 
ate (a s.tb.) 

u-U ladn pi. O-vJ Ju^k,, uIjj fo'tfctn soft, 
gentle; pliant, pliable, flexible, supple, 
resilient, elastic; plastic 

(JjN ladan, ladin laudanum 

<jijJ laddna and <JjjJ luduna softness, 
pliability, flexibility, suppleness, plastici- 
ty, resilience, elasticity 

JlljJ ladd* in 2 plastics 

z oaJ feditn (prep.) at, by, near, close to; 
in the presence of, in front of, before, 
with; in possession of; u-d <y from, on the 
part of; since; — (conj.) since, from the 
moment when; ul ujU do. 

J-d laduni (i.e. <uif jjJ j*) mystic; 
J-dJl ^1 < r t7m), iJJiDl ajJUJI knowledge 
imparted directly by God through mystic 
intuition (in Sufism) 

^aJ ladd (prep.) at, by (place and time); in 
the presence of, in front of, before, with | 



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1013 



r-jJ 



4>-U-1 (^oj in case of need, if necessary; 
«ojlI ladaihi he has; *iL-J U the condition 
you are in, your state of mind; LjJJ ( _ r J 
...Li> (j7<wrw) we know no more than 
what . . . 

JJ ladda (1st pers. perf. ktdidtu) a (ilJU ladad, 
olJU ladada) to be sweet, delicious, 
delightful, pleasant, gratify the senses; 
to be great fun, give pleasure (J to s.o.) 
II and IV to please, gratify, delight (o 
e.o.); to give pleasure (• to s.o.) V and 
VIII to be pleased, delighted (>-> at), de- 
light, revel, take pleasure (<_* in), be 
gratified (^ by); to find (a s.th.) deli- 
cious or pleasant, take delight (a in), 
enjoy, savor, relish (a s.th.) X to find 
delicious or pleasant (a s.th.); to find 
delightful (a s.th.); to take pleasure (a 
in) 

SJU ladda pi. -at joy, rapture, bliss; 
pleasure, enjoyment, delectation, delight; 
sensual delight, lust, voluptuousness | 
O »JM ^JL madhab al-l. hedonism 
{philos.) 

hii ladid pi. JJ Ztu2£, ilJJ fo'dad delicious, 
delightful; pleasant; beautiful, wonder- 
ful, splendid, magnificent; sweet 

SjlJU ladada pi. AjIJU lad&'id 2 sweetness; 
charm; bliss; rapture; enjoyment, de- 
lectation; pleasure, delight 

JaL maladda pi. -a£, S^U malddd 2 joy, 
pleasure, amenity, comfort; delightful- 
ness; enjoyment, delectation; voluptuous- 
ness 

iibu mutaladdid epicure 

jil loda r a a (ZewT) to burn (a s.th.) ; to brand, 
cauterize (» s.o.); to hurt (with words), 
insult, offend (» s.o.) V to burn 

fti lag burning, combustion; con- 
flagration, fire | JbbJl 9-aJ rife fire 



f-IJU ladda' burning; very hot, scorch- 
ing; pungent, acrid, sharp; biting (words) 

fjiji lauda* and ^'^ lauda c i sagacious, 
ingenious, witty, quick-witted, quick at 
repartee 

ijxijj lauda'iya sagacity, ingenuity, 
esprit, wit, quick- wittedness, mental alert- 



9-iV lddi r burning; pungent, acrid, 
sharp; biting, stinging (e.g., criticism) 

4tiN ladi r a pi. piljJ lawddi* 2 gibe, taunt 

SJi^Jl al-ladiqlya Latakia, the ancient Lao- 
dicea (seaport in W Syria) 

^JU ladiya a (ladan) to adhere, cleave (v to) 

a ^JUI look up alphabetically 

jj lazza (1st pers. perf. lazaztu) u (lazz, jj 
lazaz, j\J lazaz) to tie <t-» * s.th. to), 
connect or join firmly, unite (<_> a s.th. 
with), make (a s.th.) stick (i_> to) II to 
connect or join firmly, press together 
(a s.th.); to cram together; to urge, press, 
coerce (Jl « s.o. to) VI to be crammed 
together; to lie close together Y and 
VIII to be united, joined, connected (v-> 
with); to adhere, cleave, stick (l-» to) 

jj lazz and SjJ lazza U bolt, staple, 
cramp 

JjL. mulazzaz crammed together; close- 
ly united; firm, solid, compact 

*_jjJ lazaba u (^jjJ luzub) to be firm, be 
firmly fixed, hold fast; to adhere, cleave, 
cling (^ to); to stick (^ to); — laziba 
a {lazab) to cohere, cleave together, stick 
together 

<-jjJ lazib pi. wjIjJ lizab little 

ajjJ lazba pi. i-jj} lizab misfortune, 
calamity 



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1014 



^jV lazib sticking, adhering, clinging; 
firm, firmly fixed | l-jjV \j^» j^ {darbata 
I.) to become necessary, indispensable; 
^j^ <j^ l-^ (duriba) to meet with 
grave misfortune , be stricken by dis- 
aster 

£.jj Zazi7« a (Zaza?, ^y^J /wzm?) to be sticky, 
ropy, gluey, viscid; to stick, cling, get 
stuck (»-j to); to be soft and flabby 

ryJ lazij sticky, gluey, ropy, viscid; 
adhesive; soft and flabby 

'^■jj luzuja stickiness, glueyness, ropi- 
ness, viscidity 

J^J laziqa a (Jj^J luzuq) to adhere, cling, 
cleave, stick (lj to) II to affix, post (a 
s.th.); to stick on, paste on (a s.th.); to 
paste together (a s.th.); (eg.) to palm 
off, foist (J a s.th. on s.o.) IV to paste on, 
stick on, affix (a s.th.) VIII = I 

3 J Uzq adjoining, adjacent, contig- 
uous I «o jJ Uzqahu or <w^L close to his 
side, close by 

3J laziq sticky, gluey 

SiijJ lazqa compress, stupe; plaster 

Jjl^J Uzdq adhesive, aggiutinant, glue, 
cement, paste 

3jji lazuq and 3jj^ lazuq compress, 
stupe; plaster, adhesive plaster, court 
plaster 

*j5 lazima a (rjji luzum) to cling, adhere, 
belong (a to), attend, accompany {a 
s.th.); to persist, persevere (a in), stick, 
keep (a to), keep doing (a s.th.) ; to adhere, 
be attached, keep close, stick (0 to s.o.); 
to be inseparable (a, * from s.o., from 
s.th.); to stay permanently (a in); to 
be necessary; to be requisite, imperative, 



indispensable (a for s.o.) ; to be incumbent 
(» upon s.o.), be s.o.'s (*) duty | »jlj ^ 
{^>\ji) to stay at home (in bed); *jj 
jUwJl (samta) to keep silent, maintain 
silence III to attend, accompany (1 
s.th.); to adhere, stick, keep (a to); to 
pursue or practice incessantly (a s.tL); 
to be constantly with s.o. or in a.o.'a 
company (0), be constantly around b.o. 
(a); to be assigned (* to), accompany, 
attend (a s.o.); to be inseparable (*, a 
from s.th., from s.o.); to keep doing (a 
s.th.), persist, persevere (a in); to work 
with perseverance, display sustained 
activity (a for) IV to force, compel (a » 
s.o. to); to force, press (a », also ^ » upon 
s.o. s.th.); to enjoin, impose as a duty 
(a *, also «_-> » on s.o. s.th.), obligate 
(a 0, also cj s.o. to or to do s.th.) | <ujl 
*>J-1 (hujja) to force proof on s.o., force 
s.o. to accept an argument; ^jift «uj)1 
to confine s.o. to bed, compel s.o. to 
stay in bed (of a disease); JU.1 <uj! 
(or (JU.U) to impose the payment of a 
sum on s.o. VI to be attached or devoted 
to each other, be inseparable VIII to 
adhere, stick, keep, hang on (a to); to 
keep doing (a s.th.), persist, persevere 
(a in), keep up, maintain, preserve (a 
s.th.), abide (a by); to take upon o.s. 
(a s.th.); to make a rule (a of s.th.), 
make (a s.th.) one's duty, impose upon 
o.s. (a s.th.); to assume as a duty (i_j or 
a s.th.); to undertake, obligate o.s., bind 
o.s., pledge (^ or a to do s.th.); to be 
in duty bound, be obligated or under 
obligation, be or become liable (^ or* 
to do s.th.); to be forced, be compelled 
(i^> or a to do s.th.); to be responsible 
(uor * for); to take over the monopoly 
(a of s.th.), monopolize, farm (a e.g., the 
levying of taxes) X to deem necessary 
(a s.th.); to necessitate, make necessary 
or requisite (a s.th.); to require, need 
(a s.th.), call (a for), be in need (a of 
s.th.) 



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2*ji lazma pi. -at official concession, 
license, franchise 

fjj luzum necessity, exigency, re- 
quirement; need, want | pjjUl <_— *- 
kasaba 14. as required, as the occasion 
demands; fj^L'l Xs> in case of need, 
when (if) necessary, if need be; cUjjSwj 
^P-JIj jJlJ\ fjjl (I. as-safar bi-l-bakr) 
biscuit for the voyage 

fljj lizam necessary, requisite; ne- 
cessity, duty, obligation | o\ <ui* L»ljJ uS" 
to be s.o.'s duty to ..., be necessary for 
s.o. that he . . . 

fjJI alzam 2 more necessary, most nec- 
essary 

H.jL malzama pi. /»J^l* muldzim 2 section, 
signature (of a book, = 16 octavo sheets) 

LjL milzama pi. fJ'iL. maldzim 2 vise; 
press 

>e*jij toktm (Leb.-Syr.) award(ing) of 
an open contract (J to s.o., foil, invitation 
for tender) 

!uj:>L mulazama adhesion, clinging, 
sticking; remaining, staying, dwelling; 
close attachment; dependence; insepara- 
bleness, inherence, intrinsicality; follow- 
ing, pursuit, pursuance; perseverance, 
assiduity, zeal 

AJ\ ilzdm coercion, compulsion 

if\J\ ilztiml forced, compulsory, oblig- 
atory, required | 4-JjJV' a»j£-\ (kidma) 
compulsory service (mil.) 

v'J' ilzdmiya compulsory nature (of 
s.th.) | JLxIl v'J' compulsory education 

Aj$\ iltizdm pi. -at necessity; duty, 
obligation, commitment, liability; en- 
gagement, commitment (e.g., of a writer 
to a political aim, an ideology); con- 
tract; (historically) tax farm; concession, 
license, franchise; monopoly; \*\j}\ ilti- 



zaman by contract, by the job | /»U 
4jU>Jb to meet one's obligations 

i/ljJ! iltizdmi committed, engage (e.g., 
author, artist) 

l»jV lazirn inherent, intrinsic, in- 
separable, indissoluble; necessary, req- 
uisite, imperative, indispensable, un- 
avoidable, inevitable, inescapable; in- 
cumbent, binding, obligatory; intransi- 
tive {gram.); legally binding, irrevocable 
(Isl, Law) | [»j:AJtf as it must be, comme 
il faut, properly 

VjV lazima fixed attribute, inherent 
property; standing phrase (of s.o.) 

fjljj lawdzim? (pi.) necessary, in- 
separable attributes or manifestations; 
necessities, exigencies, requirements; nec- 
essaries, requisites; accessories, fixtures 

pj^L mulzum obligated, under obliga- 
tion, liable | »IjVIj fjj-L* fada') liable for 
taxes, taxable 

^.jji. malzumlya duty, obligation, 
commitment, liability 

*j&a middzim tenacious (with foil, gen- 
it. : of), clinging, keeping, sticking (with 
foil, genit.: to); persevering, persisting, 
remaining, abiding; inseparable; closely 
connected or attached; attending, ac- 
companying; adhering; — (pi. -v,n) ad- 
herent, follower, partisan; second lieuten- 
ant (in most Arab countries; mil.) \ 
Jj' f J*^ («wwaJ) first lieutenant (in most 
Arab countries; mil.); &\j j»j!)t» (tdnin; 
formerly mil.) second lieutenant 

i*j:A2. rautalazima syndrome (med.) 

a^L, mitltazim engaged, committed, un- 
der obligation; holder of a concession or 
monopoly; tax farmer; concessionaire, 
concessionary; contractor | *j\JU u-JtT a 
committed, involved author 

fjCL mvltazam pi. -tit requirement 



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1016 



oUjk— * mustalzamat requirements, pre- 
requisites, requisites; necessary or inevi- 
table consequences 

lastik and dJLU lastlk rubber; eraser 



«-J lasa'a a (las') to sting {* s.o.); to burn 
(* s.th., e.g., the mouth); to hurt (with 
words; » s.o.) 

£*-J las r a sting, bite; biting words 

*«J lasV pi. jU fa^a, »L»U lusa'd* 2 
stung 

*^V Ja$i' stinging; burning; biting, 
acrid, pungent, sharp 

i yJ lasina a (lasan) to be eloquent II to 
point, taper, sharpen (a s.th.) 

j^J Za$a» eloquence 

( yj lasin and ^yJl alsan 2 , f. *L~J 
ftztfrea' 2 , pi. j-J lusn eloquent 

OU lisdn (also f.) pi. *Ul alsina, 
l yJ\ alsun tongue; language; mouthpiece 
(fig.), organ (esp., of a newspaper; = 
JU-1 OU see below) | <uU Jp from his 
mouth, through him; <Ja>^\ OU Jp (I. is- 
suhuf) through the organ of the press; 
U <uU Jp JJ (qila) things were ascribed 
to him which . .. , he was rumored to have 
said things which...; ^j*j OU (rasmi) 
official organ; L^-jU-'l Sj'jj OLL £;.wu 
(mutahaddit) a spokesman of the Foreign 
Ministry; oLiSL or UU lisdnan orally, 
verbally; f Ullj ^U- M <UI Jp jlj (o. il-kdss 
wa-l-'amm) to be the talk of the town, be 
on everyone's lips; j/Jl jU I. at-taur 
borage (Borago officinalis; bot.); OU 
JU-I the language which things them- 
selves speak, silent language, mute 
expression (as distinguished from the 
spoken word); organ (of a party or 
political movement; a newspaper); OUj 
Jjij <IU- while he seemed to say ... , with 
an expression as if he wanted to say. . . ; 



J*i-1 OU Z. al~hamal plantain (Plantago 
major L.; bot.); j^i^**Jl jU I. al-'usfur 
common ash (Fraxinus excelsior; boi); 
JiiJI 6U I, al-qufl bolt of the lock; oU 
*jjS\ I. al-qaum spokesman (of a crowd); 
<_JSv!l OU I. al-Jcalb hound Vtongue 
(Cynoglossum; bot.); (eg.) also a variety 
of scorpion's tail (Scorpiurus muricaks 
L.; boU), having circinately coiled pods; 
*-bul! OU I. al-miftdh bit of the key; ji 
^jU dii lisanain double-tongued, deceit- 
ful, insincere, two-faced; ^jS^. OU (mar* 
hazi) official party organ (newspaper); 
jUIl OU pi. 01 jJl iUl tongue of flame; 
■OU jc see jt 

JU lisdni oral, verbal; pi. oLJU 
(if or.) linguistics 

O^-JL malsun liar 

^jJLl lisbona 2 Lisbon (capital of Portugal) 

( t5 iJ, from la sai' :) III to suppress, crush, 
destroy, ruin, annihilate (* s.th.) VI to 
be suppressed, be crushed, be destroyed, 
be annihilated; to come to nothing, be 
ruined, be frustrated, fall; to disappear, 
vanish, dwindle, wane, fade 

«U^U muldSah annihilation, destruction 

^•^3 talds'in annihilation, ruin, failure, 
frustration; disappearance, evanescence, 
vanishing, waning, decline 

^"^Ca mutalMin coming to nothing, 
dwindling, waning; destructible; eva- 
nescent, transient, ephemeral 

(j^tl lassa u (lass) to do stealthily or secretly 
(a s.th.); to rob, steal (a s.th.) V to 
become a thief; to act stealthily; to peek 
covertly, secretly (e.g., «_>Ui UL* ys, 
e abra tuqb al-b. through a keyhole) 

,^-aJ USS pi. ^j^j^ai luSUS, ^Lajl akd? 

thief, robber 



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Z^^ai lu$u§iya thievery, theft, robbery 

(J a^A^ mutalas$is behaving like a thief, 
thievish | Jl Ui^bu J I (aid) to steal to, 
sneak up to 

J*J lasiqa a (la$q, 3_yd lusuq) to adhere, 
cleave, cling, stick (u-» to) II to paste 
together, stick together (a s.th.) Ill to 
adjoin (a s.th.), be next (a to s.th.), be 
contiguous (with), abut (a on), touch (a 
s.th.); to be in touch, in connection, in 
contact (s with s.o.) IV to attach, affix, 
Btick, paste, glue (v * s.th. to); to 
connect (»-> a s.th. with), join (<-> a s.th. 
to); to bring {a s.th.) close (^ to); to 
press (t-i a s.th. against) | 4*-J J*JI (lauha) 
to post a placard; a+£ <o j^oJl {tuhma) to 
raise an accusation against s.o. VI to 
cleave together, cling together, cohere, 
stick together; to agglomerate, conglom- 
erate, cake, frit together; to blend, pass 
into each other VIII — I; to hang on 
( V to )» get stuck (^ to, on) ; to fit closely 
(<-> s.th.), cling (»_> to) 

O J**! lasql agglutinating (language) 

JhJ li§q adhering, clinging, cleaving | 
<LAj close to him (or it) ; L*j or Z*aL j* 
he and I are inseparable 

J«aJ lasiq sticky, gluey, glutinous; ad- 
hesive, agglutinant; tenacious 

J-^aJ la$iq one who cleaves or clings 
(y to); adjoining, adjacent, bordering, 
neighboring, abutting, contiguous; close- 
fitting, skintight (dress) 

O^-aJ lasuq plaster 

il-»^U muldsaqa junction, conjunction, 
connection, contact, union; adjacency, 
contiguity; O adhesion, cohesion (phys.) 

dUt ilsaq poster, bill; O agglutination 

(linguistics) 



j^»^Aj taldsuq and JjLo^l iUisaq cohesion, 
adhesion; contiguity, contact; coherence 

J^V lasiq adhesive | J-^V Jaj^ ad- 
hesive plaster, band-aid; iiL^V i*-^ ( T ada* 
sa) contact lens; iw^Il ljii\ (qwwwa) ad- 
hesive force {phys,) 

O *i~<>V l&eiqa pi. J-^y lav)&$iq 2 suf- 
fix (gram.) 

j-^>L. mtUdsiq adjoining, adjacent, 
abutting, contiguous, bordering, neigh- 
boring, in close contact; companion; 
neighbor; adherent 

J^ai. mulsaq attached, affixed; stuck 
on, pasted on, glued on; fastened; 
brought close; connected, joined; (pi. 
-at) poster, bill, placard 

j-^*^. mutaldsiq cohering, sticking 
together; blending, passing into each 
other 

j~adL mvltasiq attached, affixed, ad- 
hesive, sticking; adjoining, adjacent, 
bordering, neighboring; contiguous, con- 
nected, meeting or touching each other, 
in contact; in the immediate proximity 
(v of)» dose to (t-»); O agglutinated 
(linguistics) 

rj~ik* maldum dense (row), close (rank) 

«LJ lataka a (lath) to stain, blot, sully, soil, 
spatter, splash (<_> a s.th. with) II do. 
V to be soiled or stained 

AiJaJ latka pi. latakat smear, blotch, spot ; 
stain, blemish, blot, disgrace 

UJJ lutajca pi. -at and £JJ littlk ass, 
dolt, fool 

«laJLi mulattak stained, etc. | jUILj pkL 
sullied with shame and disgrace 

^JaJ latasa u (lats) to strike, hit (& s.o.) 

^UaL. milpds pi. ,j~U*^l« rnaldtis* pickax 



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1018 



J&A latasa u {tats) to strike, hit (* s.o.) 

AJ lata'a a {lat") to strike, hit (e s.o.); to 
strike out, erase (a s.th.) 

A*U lafa blot, stain; (eg.; pi. ^U Zwta') 
a disease of the cotton plant 

(JJJ lata fa u (lutf) to be kind and friendly 
(^ or J to, toward s.o.); — lalufa u 
{iUUJ latafa) to be thin, fine, delicate, 
dainty; to be graceful; to be elegant; to 
be nice, amiable, friendly II to make 
mild, soft, gentle, soften (a s.th.); to 
mitigate, alleviate, ease, soothe, allay, 
palliate, assuage, extenuate (a s.th.; also 
y); to moderate, temper, lessen, di- 
minish, reduce (a s.th.; also y>); to tone 
down (a s.th.; also y) III to treat with 
kindness, with benevolence {« s.o.); to 
be civil and polite (a to, toward s.o.); 
to be complaisant, obliging, indulgent, 
compliant {« toward s.o.), humor (« 
s.o.); to natter <* s.o.), fawn (» upon); 
to caress, fondle, pet {* s.o.) | Jp 4&V 
AJcf (katifihi) to pat s.o. on the shoulder 
V to be mitigated, be tempered, be 
moderated; to be civil and polite, show 
o.s. friendly and kind, be so kind as to do 
s.th. (<_->); to bestow most kindly, have 
the kindness to give (^ s.th., also, e.g., 
advice, J* to s.o.); to be tender, affection- 
ate, nice (<-j to s.o.); to win (<_* s.o.) over 
by subtle means, by favors, by tricks; 
to go about s.th. (j or u) gently, care- 
fully, with caution; to do secretly, 
covertly, without being noticed (c-> with 
verbal noun: s.th.) VI to show o.s. 
friendly and kind; to be polite, courteous, 
civil, nice X to find (a s.th.) pretty, 
sweet, nice; to like, find pleasant or 
charming (a s.th.) 

iJiLJ lutf pi. JsUJl altdf kindness, 
benevolence, friendliness; gentleness, 
mildness; civility, courteousness, polite- 
ness; daintiness, cuteness, gracefulness; 



delicateness, delicate grace (e.g., of the 
limbs) | (JdaL gently, softly 

isliaJ latafa thinness, fineness, delicate- 
ness; gracefulness, loveliness, charm; 
kindness, benevolence; friendliness; po- 
liteness; esprit, intellectual refinement, 
sophistication; suavity, urbaneness 

<JlJJ latlf pi. ,JUJ litaf, *UU lutafa' 2 
thin; fine; delicate, dainty; little, small, 
insignificant; gentle, soft, light, mild; 
pleasant, agreeable; amiable, friendly, 
kind, nice; civil, courteous, polite; 
affable, genial; pretty, charming, lovely, 
graceful; intellectually refined, full of 
esprit, brilliant, witty; elegant; JlJJJI 
the Kind (one of the attributes of God) | 
<_a-LJ L my God! good heavens! for 
goodness sake! ^Ji-kUi ^JLUl (jins) the fair 
sex 

liJaJ latifa pi. <JJlU latd'if 2 witticism, 
quip; joke, jest; subtlety, nicety | JJILJ 
J-i-l I. al-hiyal subtle tricks; ol&JI <JuUJ 
I. an-nikat nice jokes 

(JdJl altaf 2 finer; more delicate; kinder, 
nicer; more elegant 

4j&"}U muldtafa amiable treatment, 
amiability; civility, courteousness, po- 
liteness; friendliness; benevolence, kind- 
ness; caress; pi. -at caresses 

tJakLj talaftuf friendliness (i_j toward 
s.o.), amiability; favoring, favoritism; 
civility, courteousness, politeness 

tJaiaL* mulattif pi. -at sedative; soothing 
remedy, palliative (med.) 

JaJ latama i (latm) to strike with the hand 
(a the face, with despair, in lamentation), 
to slap (« s.o.); to jolt; to eject; to bump, 
strike {a against s.th.); to hit (a s.th.) 
VI to exchange blows, fight, brawl, battle 
(hostile armies) ; to collide, clash (waves) 
VIII to collide, clash 



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1019 



^J 



UJ latma pi. latamat blow; slap, box 
on the ear; jolt, thrust 

JaJ latim parentless 

JaL. maltam cheek 

lt-U multatam clash (esp., of waves), 
tumult, turmoil (of a battle, and the 
like), melee 

J*I laziya a (JiJ lazan) to burn brightly, 
flare, flame, blaze, be ablaze; to burn 
with rage V and VIII do. 

JiJ lazan blazing fire, blaze, flame 

«_*J la aha and la'iba a (la'b) to slaver; to 
slobber, drool (baby); — la'iba a {lu f b, 
li'b, la'ib, ^Uij taVab) to play (*_-> with 
s.th. ; Jp an instrument) ; to toy (<_* with) ; 
to dally (i_j with); to trick, cheat, deceive, 
dupe ( Jp s.o.) | 3\jj V \ ^J (aurdqa) to play 
cards ; \jj± <_-*J (dauran) to play a part or 
role; J~*jil v^ to ma ^ e music; <_-*) 
^kiJL> {satranj) to play chess; <u c~*J 
r^l he became the sport of sorrows ; <_-*J 
JJIp j (*ogI»Ai) to turn s.o.'s head; i_-*J 
tj^]\ (hum) to play the ball (sport) II to 
make (* s.th.) play, set (* s.th.) going; to 
Tfag (a the tail) III to play (* with s.o.) ; to 
have fun, play around, jest, dally, trifle 
(* with s.o.) IV to make play, cause to 
play (* s.o.) V to play, act playfully VI to 
play (<_j with s.th.); to make fun (<^ 
of s.o.), mock (l,* at s.o.); to pull s.o.'s (^) 
leg; to play a trick; to act fraudulently 

^J la'b, lib, la'ib pi. <_jUJ! aVah play; 
game; joke, jest; fun, amusement, di- 
version, pastime, sport | j^aJl ^J gam- 
bling, gamble; ijJjVl wLaJV' the Olympic 
Games; wUj v-*UII (riyddlya) athletics, 
sports; \j# cjUI (sihrlya) legerdemain, 
sleight of hand, magic; ^y}\ u->LJi a. 
al-quwa athletics, specif., track and 
field; 4jjU cjUJI [ndrlya) fireworks; ^-U 
yUlVI athletic field; l-;UJVI ^j-L* mw= 



darris al-a. athletic coach, athletics in- 
structor 

«_-*] fa'ifc funny, amusing, merry, gay 

<**J Za f 6a (n. un.) game; trick 

L*j lu'ba pi. ^aJ Zw f a& plaything, toy; 
doll; butt for mirth or derision, sport, 
laughingstock 

L*i lu'aba, s_jUJ Za"a6 and i^-jJ li"lb very 
playful 

^AJ £u f t/6 saliva, spittle ; slaver, drivel | 

u ^Jlj\ t_jUJ L as-sams gossamer, air 
threads; Jp <uLJ JU his mouth watered 
for .. . 

t>UJ Zu't?6i salivary; mucous, slimy 
^J Ma iba pi. -a£ (little) doll 

»_j^J Za'£6 flighty, coquettish, flirta- 
tious (woman); playful, dallying, trifling 

<>jm}\ uVuba pi. u~p VI aWlb 2 plaything, 
toy; play, sport, dalliance; fun; prank; 
trick; pi. «— -^V shadow boxing 

w^L. maVab pi. t-^^U raalaib 2 play- 
ground; athletic field, stadium; play- 
house, theater; scene; circus ring; pi. 
yf^U malaib 2 matches, contests, events 
(in sports) | ^^JcJI «_**!* to, at-tenis tennis 
court 

<**L mar aba plaything, toy 

t^p *$s tald'ub game (e.g., of a speculator, 
of a gambler), gamble; free play; venal 
ity | u-p"^!] Jlf> {majdl) free play, free 
scope, elbowroom; latitude, margin 
clearance 

u^pV &f i& playing; — (pi. ~un) player 
sportsman ; athlete; gymnast | jLii-J l-pV 
I. al-jumbaz gymnast, athlete ; <Ju^ <-*V 
rower, oarsman (sport) ; ^Jop »_-pV I. gats 
diver (sport) 

5^pV &f i&a pi. -at player (fern.); sports- 
woman; woman athlete 



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1020 



f~>j»L maVub pi. *_~^ ^U mala'ib 2 covered 
with spittle; slobbering, driveling, drool- 
ing; prank, trick, ruse, artifice 

^^U mul&Hb fellow player; playmate, 
playfellow; fraudulent 

^•)b. mutaWib bribable, venal (of- 
ficial) 

-*J II taWtama to hesitate; to falter, stut- 
ter, stammer 

S*i*J Wtama and 1*\j taWtum hesitation ; 
stuttering, stutter 

-Jbu mutalatim and oUUI ^oJ^* m. 
al-lisan stammering, stuttering 

^J Za'a^'a a (fo'j) to hurt, be sore, burn III to 
oppress, distress, agonize {* s.o.) 

i^J la'ja pain 

2«pV laijpl. ^ji lawa'if ardent, burn- 
ing (esp., love); pi. ^pIjJ ardent love, 
ardor (of love) 

(J ^i\ aVas 2 , f. »LjJ la'sd' 2 red-lipped 

jpj la'iqa a {la T q, 11*} laqa, lu r qa) to lick 
(a s.th.) 

iJU! lu'qa spoonful 

<$yS la'uq electuary 

4i*L miVaqa pi. J*"^L mald'iq 2, spoon | 
^U UJL. teaspoon ; iiJL^i obit m. spoon- 
bill {zool) 

1 J*J Wl garnet (mm.) 

2 J*J Walla see 2 J^ 

*JU WWa to resound, reverberate, clang, 
roar, boom II taWWa to shimmer, 
glimmer, gleam, flicker; to be starved; 
to be parched with thirst; to be ex- 
hausted 



«i*J WW pi. JUJ Wall" 2 vibration of 
fata morgana 

^jj la" ana a (Wn) to curse, damn, execrate 
(*> s.o.), utter imprecations (• against 
s.o.) Ill to utter the oath of condem- 
nation ( jU lian> q.v.) VI to curse each 
other 

j*J Wn cursing, execration, malediction 

ijj la'na pi. Wandt, jLJ Zi'an curse; 
execration, imprecation | aJ* a»1 oj 
God's curse upon him! 

Ai*J Zit'Tia damned, cursed, confounded; 
execrable, abominable 

jLJ Zi r an oath of condemnation ; sworn 
allegation of adultery committed by ei- 
ther husband or wife (I si. Law) 

^>*J Win and dj*i* maVun pi. ,>c^ 
maWin 2 cursed; confounded; damned; 
outcast, execrable; detested, abhorred, 
abominable; t>JU( the Evil One, the 
Devil 

jc^ mutaWin cursing each other, 
hostile, inimical 

dll U Wan laka call to one who has stumbled: 
may you rise again ! 

t-iyJ lugub, lagub exhaustion, lassitude, fa- 
tigue, weariness ; great pains, trouble, toil 

»_*pV lagib pi. <_ r ii luggab languid, fa- 
tigued, weary, tired 

jlaJ lugd pi. iUJI algddy ijiS lugud and jj.uJ 
lugdud pi. Aj^UJ Jctf/adZd 2 flesh at the 
throat and under the chin | rjiy juI 
(muzdawij) and .JipL*. JliJ (mtt^a/) 
double chin 

_^J lagaza u (lagz) to speak in riddles; to 
equivocate HI and IV do. 

Jii lugz pi. jUJi algdz riddle, puzzle; 



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1021 



J 



enigma; conundrum; mystery, secret | 
O 4*Widl £>\jft\ Jii I al-kalimat al- 
mutaqdti'a crossword puzzle; jj-d\ Jil 
I. a§-§mmr rebus 

jiU mulgaz puzzling, enigmatic, cryp- 
tic, mysterious; dark, obscure, ambig- 
uous, equivocal 

JuJ lagata a (lagt, -UUJ ligdt) to be clamorous 
and noisy; to raise a din; to shout, 
clamor II and IV do. 

JaiJ lagt, laga$ pi. i>UJI algdp noise, din; 
clamor, shouting; lamentation (jp over 
or for s.th.); uproar, turmoil, tumult 

! jj tagama a u to mine (* s.th.), plant explo- 
sives (a in s.th.); to undermine {* s.th.) 
II to mine (a s.th.), plant mines (a in a 
place) 

j*jJ lagam (eg.), lugm (syr. % ir.) pi. »L)I 
(Ugam mine 

jj lagm and fUJl ilgdm mining (e.g., 
of a harbor, of a road, etc.) 

pii* malgum mined; filled with an ex- 
plosive 

+iL mtdaggam mined 

2 ^J IV to amalgamate, alloy with mercury 
fUJ lugam foam, froth 
fUJf ilgdm amalgamation 

iuij lagmafa (eg.) to smear, sully, soil 

[jii) UJ lagd u (lagw) to speak; to be null; 
— UJ lagd u (lagw) and ^jS lagiya a (UJ 
lagan, S^V lagiya, SUJL malgdh) to talk 
nonsense; to make mistakes (in speaking) 
IV to render ineffectual (a s.th.); to 
declare null and void or invalid, in- 
validate, nullify, annul, abolish, abro- 
gate, eliminate (a s.th.), do away (a 
with s.th.); to cancel (a a project); to 



withdraw (a permission, a motion); to 
stop, terminate (a a match; sport) 

jii lagw foolish talk; nonsense; null, 
nugatory, ineffectual; mistake, blunder, 
ungrammatical language 

Aii luga pi. -at language; dialect; idiom; 
vernacular; lingo, jargon; word; ex- 
pression, term; *iUI classical Arabic | 
Ajja^-I AiS (ajnablya) foreign language; 
iL*U SiJ ('dmmiya) popular language; 
li\z&\ Ail literary language; ijjUil UJ L 
al-muhddata colloquial language; <UJ 
<c^il I. al-mihna professional jargon, 
slang; Jd^il UJ I. al-maulid mother 
tongue; UUI Ja! aftl al-l, philologists, 
lexicographers; UL'l ]* Him al-l. lexicog- 
raphy, philology, linguistic science, 
linguistics 

IjiS lagwa dialect, idiom, vernacular 

t^yJ lugawi linguistic; philologic(al) ; 
lexicographic(al) ; (pi. -wn) philologist; 
lexicographer; linguist; ob_>AJ linguistic 
matters, philologica | *ijii *jj*- lin- 
guistic island 

#UJI ilgd' abolishment, abolition, abro- 
gation, repeal, elimination, cancellation, 
revocation, rescission; annulment, nul- 
lification, quashing; countermand 

jV login abrogated, repealed, annulled, 
canceled, invalid, ineffective, null and 
void 

4J1V lagiya grammatical mistake, in- 
correct usage 

(J lL mulgan abrogated, repealed, an- 
nulled, canceled, invalid, void; abolished; 
expired; suppressed; negligible 

ijj laffa u (lajf) to wrap up, roll up, fold 
up (a s.th.); to wind, coil, spool, reel 
(a s.th.); to wind (J*, a s.th. on; <JLp- a 
s.th. around),- twist, wrap, fold (Jj»- a 
s.th. around) ; to envelop (u or j a s.th. 



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.Jd 



1022 



in, with; © s.o.), cover, swathe, swaddle 
(a s.th., l-» or J in, with; » s.o.), wrap, infold 
(*-> or j a s.th. in) ; to connect (<_; a s.th. 
with), join, attaoh (^ a s.th. to); to grow 
densely, be overgrown, form a tangled 
mass; to make a round of calls (Jp on), 
visit (J* people); (eg.) to go around 
s.th. (a), go about s.th. (a) in a round- 
about way, make a detour, beat about 
the bush; {eg.) to turn round (person); 
lijf about face! (command; mil,) | 4iJ tjj 
(laffahu) to do just like s.o., be of the 
same kind as s.o., belong to the same 
sort as s.o. II to wrap up or infold tightly 
V to wrap o.s. up (j in); to be wrapped 
(J in a garment or cloak) VIII do,; to 
wind, coil (snake); to twine itself (Jp 
around s.th., e.g., a plant); to be wound 
(Jp around); to turn round, turn (e.g., 
car); to be spiralled; to be intertwined, 
be grown together (plants) ; to be packed 
or pressed together (people); to gather, 
rally (J^*-, Jp around s.o.); to enclose, 
encircle (Jp, »-> s.th.) 

^Jj lajf winding, coiling; wrapping, en- 
folding; rolling, folding; (eg.) circum- 
ambience, circumvention, detour, round- 
about way, subterfuge, dodge, excuses; 
pi. (JjUJI alfaf swaddling clothes, diapers | 
o\jjjJ\j c-iill {dawardn) detours and 
evasions; jJtJj tjj (nasr) folding and 
unfolding; involution and evolution 
(rket.); JaJ j£ ^ without much ado, 
without ceremony; yJ^\ ^Jai L a$-8a f r 
curling 

t_jj lijf pi. (JsUJI alfaf densely growing 
trees; pi. thicket, scrub, undergrowth, 
brushwood 

4aJ laffa pi. -at a turning, turn; lap 
(circuit around a race track; sport); (eg.) 
detour, round-about way, dodge; wind- 
ing; roll, scroll; reel; coil (el); bundle; 
pack, packet; bale; turban | ij-Uy SjU 



(baridiya) postal package; J^JI ^ oU 
(raqq) parchment scrolls 

43 UJ Ufa fa pi. -af, ,JJUJ laftfif 2 wrap- 
ping, covering, cover, envelope ; wrapper, 
wrap; altar cloth, cloth covering the 
paten and chalice (Copt.-Chr.); bandage; 
swaddling band; puttee; cigarette (also 
*«JI <y 43 UJ I. min at-tibg) ; pi. tJJUJ (fig.) 
guise (of s.th.) 

(J»~AJ laflf gathered, assembled; group 
(^ of persons); cluster, crowd, company 
(of various origins or kinds) | ^Ul JuJ 
the great mass of people; ^^-Vl ulM 
(ajnabi) the Foreign Legion 

4jLaJ laflf a bundle; package, packet, 
pack; cigarette 

.Jdl alaff 2 , f. ,L«J laffa* stout, plump 
(figure, body) 

<JaL milaff pi. -at reel, spool; coil (el)\ 
winding; wrapping, covering, casing; 
blanket, sleeping blanket; cover, wrap- 
per, jacket (of a book, etc.); (letter) 
envelope; folder, portfolio; letter file 
dossier | O j^dl .jJL induction coil (el.) 
O \3\iZi\ CA» (ibtidcfi) primary coil (el) 
O JhU- ^Jil. choking coil, choke (el) 

4aU milaffa pi. -at letter file, dossier 

<JsUl« milfdf wrapping, covering, cover 

t»i~il3 talflf pi. (Jus *£ taldfif 2 winding; 
coil, twist, convolution, whorl, spire | pi, 
^jlj^j expletive after j, e.g., <Jui^" j 
L^Iajj- (suwaidd'ihd) in the depth of her 
heart; *•&}{ «Jui^ j (zalam) in the dark; 
4 J aJ'>tf <j*j in it, inside it, around in it; 
^Ll <Ju**iG t. al-muhk cerebral con- 
volutions (anat.) 

<Jslidl iltifaf turn; bypassing, out- 
flanking, flank movement, envelopment, 
surrounding 

JjjjiL malfuf wound, coiled; wrapped 
up (J in); rolled up, rolled together, 



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1023 



c* 



convolute; twisted, wound (Jp around); 
fastened, attached (J* to); swathed (<-> 
in or with); plump, stout (body); (syr.) 
cabbage 

JoaL mulaffaf wrapped up (<j in) 

«_axL multaff winding, twisting, coiling ; 
wound, coiled; rolled up, rolled together, 
convolute; spirally wound; intertwined, 
interwoven, entwined; gathered, assem- 
bled, grouped (Jj>- around); clasping, en- 
closing, embracing, encircling (u-» s.th.); 
pi. JjjbLU the bystanders, the people 
standing around 



CiJ lafata i (laft) and IV to turn, bend, tilt, 
incline, direct (Jl * s.th. to or toward), 
focus (Jl a s.th. on); to turn away, avert 
(jt » s.th. from) | Jl oj£ cJd {nazarahu), 
Jl tjai CoiJi to turn one's eyes or one's 
attention to; to direct s.o.'s eyes to, call 
b.o.'s attention to; Jid\ cJd to catch the 
eye, attract attention; to be impressive, 
stately, imposing; J&S\ cM\ do.; c^U 
j-UI to attract, interest, or captivate 
people V to turn, turn around, turn 
one's face (Jl to); to look around, glance 
around; to peer around j 4j_^>- cJij (hau* 
hhu) to look around, glance around; 
tj-jj oe, cJAj (yamnatan wa-yasratan) 
he looked to the right and left Till to 
turn, turn around, turn one's face (Jl 
to); to wheel around, turn around; to 
address o.s. (Jl to); to pay attention, 
attend {Jf to), heed, observe, bear in 
mind, consider, take into account, take 
into consideration (Jl s.th.); to take care 
(Jl of), care ( Jl for) | <d^>- cJudl (haulahu) 
to look around, glance about X to attract 
(a the eyes, attention) ; to claim, arouse, 
awaken (a the interest, the attention, ,y 
of s.o.) | oj&i £jk**l (or ojLkJl) to arouse 
or attract s.o.'s attention, catch s.o.'s 
eye 



£*j} laft: J&S\ c~il I. an-nazar admoni- 
tion; warning, notice (calling people's 
attention to s.th.) 

C~«J lift turnip (Brassica rapa L.; 
hot.) 

4siJ lafta (n. un.) turnabout, about- 
face; (pi. lafatat) turn, turning; gesture; 
sideglance, glance, a furtive, casual, or 
quick, look | <x js iioJ a noble or kind 
gesture 

C^lai lafdt and CjjmJ lafut ill-tempered, 
surly, sullen 

cUJS alfat 2 , f. *kii lafta 2 , pi. cOJ luft 
left-handed 

oUJI ilfdt: J^}\ oUJl i. an-nazar — 
J&} { cJd laft an-n. 

oUzJI iltifat turn, inclination, turning 
(Jl to, toward); attention, notice, heed; 
regard; consideration; care, solicitude; 
sudden transition {styl.) | oliiJVl Oj-b 
bi-dHnil-ilt. inattentive(ly) ; CjUxJ^I Oj-b 
Jl inconsiderate of, without consider- 
ation for; oUcJVI /»4c e adam al-ilt. in- 
attention; olixJV ' t>*J aJI j£ (bi-'aini l-ilt.) 
to give s.th. sympathetic consideration 

SJLadl iltifdta (n. vie.) a turning (J! to, 
toward); (pi. -at) a movement or turn of 
the body; turn of the face or eyes; side- 
glance, glance 

oUlr-l istilfdt stimulation of attention 

^iV lafita pi. -at sign (bearing an in- 
scription), signboard, shingle, advertising 
board, billboard; banner, placard 

CJL muljit: J*£& cJiL (nazar) at- 
tracting attention, striking, conspicuous 

c kL multafit turning around, looking 
(Jl at); regardful; attentive; heedful, 
careful; considerate 

«jU la j aha a (lafh, (1)U*aJ lafahdn) to burn, 



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C*! 



1024 



scorch, sear (a, * s.o., s.th.); — (fo/^) *° 
strike lightly; to touch, brush (a s.th., 
e.g., of the breath) 

l*J6 lafha pi. lafahat fire, heat (esp., of 
fever) 

rj*} lafuh and ^aV Za/iA pi. ^ii^J lawafih 2 
burning, scorching, searing 

^UJ luffah mandrake (Mandragora of- 
ficinarum; hot.) 

*>^jiJLj tcUfiha pi. ry*^J taldflh 2 silk 
muffler (for men) 

iiiJ lafaza i [lafz) to emit {lj, a s.th.); to spit 
out (<~> f a s.th.); to eject (*_j, * s.th.); to 
throw (« s.o.) out (j-» of); to speak, 
enunciate, articulate; to pronounce, ut- 
ter, express, voice, say (<-*, a s.th.) | 
j-»-VI ,_r*^! J*j*J {nafas) to breathe one's 
last, die, expire; to be in the throes of 
death; <wlijl JiiJ (anfasahu) to be in 
the throes of death, breathe one's last; 
4*-^ iiiJ (rw^afoi) to expire, give up the 
ghost ; Sljjl JaiJ 4aiJ (Za/za n-nawdh) to spit 
s.th. out like a date pit, brush s.th. aside, 
reject s.th., dismiss s.th. Y to pronounce, 
enunciate, articulate (^ s.th.) 

JaiJ Za/? pi. JjUJI aZ/«2 sound-group, 
phonetic complex; expression, term; 
word; wording; formulation; articulation, 
enunciation, pronunciation; QiiJ verba- 
tim, literally | J**j LkiJ (manan) in 
letter and spirit; Jiiill tk^l (akta'a) to 
mispronounce 

( _ 5 liiJ fa/st of or pertaining to words, 
verbal; literal; pronounced; oral 

4LU Za/za pi. lafazdt word; utterance, 
saying 

Jv.il laflz ejected, emitted; pronounced, 
uttered 

jaiij taluffuz pronunciation, enuncia- 
tion, articulation 



J^iJU malfuz ejected, emitted; pro- 
nounced, uttered 

«i) lafcfa a (laf): «u-lj (-jJJI £*J *■ Wbih 
rasahu grey hair covered his head II to 
cover (a s.th., i^> with); to wrap, wrap up 
(«-> » s.o. with) J <wlj ^--i^Jl **J I. 8-faik 
ra > sahu = I; Y and VIII to wrap o.s. up 
(v in ) 

pUJ Ufa" muffler 

*il. milfa" head shawl, muffler 

,JaJ II to invent, fabricate (a s.th.}; to con- 
coct, contrive, devise, think out (a s.th.); 
to falsify (a s.th.) ; to trump up (a s.th.); 
to patch up, piece together (J[ a s.th. 
with) 

i tJ)3 talfiq invention, fabrication, con. 
coction, fibbing; falsification 

AJuaiS talfiqa pi, -at invented story, 
fib, yarn 

Jii. mulaffaq invented, fabricated, 
trumped up, fake, fictitious; concocted, 
contrived, devised; patched up, pieced 
together; embellished with lies 

*JlUJ lajiafa to wrap up, envelop, cover 
(a s.th.) II talaflafa to wrap o.s. up (J, u> 
in) 

(yd) IY to find (a, « s.o., s.th.) VI to put right, 
to right, repair, correct (a s.th.); to make 
good (a a deficiency), eliminate, remove 
(a a danger); to remedy (a s.th.); to 
redress (a a loss, and the like), make up 
(a for a loss) 

•U^» muldfah correction, adjustment, 
elimination, removal (of a deficiency); 
elimination (of errors) 

»J>*^ ialdfin repair, correction; elimi- 
nation, removal (of a deficiency, of a 
danger); remedy; redress, reparation 



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1025 



*JwJ 



„JiJ II to call, surname (^ * s.o. by an agno- 
men or title) ; to address s.o. (») with the 
title of (v) V to be surnamed (v by an 
agnomen or title) 

t-JU laqab pi. <-»UJl aZg<z£> agnomen ; nick- 
name; title, honorific; last name, sur- 
name, family name (as opposed to ^1 
ism given name, first name) | 4ijhJ\ *_-^J 
title of champion (in sports) ; jj=T-d1 <^2i 
doctor title 

uJiL mulaqqab surnamed, nicknamed, 
called (^ by the laqab . . .) 

?l)U ZagaTwz a (Jgk$) and II to impregnate, 
fecundate, pollinate (a s.th.); to graft, 
bud (a a tree); to inoculate, vaccinate 
(a s.o.) VI to cross -pollinate 

pJU laqh impregnation, fecundation, 
pollination 

,-UJ laqah seed, semen, sperm; pollen; 
infective agent, virus; vaccine | tSj-U-1 t-LaJ 
?. al-judari variolovaccine; O *t\*jfl r^ 
serum 

>yiij taZgtA impregnation, fecundation, 
pollination; grafting, budding; inocula- 
tion, vaccination | i$jjJ?\ ry^ '• "J-j'wdan 
vaccination (against smallpox) 

rJijUl (^Ji efogig al-laimqih pollen 

tuU mulaqqak inoculated, vaccinated 

^ Zo^is: ,jJd\ ^JaJ Z. an-nafs annoyed, 
cross 

Jul Jagato w (kg*) to gather, collect, pick up 
from the ground, glean (a s.th.) II = I 
V to gather, glean (a s.th.); to pick up 
(a s.th., also, e.g., with the ear) VIII = I; 
to receive (a radio waves, a radio mes- 
sage; to take (a a picture; phot) | iaiJI 
hf* {sura) to make a picture 

Jail laqat that which is picked up or 
gathered, leftovers, gleanings 



ikil luqta pi. laqatat a take, shot (film) ; 
snapshot, photo; film frame | UkU- iki) 
instantaneous photograph, snapshot; 
aJ\ «:j,- olkij (sinamahja) movie shots; 
i^jU- oUaiJ location shots, exterior 
shots (film) 

UaJLl luqta pi. JaU Jwgo2 that which is 
picked up or gleaned, gleanings ; article or 
thing found; (lucky) find; (eg.) bargain, 
pickup 

i?laJ laqat and aLUJ luqdta that which 
is picked up or gleaned; leftover ears of 
grain, gleanings; offal, refuse 

JaJaJ laqit pi. *lkaJ luqata' 2 picked up, 
found; foundling 

^kjiJ laqlta (female) foundling 

Jail* milqat pi. Ja5tA* malaqit 2 (pair of) 
tongs, pincers ; (pair of) tweezers, pincette ; 
(pair of) pliers | J\'~^\ i*iL forceps; JeJaL. 
jUI fire tongs 

i»UJ! iltiqat gathering, collection, 
gleaning; taking up, picking up; re- 
ception (TV, radio) | Sj^JI i»Lc)l i. as- 
sura picture reception (TV); .tUJ^I Jl$>- 
jahdz al-i. receiver (radio) 

Jai*y laqit receiving (radio set) ; gleaner, 
gatherer; (pi. -at) pickup (of a phono- 
graph, - O^Jl Ja5^ I. as-saut) 

iL»V laqita pi. -at apparatus for re- 
cording sound waves; search device 
(techn.) | j»Ud! iUV mine detector; iL*^ 
oIjI>aV1 geophone, seismophone (phys.) 

iaidL multaqit finder; receiver (radio 
set) | o^sJI JoidL m, as-saut pickup (of a 
phonograph) 

*i) laqa'a a (iaq*) to throw away, discard 
(a s.th.) 

tJJaJ laqifa a (laqf> <jUU laqafan) to seize 
quickly, grab, snatch (a s.th.); to catch 



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1026 



(a s.th.); to snatch up, take over (jc- a 
s.th. from s.o.) V and VIII do.; to seize 
(a on), rob, usurp (a s.th.) 

jlil laqlaqa to clatter (stork); to babble, 
chatter, prattle 



jjjjj laqlctq and <3:>UJ 
laqaliq 2 stork 



jf/tt^ pi. jJUU 



^aUJ laqlaqa clatter (of a stork); bab- 
ble, chatter, prattle; (eg.) gossip 

1 JaJ laqama u (laqm) to clog up, obstruct, 
block {a s.th.); — laqima a (laqm) to 
eat, devour, gobble, swallow up (a s.th.) 
II to feed bit by bit (» s.o.) ; to feed, supply 
(a a technical installation, reactor, etc., 
<-> with); to load (a a weapon; syr.) \ 
S^^aJI Jai (qahwata) to stir ground coffee 
into hot water IV to make (* s.o.) swallow; 
to feed bit by bit (• s.o.) VIII to devour, 
swallow up (a s.th.) 

4^aJ luqma pi. JSJ luqam bite; bit, 
mouthful; little piece, morsel ( WU 4*JL! 
titbit, choice morsel; J WU 1*2} «dU>- 
(ja'alahu) to make s.o. an easy prey 
of ... ; (O-^UJl 4*aI pastry of fine flour, fried 
in oil like doughnuts and sprinkled with 
sugar or honey; ^x> "kJai L r ai§ (eg.) the 
daily bread, bare minimum of food 

^uJL! luqaima pi. -at snack, bit, morsel 

^D laqlm a moutliful of food or forage 
which can be managed in one swallow; 
a quantity of material to be worked over, 
f^d into a technical installation (see II) 

«JtJLi mulaqqim pi, -un (Syr,; mil.) 
assistant gunner, gunner no. 2 ; mortar 
man 

2 c ~JiJ laqmi or ^^ (magr.) palm wine 

3 j|<IJ luqmdn 2 Lokman, a legendary sage and 
author of numerous fables ] jl^ll jlj C-Ju 



l$JU- J* (baqiyat) everything has remained 
as before 

jaJ laqina a (SjUJ laqana, aJUJ laqdniya) to 
understand, grasp (a s.th.); to gather, in- 
fer, note (a s.th.) II to teach (a « s.o. s.th.), 
instruct (a » s.o. in); to dictate (a « to 
s.o. s.th.); to instill, infuse, inculcate, 
inspire (a » in s.o. s.th.), insinuate, 
suggest (a a to s.o. s.th.); to whisper (> * 
to s.o. s.th.), prompt (» s.o.) V = I; to 
learn, receive, get (j* a s.th. from), be 
informed ( j* a of s.th. by) 

SjUJ laqana and ljUJ laqdniya quick 
understanding, grasp 

^iJj talqln instruction, direction; dic- 
tation; dictate; inspiration, insinuation, 
suggestion; suborning of a witness [hi. 
Law) 

j^L, mulaqqin prompter; inspirer; a 
faqlh who instructs the deceased at his 
grave what to tell the two angels of 
death 

SjJLl laqwa facial paralysis 

JJ laqiya a (>ISJ liqa\ uLSJ luqyan, JJ 
Ztt^y, aJLI Zwgya, JJ J^a/t) to encounter 
(a, * s.o., s.th.), meet (a, with s.o., with 
s.th.); to meet (a s.o.); to come across 
s.o. or s.th. (a, 0), light upon s.o. or 
s.th. (a, 0); to find (a, * s.o., s.th.); to 
experience, undergo, suffer, endure (a 
s.th.), meet with s.th. (a); to fall to s.o.'s 
(*) lot or share III to meet, come to meet 
(a s.o.); to encounter (e s.o.), have an 
encounter (& with); to come across s.o. or 
s.th. (a, e), light upon s.o. or s.th. (a, *); 
to experience, undergo, suffer, endure 
(a s.th.), meet {a with s.th.); to receive, 
get, obtain, achieve (a s.th.) | U!iT j^ 
4^L* (sagiyatan) to find willing ears IV to 
throw (a or l-> s.th., Ji to or at), cast, 
fling (JI <_->, a s.th. at); to throw off, 



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1027 



J 



throw down, drop (* s.th.); to throw 

away, discard (a s.th.); to put or lay 

(a s.th.) before s.o. (J*), submit (Jp a 

s.th. to s.o.), pose (Jp a a question to 

s.o.); to report (Jp or Jl a on s.th. to 

s.o.), set forth (Jp or Jl * s.th. to s.o.); 

to recite, play, sing (* a song, a musical 

composition); to present (a s.th., e.g., a 

broadcast); to give (a a lecture), hold 

(a a class), make, deliver (a a speech); to 

extend (a a greeting, Jp or Jl to s.o.); to 

impose, lay (Jc a s.th. on s.o.), burden 

(Jp * with s.th. s.o.) | Jl 4Jb JJI, J ^L JJI 

to pay attention to; y ULj JJI (baydnan) 

to make a statement about or on; 

u aJ\ JJI (bald) to lay eggs; J! <ul»>, JJI 

{bi-zimdmiki) or J*^a Jl t>j*\ "W^* J" ( m - 

amrihi) to lay one's fate in s.o.'s hands, 

entrust one's fate to s.o. ; j «l~jL> JJI (bi- 

nafsihi) to throw o.s. into, plunge into; 

4JLb-l J <iwij JJI (ahd&nihi) to throw o.s. 

into s.o.'s arms; Jl e-U JJI (bi-yadihi) to 

surrender to s.o., give o.s. up to s.o.; 

^jjUJI JpJJ-l JJI (habl) to give free rein, 

give a free hand, impose no restraint; 

J* blL^ JJI to make a public address to; 

^jJdl JJI {dars) to recite the lesson; 

j L*jj* JJI (durusan) to give lessons in; 

<d3 j <^s.J\ JJI (neb, qalbihi) to strike 

terror to s.o.'s heart, frighten, alarm 

s.o.; ^tjLJl JJI to lay down one's arms, 

capitulate, surrender; <UI «^JI JJI (sain) 

to lend one's ear to s.o., listen to s.o.; 

*4*U*l 4JI \jji&\ (asmd f ahum) they lent him 

their cars, they listened to him ; V I J- «uU JJI 

(^t'etfan) to put a question to s.o., ask 

e.o. a question; Jp y^iJl Jll (dau'a) to 

throw light on; <ujIp Jp «LiJl to impose 

s.th. on s.o., make s.th. incumbent on; 

JwU-l ^*j£. 4j Jjl = JJU-I ^jt <U <-<j-*> 

see y^; L>ip Jll to teach sciences; Jll 
Jp yjkM (qabda) to arrest s.o.; JjI^SJI j!i 
Jfr to drop bombs on s.th., bomb s.th. ; JJI 
JyJI JU (gem/a) to dictate to s.o.; to di- 
rect, instruct s.o., give s.o. instructions; 
iS^Ul US* I4J* JJI (kalimata t-talaq) he 



pronounced the formula of divorce 
against her; o^Ui JJI (muhddara) to give 
a lecture, hold a class; <*Jp iJjJ— 11 JJI 
(mas'uliya) to place the responsibility on 
s.o., saddle s.o. with the responsibility 
V to receive (a, s.o., s.th.) ; to take, accept 
(a s.th.); to get, obtain (a s.th.); to learn 
( y. a of s.th. from), be informed (jp a of 
s.th. by); to learn (Jp or ^ a s.th. from 
s.o.), take lessons (jp from s.o.), be 
taught, be instructed, be coached (jp 
by s.o.) J 1^*1 J1j (amran) to receive an 
order, have orders (soldier); j-»ljVl Jij 
to take orders (com., and the like); 
J_jJaJ1j ~LUlj cUIj (qabul) to agree 
wholeheartedly to s.th., submit willingly 
to s.th.; J L-jj-> Jij to take lessons in 
(some field, art, science, etc.); j *jj> JU 
(dauratan) to take a course in (a subject); 
^Jl Jij ('Uma) to study; r4*Jl J& 
Z**IL\ j to study at the university VI to 
meet, join each other, come together, 
get together VIII do.; to encounter, meet 
(<_-> s.o.) X to throw o.s. down; to lie 
down, lie 

JJ laqan pi. »L5Jl ajqa offal, discard 

3-iI luqya encounter, meeting; luqya, 
laqlya s.th. found, a find 

Lil luqya encounter, meeting 

4jliJ liqaya encounter, meeting; s.th. 
found, a find 

4JUI ulqiya riddle, conundrum 

•liiJ tilqaa (prep.) opposite; in front 
of I <uJj »UiJ j* min tilqa'i nafsihi or j* 
4?li *LSJL^ by o.s., of one's own accord, 
spontaneously, automatically 

Jliij tilqa'i automatic; spontaneous; 
UJUij automatically; spontaneously 

jlJUJL? tilqa'iya automatism; spontaneity 

JL Tnalqan pi. J*^* malaqin meeting 
place, rendezvous; junction, crossing, 



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J 



1028 



intersection; road or street intersection, 
crossroads 

•IaJ liqd* pi. -at encounter; meeting; 
get-together; reunion; interview (*> 
with, 3j*~ about); liqd'a (prep.) in 
exchange for, in return for, for, on | 
<JU5" *UJ (kafdkc) on bail; »UUI J! good- 
by ! so long ! au revoir ! 

*U">U muldqdh encounter, meeting, get- 
together, reunion; reception 

»UJl ilqa throwing, casting, throw, 
cast; delivery (of a statement); diction; 
dictation; recitation, recital j »UJVi ]*■ 
Him al-i. elocution, art of speech; »UJl 
^^iJiil i, al-qabd arrest (J* of s.o.) 

j\j talaqqin receipt, reception, accept- 
ance; acquisition (also of a skill, of knowl- 
edge, etc.); learning (of an art, skill, 
etc.); pursuit (of studies) | j ^i*Jl JiJ 
studies at (e.g., at a university) 

(J^Aj taldqin meeting, encounter 

•lid! iltiqa meeting, reunion (^ with) 

jL mulqin: <ij**J\ fUJVl ^W^- wwd* 
qiyat al-a. al-bahrlya mine layers 

Ji* mulqan thrown, cast, discarded 

Jd* multaqan pi. oLid. multaqaydt 
meeting place, rendezvous; gathering 
point, collecting center; intersection, junc- 
tion, confluence, crossroads ; meeting, con- 
vention, gathering; conference, session, 
seminar | t>^LiJ! Jd» m. S-Safatain corner 
of the mouth; Jdii JI good-by! so long I 
au revoir! 



r i*$ lakka u (lakk) to hit with the fist, to 
cuff, buffet, pommel (* s.o.) VIII to be 
pressed together, thickly set, crammed, 
jammed, crowded; to crowd together, 
gather in a mass; to make mistakes or 
blunders, speak ungrammatically 



2 ^iJU lakk pi. iJt&l alkdk, £JL^S3 luhuk lac, one 
hundred thousand (specif., 100,000 ru* 
pees) 

3 dl! lukk, lakk resin; lac; sealing wax 

ISO laka'a a (»iill lak') to strike, hit; — *$) 
laki'a a (t£J laka') to abide, remain, stay 
(u at a place) V to be tardy, dilatory, 
slow, to dawdle, tarry, hesitate ( j in 
s.th.); to loiter, loaf, hang about | ISsL* 
»b^ 1 j {add 1 ) to be in default, fail to meet 
one's financial obligations 

sl$3 lukaa hesitant, tardy, dilatory, 
sluggish, slow; behindhand, in arrears, 
defaulting 

^i3 talakku dawdling, loitering; loafing 

J& lakaza u (lakz) to strike with the fist; to 
kick (o s.o.); to thrust (o s.o.) 

j£} lakiz miserly, stingy 

jl& likdz pin; nail; peg 

rj*~£l luksumburg (Eg. spelling) Luxem- 
bourg 

£53 laki" pi. »US0 luka r d' 2 mean, base, ig- 
nominious, disgraceful, wicked, depraved; 
silly, foolish 

Ui& lakd f a meanness, baseness, dis- 
gracefulness, wickedness, depravity 

£j lakama u {lakm) to strike with the fist, 
box, punch III to engage in a fist fight, 
box {» with s.o.) 

*XJ lakma pi. lakamdt blow with the 
fist, punch 

5isL milkama boxing glove 

4$")U mulakama fist fight, boxing match 

J ^ muldkim pi, -un boxer, pugilist, 
prize fighter 



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1029 



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l jS0 lakina a (lakan, SiSO luhna y ZjQ luku* 
7va> Zj& luknuna) to speak incorrectly, 
barbarously; to stammer 

cSO lukna stutter, stammer; incorrect 
usage, ungrammatical language ; incorrect 
pronunciation 

4jKCj lakana: a!^JI j SjtxJ (kaldm) speech 
defect ; faltering way of speaking 

^£jl alkan 2 , f. »LS3 laknd' 2 , pi. j£j Z«fcn 
speaking incorrectly ; stammering, stutter- 
ing 

a jSCj Zafawi pi. ut&l aZfcem basin, copper basin 

3 < jS0 Zd&m, Idkinna see jS"*}/ 

(JJ &-£at, 1,^ li-kai-ma see J H 

U Jam {particle; with foil, apoc.) not | «--^j i 
lam yaktub he did not write; M a-lam 
not... though? p Jll (II (a^Z) haven't I 
told you, though ? VI — i lam — ilia only, 
nothing but, just; not till, not before 

*jl lima — 11 U-ma, see J K 

8 ^ lamma u (lamm) to gather, collect, as- 
semble (a s.th.); to reunite (a s.th.); to 
arrange, settle, put in order (a s.th.); to 
repair (a s.th.); pass, lumma to suffer 
from or be stricken by a slight mental 
derangement | *i*i J (Sa'afahu) to restore 
8.0. to good condition; to straighten out 
s.o.'s muddled affairs ; to straighten one- 
self out; to put one's appearance in order; 
4i*** a»I i may God again put his affairs 
in order; jv^JLi J {Samtahum) to reunite 
people, unify them, bring them together ; 
gjull Ji" ji {Jktmla l-q.) to round up the 
herd IV to befall, overcome (fatigue, fear, 
weakness, adversities, etc., <_> s.o.); to pay 
(y s.o.) a short visit, call (u-» on s.o.), drop 
in (l-j at s.o.'s house); to have sexual 
intercourse (<-> with s.o.) ; to broach («_> a 



topic), speak (<~> about), discuss (u~> s.th.); 
to give a survey (<_j of), .outline, state 
briefly {^> s.th.); to touch briefly (w on 
a subject); to be acquainted or familiar 
(<_j with s.th.); to get to know (<^> s.th.); 
to familiarize o.s., acquaint o.s. (l-» with 
s.th.) ; to commit, perpetrate (<-> a crime); 
to take, consume (<~> food, drink) YIII to 
gather, assemble, rally; to unite; to visit 
(» s.o.), call (» on) 

U lamma pi. #11 limam collection; 
gathering, assembly; visit, call; mis- 
fortune, calamity; slight mental derange- 
ment, touch of insanity 

aX limma pi. 1 limam curl, ringlet, 
lock 

U lumma traveling party; group, troop, 
body (of people) 

1 lamam slight mental derangement 

Uli limdman occasionally, from time 
to time, rarely, seldom 

l»U lammam wild thyme (forf.) 

(•til ilmdm knowledge, cognizance (cj 
of s.th.); acquaintance, familiarity, con- 
versance (i-j with); (pi. -at) survey, out- 
line, summary, resume 

iiNf lamma evil eye 

/•^JL. malmum collected, gathered, as- 
sembled; concentrated at one point; 
slightly insane 

JL mtUimm completely familiar, con- 
versant (<-> with); expert, connoisseur | 

^jU5C!Ij SpIjJLHj L literate 

<JL. mulimma pi. -at misfortune, calami- 
ty, disaster 

1 U li-md see J li 

2 IL lamma (conj.) when, as, after; since, 



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u 



1030 



whereas; (particle; with foil, apoc.) not, 
not yet 

j>-ll (Engl.) lambdgo lumbago 

<S lamba pi. -at lamp; tube (radio) 

^J. V to take a snack 

Z£ lumja appetizer, hors d'oeuvre, 
relish, snack 

^i lamaha a (lamh) to glance (Jl or « at 
s.o.); to see, sight, behold, notice (« s.o., 
a s.th.); to become aware (d\ that); — 
(lamh, uLsi lamahdn, ~\p talmdh) to 
flash, sparkle, glisten, shimmer II to 
insinuate, intimate, give to understand 
(Jl s.th.), hint (J! at), allude, refer (Ji 
to) III to cast a casual or furtive glance 
(o at s.o.) IV to glance casually or furtive- 
ly (J* or a at s.o.); to give a quick look, 
cast a hasty glance (Jl or a, a at s.o. or 
s.th.); to mention briefly (Jl, a s.th.), 
allude, refer (Jl, a to s.th.) TI to appear 
fleetingly, become briefly visible (J to s.o.) 

«i lamh quick look, glance; moment, 
instant | ^-aJI pi I, al-basar glance of the 
eye; ^*JI ^JL J, ^*Jl ^JT, ^\ ^1 dj>, 
^-aJi ^L ^ Jil J (aqalla) like lightning, 
in a trice, instantly, in no time; 3jA\ *i <j 
(I, at-barq) like lightning, in a flash 

<£■ lamha pi. lamahat quick, casual 
look, glance; wink; glow of light, light, 
brightness, flash (of lightning); short 
survey, glimpse (^ of ) ; brief insight (j* 
into s.th.) ; sidelight | <uL*- ^ c*UJL (hay a* 
tihi) glimpses of his life; 4*j\ j* i»J. <lj 
(abihi) he looks a little like his father 

^U lamm&h shimmering, gleaming, 
shining 

£>U maldmih 2 features, lineaments; 
traits; outlines, contours; basic features, 
main characteristics or traits | -,y **jU <ti 



4*ji (ablhi) he looks like his father; *^U 
J^j (zilal) lights and shades (in painting) 

^J; talmlh pi. ^ yt taldmik 2 allusion, 
intimation, insinuation, hint, reference; 
pi. £~*^> indications, early symptoms 
(e.g., of a disease); 1 »* .. J j by way of sug- 
gestion, indirectly 

^1 lamaza u i (lamz) to give (t s.o.) a wink; 
to speak ill (* of s.o.), carp (o at s.o.), 
find fault (• with s.o.), criticize, blame, 
censure, backbite, slander, defame (» s.o.) 

Iji lumaza and jli lamrndz fault- 
finder, captious critic, caviler, carper 

1 ( _ r l lamasa u i (lams) to touch, handle, 
feel with the hand, finger (a s.th.), 
pass one's hand (a over s.th.); to seek 
(a s.th.), look, search, ask (a for); to 
perceive, notice (a s.th., Jl that), become 
aware (a of s.th., b\ that) | ^^JL V (yulma* 
su) intangible, impalpable; jJUJ-l ^J. to 
take things as they are, face the facts 
III to be in touch or contact (a, » with 
s.o., with s.th.); to touch, feel, finger, 
palpate (a, » s.o., s.th.); to have sexual 
intercourse (La with a woman) V to feel 
out, finger, palpate (a s.th.); to fumble, 
grope about; to grope, feel (a one's way) ; 
to fumble (a for s.th.); to look, search (a 
for) ; to ask (a for) VI to touch each other, 
be in mutual contact VIII to request (a 
tj* s.th. from s.o., J for s.o.), ask (j* a for 
s.th. s.o.), solicit (J a s.th. for); to beg (a 
for), request urgently (a s.th.); to seek 
(a s.th.), look, search (*, a for s.th., for 
s.o.) 

^S lams feeling, groping; touching, 
touch | ^^JU! ;L-U- hdssat al-l. sense of 
touch 

(^ JL lamsl tactual, tactile, of or pertain- 
ing to the sense of touch 

i-1 lamsa pi. lamasdt (n. vie.) touch, 



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1031 



^ 



light tap or stroke; delicate stroke in 
touching up s.th., retouch (in painting 
and cosm.); touch, mark, tinge, trace (^> 
of a quality) 

SjJL lamsiya (tun.) date which has 
not attained full ripeness 

tr ol lamls soft to the touch 

Lr JLi malmas pi. ^ ^* rnaldmis 2 place 
of touch, spot touched, point of contact; 
O feeler, tentacle (of insects) ; touch ; 
contact | i jmjl\ fii soft to the touch 

^g-JL malmasi tactual, tactile 

i*. ^Li mulamasa touching, touch, con- 
tact; feeling, fingering, palpation; sexual 
intercourse 

^rJj talammus search, quest 

jj—^j talamus mutual contact 

^-■pl Mimas request, solicitation; ap- 
plication, petition 

ij*yS* malmus touched, felt; palpable, 
tangible; CjUj*L» things perceptible to 
the touch, tangible things 

^^xL muUamas pi. -at request, petition, 
application 

2 u -lll look up alphabetically 

u *i lamasa u (lamp) to rail (* at s.o.) ; to make 
faces (» at s.o.) 

Jii lamaza u (lamz) to lick one's lips; to 
smack one's lips V do. | *jfk J*Jj (bi- 
dikrihi) to speak ill of s.o., backbite s.o. 

A lama* a a (lam*, J Li lama* an) to gleam, 
glitter, twinkle, flash, sparkle, glisten, 
shimmer, shine; to be brilliant; to star 
(actor or actress in a principal role) | 
*jL~j ^l (bi-saifihi) to brandish the 
sword; «JU «JL (bi-yadihl) to wave one's 
hand; ji»U. 4*-lj j A (kdtirun) a thought 



flashed through his mind II to cause (a 
s.th.) to shine, gleam, or twinkle; to shine 
(a s.th.), give brightness (a to s.th.); to 
polish (a s.th.); to burnish (a s.th.) IV to 
wave (one's hand); to point out, give to 
understand, intimate, insinuate ( Jl s.th.), 
hint {J! at), allude (Jf to) VIII to flash, 
radiate, glow, shine; to sparkle, glitter, 
gleam 

A lam" and JUL lama' an luster, sheen, 
shine; shimmer, gleam, glow, brightness, 
light 

4*1 lum T a pi. JL luma*, pll lima* 
shimmer, gleam, glow, flash, sparkle, 
glitter, brilliancy, radiance, beam; gloss, 
luster, burnish, polish ; some, a little 

r\l lammd* bright, brilliant, lustrous, 
sparkling, flashing, glistening, shining, 
radiant ; O glossy, glazed, burnished, 
polished, satined, calendered (techn.) | 
9 11 JiJU- (jild) patent leather 

A I alma' 2 and ^yJJ alma* I sagacious, 
smart, shrewd, clever, bright, intelligent; 
• — AS alma' 2 more lustrous, shinier; more 
brilliant or splendid 

JLULl alma'iya sagacity, smartness, 
shrewdness, cleverness, brightness, intel- 
ligence 

«~Jj talmi* polishing, polish 

fill ilmd* allusion (Jl to) 

ifrlil ilma'a (n. vie.) allusion, hint 

*>*V lami* pi. **\j} lawami* 2 brilliant, 
lustrous, shining, gleaming, shimmering; 
splendid, illustrious; starring 

ajwV lami'a fontanel (anat.); (pi. *J^J 
lawami* z ) gloss, shine 

£«!x* mutalammi* radiant, brilliant, 
shining, lustrous 



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(jjiA Umfdwl lymphatic, lymph {in com- 
pounds; physiol.) 

JI lamlama to gather, gather up (a s.th.) 

4JUU mulamlima trunk, proboscis (of 
the elephant) 

^J Ian (conj.; with foil, subj.) not (referring 
to the future) 

PjcJ Jb.u- (eg.) gadld lang brand-new 

Sj-lJ lundra London 

u-lJ landan London 

JiSi (Engl.) lanS-ph -at launch; motorboat 

il^jd leningrad Leningrad 

^^.1 lakiba a (lahb> lahab, ^l$J hihdb, ^^^ 
lahib, 6UgJ lahaban) to flame, burn, blaze 
II and IV to kindle, light, set on fire, 
ignite, inflame (* s.th.); to excite, stir 
up, provoke (a s.th.) V to flame; to be 
aflame, be ablaze, burn (also fig.: cheek, 
anger, thirst, etc.) VIII = V; to catch 
fire, flare up; to be inflamed (also med.) 

c^ lahab, <_-~4J lahib and »_jI$J luhab 
flame, blaze, flare 

oLfl lahbdn 2 , f. ^J lahbd, pi. *_jI^J 
likdb parched with thirst 

^l$Jl ilhdb kindling, lighting, ignition, 
inflammation 

t-jlflN iltihab burning; (pi. -at) inflam- 
mation (also med.); in compounds usu- 
ally corresponding to Engl, "-itis" | 
aSJ\ t*j>lfi\ pneumonia (med.); l^JJI vW^' 
i. a£-$u r ab bronchitis, J-^Uii <->lfl\ i. al- 
mafasil arthritis, <jvjjU\ ujLpi i. al~ 
lauzatain tonsillitis (med.) 

tiL^Jt iUikdbi inflammatory; inflam- 
mable 



multahib burning, flaming, blaz- 
ing, aflame, ablaze; inflamed; heated, 
excited, glowing, aglow | <-^dU JaS (qutn) 
guncotton 

C->y>V look up alphabetically 

d^J lakata a (lahi, £>l$J luhdt) to loll one's 
tongue with thirst or fatigue; to pant, 
gasp, be out of breath; to breathe heav- 
ily; to exert o.s. (*\jj for s.th.), run after, 
pursue (>\jj s.th.) 

ol^J luhdt panting, pant, gasp | il^J 
CjjI 1 L al-maut death rattle, agony of 
death 

uli$J lahtdn 2 , f. J^J lahtd panting, 
gasping, out of breath ; thirsty 

ti**V iaAti: cr -Ui^/l ijhV breathing heav- 
ily, panting; suffering from poverty or 
deprivation 

rv^J lahija a (lahaj) to be devoted, dedicated 
(<_j to s.th.), be attached (<_j to s.o., to 
s.th.), be very fond (o> of), be in love 
(i_j with); to be bent, be intent, be keen 
(i_j on), be eager (^ for), be mad (<_j 
about, after) ; to do (<_> s.th.) constantly 
or fervently | <lJU. »b±JL r^J (to?wf) to 
extol s.o. fervently; o^Xi «^J (bi-dikrihl) 
to speak constantly of s.o., mention 
s.o.'s name continually with praise; 
a^SCij «^J (bi-sulcrihl) to launch forth into 
profuse thanks or praises; 4*lj*aJli ^J 
(dard*a) to resort to humble pleas IV cau- 
sative: ^Sllllj a!\ I ti^JI (lisdnahu, sukr) 

to elicit profuse thanks from s.o. XI rlfi 
ilhdjja to curdle, coagulate (milk) 

4*^ ZoA/a tip of the tongue; tongue; 
manner of speaking; tone; dialect, ver- 
nacular; language | i^JUJ! i>$L in a re- 
proachful tone, reproachingly ; 4>*$UI OjJJs 
in violent language, sharply worded 

i**^J luhja appetizer, hors d'oeuvre 



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1033 



*) 



jl^J lahada a {lahd) to overburden, over- 
exert (o s.o.) 

pA^J lahdam sharp, pointed 

ia^J lahata a (laht) to slap 

Ji^J ZaAi/a a (lahaf) to sigh (J* for s.th. 
lost); to regret, deplore, lament (Jp 
s.th.); to grieve (Jp for), fret, worry 
(Jp about) V do.; to be eager, yearn 
(J* for, also J), pant ( Jp after, also <J) 

iJl$J ZaA/ regret, grief, sorrow | «-i^Jlj 
yd lahfa and U$J L ya fo/t/a oh, what a 
pity! too bad! alas! ^Ja^J L (with foil, 
genit. of pers.) oh, how unfortunate he 
is! <iX\p J^J U {lahfi) oh, how sorry I feel 
for you ! 

ii$J lahfa sigh, lament; anxiety, ap- 
prehension, concern, worry, sorrow, grief; 
yearning, longing, hankering, desire, im- 
patience 

jlifrl lahfdn 2 , f. J^J lahfa, pi. jl$J 
lahaf a, 1J4J fofo*/ sighing; regretful; sad, 
sorry, worried, sorrowful, grieved; long- 
ing, yearning 

^Ju^J lahlf pi. ol^J ^Aa/ regretful, sorry, 
sad, worried, sorrowful, grieved; eager 
(Jl for, to do s.th.); desirous (Jl of), 
yearning (Jf for) 

J«a V lakif worried, troubled, sorrowful, 
grieved, full of regret 

o^fL malhuf worried, troubled, de- 
pressed; apprehensive, concerned, anx- 
ious; covetous, eager (Jf or J* for), 
desirous (J[ or J* of); longing, yearning 

iJ^ii* mutalahhif yearning, longing, 
hankering; anxious, eager, impatient 

ft) hhiqa a to be snow-white 



ji$J lahlaqa to loll one's tongue with 
thirst 

^J lahima a (lahm, laham), V and VIII to 
devour, gobble, swallow up (a s.th.); to 
consume, destroy (a s.th.; fire) IV to 
make (0 s.o.) swallow (a s.th.); to inspire 
(* « s.o. with) X to ask (» s.o.) for inspi- 
ration or advice; to seek to find, try to 
receive (a s.th. through inspiration); to 
ask (a a God for s.th., e.g., enlightenment, 
a resolution); to let o.s. be inspired, re- 
ceive inspiration (a to do s.th., j* through) 

^J lahim and p^J lahum greedy, cov- 
etous, voracious, gluttonous 

aI^JI ilham pi. -at inspiration; instinct 

O W^* mulhima inspiration 

pl^JL-l istilham pi. -at search for in- 
spiration; inspiration 

-$i* mulham inspired 

(^J and ^) Lfl lahd u {lakw) to amuse 
o.s., distract o.s., divert o.s., pass or kill 
time (uj with s.th.); to play, toy, dally, 
trifle ; to fritter away, trifle away, prattle 
away (<o^j bi-waqtihi one's time); to 
enjoy o.s., have fun, have a good time; 
to delight, take pleasure (Jl or v m )j to 
enjoy, savor, relish (<-» s.th.); — • (^ 
luhiy, <jL$J lihydn) to turn one's at- 
tention (j^p from); to try to forget, for- 
get, give up, renounce { jp s.th.), become 
oblivious (jc of); — ^ lahiya a (l$J 
lahan) to like, love (<-> s.th.), be very 
fond (<-j of), be in love, be infatuated 
(._» with), be mad (cj about, after); to 
turn one's attention (jp from), become 
oblivious (jp of), forget, give up, re- 
nounce (jp s.th.); to pay no attention 
(jp to), be heedless (jp of) II to delight, 
amuse, divert, distract (l-> a s.o. with), 
divert s.o.'s (*) attention (^p from), make 
{* s.o.) oblivious {<jc of); to keep, divert 



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1034 



(^c e s.o. from), take s.o.'s (•) mind away 
(,jc- from) III to approach, be near (• s.o.) 
IV = II; Y and VI to amuse o.s., pass the 
time (<-> with s.th.), take pleasure, de- 
light (*-> in); to seek distraction (^ «-> 
in s.th. from) VIII do.: to play, toy, 
trifle (t-> with s.th.) 

_^J lahw amusement, entertainment, 
diversion, distraction, pastime, pleasure, 
sport, fun, play J j^JLH jji dur al-L and 
j^\}\ aS'L.I places of entertainment, amuse- 
ment centers 

;l$J lahah pi. 0U4J lahawat, ^L^J 
lahaydt, ^ luhiy, lihiy, l^J lahan> *l$J 
ZiAa' uvula 

(^_^J laham uvular (phon.) | jU^LI 
jU^Ui (harfdn) the sounds g and /c 
(according to Arab grammarians) 

SL^JL- malhdh object of delight; comedy | 
IL.L SL^L. ( r dmmiya) popular farce 

4JU malhan pi. a*>U maldhin place of 
entertainment, amusement center ; amuse- 
ment, entertainment, fun, diversion, dis- 
traction I ^tAii 4-j^ admissions tax, 
entertainment tax 

^JL. milhan pi. "&* maldhin plaything, 
toy; pi. musical instruments, also oV' 

^1 

X^ talhiya distraction, diversion, a- 
musement 

» *y iaAiii (with jc) heedless, inattentive, 
inadvertent, oblivious, forgetful 

aL mulhin amusing, entertaining, di- 
verting, pleasant 

**-j4$ lahwaja haste, hurry 

J lau (conj.) if {as a rule, introducing hy- 
pothetical conditional clauses) | <1>I ^ 
lau anna (introducing nominal clauses) 
if; V^J lauld if not; U V>J if it weren't 



(hadn't been) for us; ji \^ ji-md huh 
case that; jij wa-lau although, though; 
even if; (optative particle) if only...! 
would that . . . ! I wish ... I i*j ji I wish 
he knew ! if he only knew ! 

{*~>ji) v^ l®ba u to wander around, move 
about 

Lj^J lubiyd, *Ijj) green beans, string beans 
(bot.) I fjjXt LjjJ {baladl) (eg.) cowpea 
(Vigna sinensis Endl. ; bot.) ; jiU Lj^J (eg,) 
hyacinth bean, lablab (Dolichos lablab 
L. ;&<*.) 

^j} lut (eg.) maigre (Sciaena aquila; 200?.) 

2 <l>^ lata and £oUl al-ldt look up alphabetically 

(£>j)) <i^ Zata u (laut) to wind (J* a a turban 
around one's head); to soil, make dirty 
(a s.th., uj with) ; — lawita a (lawat) to be 
dilatory, tardy, slow; to hesitate, tarry, 
linger II to soil, make dirty, stain, tarnish, 
sully (a s.th., <_j with); to pollute (a air, 
water) V to be or get soiled, stained, 
tarnished, sullied ( v with) ; to be or get 
polluted (air, water) VIII to be dilatory, 
tardy, slow; to be obscure, confused, 
complicated (Jp for s.o.); to be muddy 
or cloudy, be roily, murky 

<L>jl laut pi. £» \J\ alwdt dirt 

aJ^J lauta stain, blot, spot 

4jjl luta languor, lassitude, fatigue, 
faint ness; mental derangement, fit of 
insanity; passion, weakness (J for, also 
with foil, genit. : for) | SJjJ (<o) aJ he is 
a little crazy, he has a bee in his bonnet 

£*ijti talwlt contamination, pollution | 
•Ij^JI £*ij& t. al-hawa* air pollution; £jj!j 
a^JI t. al-bfa environmental pollution 

<t>j3 talaunvut dirtiness, pollution | 
»lj^jl ^_j1j t. al-hawci air pollution 



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1035 



^ 



*L>jL> mulawwat stained, blotted, tar- 
nished, soiled, sullied, unclean; polluted 
(air, water) ; stricken, infested (with chol- 
era, pestilence, etc.) 

d^ldL multdt muddy, cloudy, roily; ob- 
scure; confused; mentally confused | 
JiJi £>bL m. aUaql mentally disturbed 
or deranged 

rj (Fr. loge) loj pi. -at, ^\J\ alwaj (theater) 
box, loge; (masonic, etc.) lodge 

(-J) _ V laha u (lauk) to appear, show, loom, 
emerge, come in sight; to become 
visible (J to s.o.); to break, begin to 
show (dawn); to shine, gleam, glint, 
flash, shimmer, glimmer, sparkle; to 
seem, appear; to wither, singe, parch, 
scorch; to tan (» s.o.; sun) | jl J ^L it 
seems to me that . . . ; ^jL L Jp as it seems, 
apparently II to make a sign, beckon, 
wave («.-> J or J! to s.o. with); to signal; 
to allude (^» to), hint (^ at), intimate, 
insinuate (v J to s.o. s.th.), give (^ J 
s.o. s.th.) to understand; to nourish, 
brandish, swing, wave (<_j s.th.); to turn 
grey (a the head; of old age); to burn, 
tan (ft s.o.; sun); to plank, lay with 
planks (a the floor) ; to panel with wood 
(a walls) | <u jlj rj) (bi-yaduihi) to wave 
with the hands ; to gesticulate ; to threaten 
(by gesture); -Ul ^u-aJLj ^J (bi-qabtfat 
al-yad) to shake one's fist (J at s.o.) 
IT to appear, show, come in sight; to 
shimmer, glimmer, glint, flash, sparkle; 
to wave, brandish, flourish, swing (a s.th.) 

rjJ lawk ph 7-IJI alwah, fji\ alawih 2 
board, blackboard; slate; tablet; slab; 
plate, sheet; pane; plank, board; panel; 
small board, signboard; shoulder blade, 
scapula | jljAjl rj> (arduwdz) slab of slate, 
slate; O ■*** rj (muja"ad) corrugated 
iron; jlU;1 -.^j block of ice; JLOs- ^ sheet 
iron; p-U-j ^J I. zujdj sheet of glass, 
pane; O i^j^* ry> (mutaharrih) spring- 






board (in sports) ; <JJ*- ^ji (ma'dini) 
metal plate, metal sheet; S JiLJl ^>J 
window pane 

l^J lauha pi. -at, ~\J\ alwah board; 
blackboard; slate; tablet; slab; plate, 
sheet; pane; panel; plaque; plane, 
surface; screen; placard, poster; picture, 
painting; (Tun.) tableau, scene (theat.), 
number on a program (in vaudeville) | 
^\ l^ji I. al-ism doorplate, name plate; 
mjjA\ 4*-J switchboard (el., id.); *p-J 
J^^JI do.; i~>- oUjJ (hayya) living 
pictures; UjJI ^->J checkerboard; h-ji 
**J1 1. ar-raqm license plate (auto); 4>-jJ 
iSij (zaitlya) oil painting; »ij^ Z>-J 
(sauda) blackboard; bulletin board; l*-J 
£'J*±S\ LaS-ht ranj chessboard; ajUS^I 4*~J 
slate; writing tablet; blackboard; a*-J 
^JLiil dashboard (auto) 

r\J lawwdh withering, singeing, parch- 
ing, scorching 

jt5 jJj talwlh pi. -at beckoning, waving, 
flourishing, brandishing; sign, signal, 
wink, wave; allusion; hint, intimation, 
insinuation; metonymy; pi. hints, ref- 
erences; remarks, annotations, marginal 
notes 

ld^ laiha pi. -at, £\J lawd'ih 2 
list, schedule; table; slate, list of candi- 
dates (Syr., Leb.); statute; standing rules, 
bylaws, statutes (of an association, etc.); 
official decree, ordinance, regulation; 
provisions, prescriptions (concerning a 
special subject); instruction, service reg- 
ulation ; program, plan ; bill (of a law, in 
parliament; poh); pi. £\J outward signs, 
appearances | "^.iJcS **^ (tanjldlya) im- 
plementing regulation (of a law, of an 
agreement; poh, jur.); o^Jtt ^V 2- <*l- 
muralsahln slate, list of candidates (Syr., 
Leb.); v>^ «^» Oji\21\ **V bill > draft 
law (in parliament; poh); ( Ju_ r *xJl a^V 
paradigm table (gram.); jkJ\ <^V h as- 
safar timetable, train schedule, railroad 



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1036 



guide; /»LkJI 4^V L at-tddm (syr.) menu, 
bill of fare; i^cJI f\J I. at-taab signs of 
exhaustion 

4p-_jJL« mulatvwiha signal, semaphore 
(railroad) 

«-l=L multah sun- tanned, sunburned 

(i^J) lada u (laud, il^J liwad, laiudd, luwad, 
jLJ ii^arf) to take refuge, seek shelter 
(»_j with s.o., in s.th.), have recourse, 
resort (t-» to); to keep close (*--» to), ob- 
serve religiously (^ s.th.} 

j*iU maldd refuge, protection; shelter; 
asylum, sanctuary; protector 

Ju'V Id" id one seeking shelter or pro- 
tection, refugee 

£j>jl and ^-iji see f- JU 

jji lur lyre 

ij^j (Engl.) lord pi. -a£ lord 

t^j^J (Engl.) lorry, truck 

J_jJ II to stuff with almonds (a s.th.); (eg.) to 
form bolls (cotton) 

jjj Zaits almond(s) (coll.); (eg.) patch 
(on a shoe) | Ja}}\ Jji I. al-qutn cotton 
bolls; j^S\ l$js dudat al-l. boll weevil 

Zjji lauza pi. -at almond; d\3jjH\ the 
tonsils (anat.) \ ,>jj^! vU^' *&• ^* 
lauzatain tonsillitis 

(^J^J lauzi almond-shaped, almond 
(adj.) 

(^ji) ,j-V Z&»a w (Zaws) to taste 

(tyj) ^ a u {^ au ?) to P^p, peer, pry 
(through a chink in the door, or the 
like) III do. {« for s.o.); to stare, gaze 
(a or Jl at s.th.); to look firmly, un- 



flinchingly (a or Jl at s.th.); to dupe, 
cheat, deceive (* s.o.) 

^j ^L. mulawi§ sly, cunning, wily 

H^J) ^ ^ a u $ au t) to stick, cling, adhere 
(<~> to); to coat with clay, to plaster (* 
a wall) 

i»U liijat plaster 

2 S*ji lut Lot (Biblical name) 

J^J lutl sodomite; pederast; homo- 
sexual 

J»l^ liwdt, luwat and Z>\ji Umta 
sodomy; pederasty; homosexuality 

(fjl) 9y la r a u (lau r ) to be or become restive, 
impatient; to become ill; to seize ve- 
hemently, overwhelm, torment, make 
sick (e s.o.; love); to tan (a s.o.; sun) 
II to torture, torment, agonize VIII to be 
burning, inflamed, languishing (with 
love, longing); to feel burning anxiety 
( Jp for s.o.) 

**J lau'a ardor of love, amorous rap- 
ture, lovesickness ; pain, grief, anguish, 
anxiety, torment, torture, agony 

9-UxJl iltiya* burning, enrapturedness ; 
burning anxiety, anguish; agony, pain, 
suffering 

fj^jk mulawi c cunning, artful, wily, 
crafty, sly 

O^jjUy lugaritmat logarithms 

1 (<J»>I) J'j lafa u (lauj) to eat, chew 
(a s.th.) 

z <S»jl luf luffa, dishcloth gourd (Luffa cy- 
lindrica Roem; hot.) 

(3^1. milwaq pi. 3j*&* malawiq 2 spatula 



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1037 



bj 



UjJ luqd Luke (Evangelist) 

l (i\J) iSV laka u (lauk) to chew (* s.th.); 
to talk constantly about s.th. (a); to 
bring into discredit (az*c" sum'atahu 
s.o.'s reputation) | **$&\ iiV (kaldm) to 
be inhibited in one's speech, stammer, 
express o.s. imperfectly; ^JUl Jij-Jl 
IcJVI ^S^JU (alsina) the question which 
is on everyone's lips; j^J VI -o^ij L« {alsun) 
what people say, what is generally 
rumored; JI-CVlj ^JH^ W^ {alsun) to 
be on everyone's tongue, be in general 
use (word, expression) 

! $V and L&V look up alphabetically 

iAjITjJ (It. locanda) and «A^J lokanda pi. -at 
inn; hotel 

£jj-*-S^J (Eg. spelling) luksumburg and 
fjj-^SjJ luksamburg Luxembourg 

Jjj ZauZafc pi. ^J\ji laivalib 2 screw; spiral; 
spiral spring, coil spring, extension 
spring; spring; axle; (fig.) mainspring, 
pivot point 

tjj} laulabi screw- shaped; spiral, 
helical | O hj*J ^WjJ (zuhariya) 
spirochetes, syphilogenous bacteria; gj* 
JJ {daraj) spiral staircase 

W) fl teina u (lawn, ^ maldm, i.'iU 
malama) to blame, censure, rebuke, 
chide, scold, reproach ( J or J* * s.o. for) 
II to censure sharply, reprove, reprimand 
(• s.o.) IV = I; V to blame o.s.; to tarry, 
linger, take one's time (<_$ or J* in or 
with s.th.), procrastinate, temporize, 
hedge VI to blame each other VIII to be 
censured, be blamed X to deserve blame, 
be blameworthy, reprehensible 

pj hum and l*jS lauma censure, rebuke, 
reproof, blame, reproach 



I 



1+^ lawama and pljJ lawwdm severe 
censurer, stern critic; censorious 

a s jU maldm and i.^U malama pi. fj^» 
maldwim 2 censure, rebuke, reproof, blame, 
reproach 

< Jj ialwlm censure, rebuke, reproof 

j^V laim pi. fji luwwam, A^ luwwam, 
J luyyam censurer, critic, accuser 

4x"^ la'ima pi. < IjJ lawd'im 2 censure, 
rebuke, reproof, blame, reproach 

fjL malum, JL malim and » *&* muldm 
censured, blamed; blameworthy, rep- 
rehensible 

jbji lumdn penitentiary, penal servitude 

^fU^J lumdnjl convict, inmate of a 
penitentiary 

*bj II to variegate, dapple, make colorful 
(jt s.th.); to color, tint, tinge, paint, 
daub (^ s.th.); to make up, rouge (» 
the face, etc.) V to be colored or tinted; 
to color, change color, become dis- 
colored; to be colorful, variegated; to be 
fickle 

oj laun pi. oljJI alwdn color; coloring, 
tint, tinge, hue, shade; complexion; 
kind, sort, specimen, species ; dish, course ; 
pi. (with foil, genit.) all kinds of | ul^Jl 
iwJ^Vt a. al-at'ima all kinds of food; 
lJuj o\J\ {zaitii/a) oil paints, oils; b\J\ 
yU water colors; q\J^\ jAz£ muktalif 
al-a. variegated, multicolored, motley; 
varied, various; aj(jJI J»- jalld altvdnahu 
to bring out the different aspects of s.th., 
point up s.th., make s.th. stand out 

Jy launl colorful, colored, color- (in 
compounds), chromatic 

jjti talmn pi. -at coloring; painting 
(in colors), coloring, coloration (of a draw- 
ing); pi. ol^il colors, shades or hues 



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1038 



OjL mulawwan colored, tinted; color- 
ful, many-colored, variegated, kaleido- 
scopic; colored (peraon) | djl* OjjJjLIJ 
(tdevizyon) color TV 

o^L. mutalawwin colored, tinted; many- 
colored, multicolored; iridescent, opales- 
cent, scintillating ; changeable, inconstant, 
unsteady; whimsical, capricious, fickle 

2( ^W pl« {f m j\J 1°°^ U P alphabetically 

jfi-J (eg.) lawingl and j£ jV lawingl attend- 
ant, bath attendant 

^jf-ji lawinglya housekeeper, woman 
attendant, servant, housemaid 

loj^J (It. lavanda) lawanda lavender \ IjlJ^UI *L. 
lavender water 

<jj} lawd i (J layy, ^J luwly) to turn (a 
s.th.); to crook, curve (a s.th.); to bend, 
flex, bend up, down, back or over (a 
s.th.); to twist, contort, wrench, warp 
(a s.th.); to distort, pervert (a s.th.); to 
turn (a the head), turn away, avert 
(a the face); to turn around, turn {Jp to 
s.o., to s.th.), face (Jp s.o., s.th.); to 
think back (Jp on), recall {Jp s.th.); to 
care, bother {Jp about), pay attention 
or heed ( Jp to) | jUUI *J ^J (lisdna) to 
speak ill of s.o., backbite s.o.; Jp i$_^i V 
»^i not to care about anything, be 
utterly reckless ; — (J layy, OU layyan) 
to conceal, keep secret (jp a s.th. from 
s.o.); — laiviya a (,jj} lawari) to be 
crooked, curved, bent; to writhe, twist; 
to wind, coil II to bend, bow, incline, 
tilt, twist, wrench, contort, turn, crook, 
curve (a s.th.); to pervert, distort, 
complicate (a s.th.) IV to turn, twist, 
bend, crook, curve (<_j or a s.th.); to 
avert (^ a s.th. from); to wave («-U> 
bi-yadiM one's hand); to hoist (a a flag); 
to take away, put away, remove (<~> 
s.th.) [ *^ijl uLp (£J\ to avert, pre- 



vent, restrain s.th. (jp from), check, curb 
s.th. V to be twisted, winding, tortuous, 
sinuous, bent, crooked; to be turned, 
be twisted; to turn, twist, wind, meander, 
coil; to writhe, wriggle, squirm; to 
display shrewdness and cunning VIII to 
be curved, crooked, bent; to be turned, 
be twisted; to twist, warp, get contorted, 
get bent out of shape; to turn off, turn 
away; to turn one's back (jp on s.th.); 
to be or become difficult, involved, 
intricate, complicated (Jp for s.o.); gjfli 
(-» to distort s.th, | y^b <uU ^1 
(lisdnuhu bi-l-'a.) he spoke incorrect 
Arabic 

J layy bending, twist(ing), turn(ing); 
contortion; distortion (e.g., of a word) | 
*i*5JI J (e<7.) the flexible tube of the 
narghile; JJl &, J*. I Jsyu V {ya'rifu l-hay* 
ya) lie doesn't know enough to come in 
out of the rain, he wouldn't know a snake 
from a earden hose 

SJ layy a pi. &J liwan bend, fold, 
flexure, twist, tortuosity, sinuosity, turn, 
curve 

tjji lawan pi. *\J\ alwa gripes, colic; 
agony, pain, hardship | *\ J % ^\ J J^JVI ^U 
(la'wa) to die a thousand deaths 



^ji liwan pi. *\J\ alwa 1 , 
curvature 



4j_^Ji alwiya 



*\ji liwa pi. 4j^3l alwiya, £j\±J\ alwiyat 
banner, flag, standard; brigade (Eg., Syr., 
It., etc.: mil.); major general (Eg., Syr., 
Ir., etc. ; mil.) ; province, district (Ir.) \ j*\ 
»I^J see j\*l ; ^j>- *\j$ (jawwl) air-force bri- 
gade; ♦^ Ajl .Up (liwa" a s.) to found, 
start, originate, produce, cause, arouse, 
provoke s.th.; <JI^:>U Ujl^J SjaA\ a>-j\J\ 
(UwavM) the admiral's flagship; j& 
(^^Jl) *uJJ p\ji 4 'uqida laku I. al-majd 
(an-na$r) approx.: he was awarded the 
laurel of fame (of victory) 

*\j5 lawwa wryneck (zool.) 



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^jL milwan pi. j^U maldwin spanner, 
wrench; O peg (of stringed instru- 
ments) 

Ayl\ iltiwd' curvedness, curvature; 
bend, twist, tortuosity, sinuosity, curve; 
crookedness, wryness; perverseness, ab- 
surdity | ^jVi »ljsJ! iU. al-ard uneveness 
of the terrain 

Z*\jd\ iltiwd 3 a (n. vie.) pi. -at a bending, 
flexing, twist (e.g., of the body in danc- 
ing) 

jV lawin pi. l\J luwdh turning, twist- 
ing |Jp jV j£ reckless of, without regard 
for 

(jji. malwiy crooked, curved, bent; 
twisted, warped, contorted; winding, 
meandering, tortuous, sinuous; pervert- 
ed, wrong, absurd 

jdU multawin — ,jji* 

iSj^* multawan pi. -at turn (of the road), 
curve; curvature 

l i and aJ see ,jji 

VJ liyyd 3 mackerel shark, porbeagle 
{zool.) 

qJ li&i Libyan (adj.); (pi. -tin) a Libyan | 
S-JUI 1fjjti\ ajj^-J-I (jumhuriya) Libyan 
Arab Republic; official designation since 
1977: IS I j^Vl ^iJi S^JUI 1^11 SiJ^Ui-l 
{jamdhiriya, $a'biya, istirdklya) Socialist 
People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 

UJ Ubiyd Libya 

JljJ librdli liberal 

5J!jJ Ubrdliya liberalism 

^ and UJ see above 

IjjjJ liberiyd, liblryd Liberia (country in 
V Africa) 



C~J laita and C-J Ij yd laita (mostly with 
foil, noun in ace. or pron. suffix, also with 
^1 anna) would God . . . ! if only . . . ! 
<T-J U if it were only so! | c-* J~J 
liJU-V laitanl muttu li-ajlika would God I 
had died for you! 1^* OST «iJ I wish he 
were here ! if only he were here ! OlT cJ Ij 
^Jb (yadhabu) I wish he had gone! 
^^ cJ (siVi) I wish I knew . . . ! 

JLi Utr pi. -«< liter 

S^jtJ liturjiya pi. -af liturgy 

Li(j~J lituwdniya Lithuania 

Jl^xJ lituwdni Lithuanian 

£J Zat£ pi. o^J luyvi lion 

iU see ijJ 

lj*J Zira and S^J Zira, (syr.) Zera pi. -af pound 
(as a monetary unit), lira 

1 tJ -jJ laisa (without imperf.) not to be (with 
<^» or aco. s.th. or s.o.); not to exist; 
(= intensified V) not | VI ^ {Hid) 
terminating a sentence: only, and no 
more, and nothing else; <jj^> — ^j-jJ 
{siwa) nothing but, only, merely; j-jJ 
iSJii-l t> *(^ J* thore is not a grain of 
truth in it; Jj — JsJoi — • ^-jJ (faqat, bed) 
not only — but also; J u *jJ not to have, 
not to possess; ^ bj ^^J we don't 
have anything; jl «J ^^ he has no right 
to..., he mustn't...; j* t _ r J not to 
belong to ... , have nothing to do with . . . ; 
*£JIaT u *J\ a-laisa ka-ddliht isn't it so?; 
(with i_j and participle) to be unable to, 
JtLftj c~J lastu bi-fd'ilin I can't do it 

2 cr J layisa a (layas) to be valiant;, brave, 
courageous 

^-jJI alyas 2 , f. .LJ liiisd' z , pi. ^-J 
lis valiant, brave, courageous 



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1040 



^j-JLjJ (Fr. licence) Usans the academic degree 
of a licentiate 

,_iJ II to rub with palm fibers (* s.th.) 
V to form fibers, become fibrous 

cJJ llf (coll.; n. un. 1) pi. JsUI alyaf 
fibers, fibrils; bast fibers; synthetic 
fibers | &x* <jy (hind*) coco fibers, coir; 
^U-jJl J»yi a. az-zujdj glass fibers; <J»L)I 
^pLu» (si?&a f zya) synthetic fibers; J»U1 
jliSOl a. al-kattan flax fibers 

UJ Zi/a (n. un.) fiber, fibril; tuft of 
palm fibers used as a brush | SjLJ 
pl^-Vl bath sponge, luffa 

JJ lifi and JUJ Ufdm fibered, fi- 
brous; made of synthetic fiber | JJ r-Uj 
(zujdj) fiber glass; ILiJ IU«jl (ansija) 
fiber textiles 

<Juij talayyuf fibration, fibrillation; 
cirrhosis (merf.) 

(jj) *3V l®$ a * (&»'?) to befit, become {<-» 
s.o.), be proper, seemly {<-> for s.o.), be 
suitable (<_j to s.o.), be worthy (<j of 
s.o.); to be suited, appropriate, fit (<^» 
Tor s.th.) ; to fit (garment) 

<aJ Kga pi. jJ %a£ tuft of cotton or 
silk threads which is inserted in an 
inkwell; putty; clay; mortar 

asLJ liydqa propriety, seemliness, suit- 
ableness; decorum, decency; capability, 
skill; efficiency, competence; worthiness, 
merit, desert; correct behavior, blameless 
conduct, good manners | SSUIL Jk 
(mukill) improper, unseemly, unbecom- 
ing; aJJj 4»U (badanlya) physical fitness; 
y» uU (tibbiya) medical fitness 

jJt ahjaq* more suitable, more ap- 
propriate, more proper, fitter (^ for); 
better adapted; more decent or tactful 

Jj V la'iq suitable, appropriate, proper, 
befitting, becoming, seemly; suited, fit; 



adapted, adjusted; worthy, deserving; 
decent, tactful | LJ» JjV j^ [tibbiyan) 
medically unfit 

JJ lail (usually m.) nighttime, night (as 
opposed to jl^ daytime); pi. □ JU 
layall (syr.) a certain vocal style; ^U 
lailan at night | jlr JJ laila nahdra day 
and night 

*L) laila pi. -at, JU laydlin f JjU 
layd'il? night (as opposed to ^j); eve- 
ning; soiree; <UJl al-lailata tonight | 
UU?j 5JLJ ^j {wa-ftuhaha) overnight; 
~»\ ~4J lailata amsi last night; yesterday 
evening; 4jj^ 5JLJ (kairlya) charity 
soiree, benefit performance; iU-Jd! UJ L 
ad-dukla wedding night; l^\j iJU soiree 
dansante, evening dance; ay^lj 3JLJ glam- 
orous evening party; ioLi <JLJ (Sddiya) 
soiree of vocal music; »^U UJ (laUd* 2 ) 
dark night ; » t>U UJ j in the dark of night, 
under cover of the night; j.UJi UJ I. al-qadr 
or »LaUI 3JLJ I. al-qa#d* the night in which, 
according to sura 97, the Koran was 
revealed, celebrated between the 26th 
and 27th of Ramadan; Jiy±\ IU I 
al-mi'raj the night of the 27th of Rajah 
in which the Prophet made his journey 
through the seven heavens; (Ju*j iLJ 
OL^JI l t nisf a§-$a r bdn the night between 
the 14th and 15th of Shaban, when, ac- 
cording to popular belief, the heavenly 
tree of life is shaken, shedding the 
leaves of those who will die next year; 
aLUI my l. an-nuqta the night of June 
17th (the 11th day of the Coptic month 
Ba'una) when, according to popular be- 
lief, a miraculous drop falls from heaven, 
thus causing the annual rise of the 
Nile 

■idy lailata' idin (in) that night; (on) 
that evening 

JJ laili nocturnal, nightly; of night, 
night- (in compounds); evening (adj.) 



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JJ laild a woman's name | JLj Jf 
* , iU Jp (^Aj) hullun yabkl (yugannl) r al& 
laildhu everyone sings his own tune, does 
as he pleases, follows his own fancy; 
» *}LL *^j ^-h Jf {yadda'i wa$lan) every- 
body claims to be the chosen one, every- 
one brags in his own way 

**>U see SJU 

4J (Engl.) lailak lilac 

JlJ limdn pi. -at harbor, port; peniten- 
tiary 

t$jU«J limfavn lymphatic, lymph (in com- 
pounds; physiol.) 

Oj*J Utimun, lemun (coll.; n. un. «) pi. -at 
lemon | jJL* l)j*J (Atncft) grapefruit; 

Lr i*U- tJ_j*J lime; Uj^JUi v'v* ^ ara ^ a ^- 
lemonade 

oUj*J Uviunada lemonade 

W) <JV Jana t (ten, uU lay an) to be or 
become soft, tender, gentle, mild, pliable, 
flexible, supple; to yield, give way; to 
soften, relent, calm down; to become 
milder, friendlier | J\L V inflexible, un- 
bending; 4jLj cJV (qanatuhu) to show 
o.s. compliant, yield, relent, give in 
II and IV to soften, relax (a s.th.); to 
placate, soothe, allay, mitigate, assuage, 
temper, moderate (* s.th.) Ill to be 
gentle, kind, friendly (o to s.o.); to 
treat with kindness and leniency (♦ 
s.o.) V to become soft, soften 

(>J lln softness; tenderness; tender 
treatment; gentleness; flexibility, pli- 
ableness, suppleness; yieldingness, com- 



pliance, traotability ; pliancy, smoothness; 
diarrhea | ^ IWi ^ softening of the bones, 
osteomalicia, (med.); iLJLlI ^J tractability, 
docility; ^Ul J*j_^- the "soft" letters 

^J lay y in pi. -un t *LJ1 alyina'* and 
lain pi. -tin soft; flabby, feeble; tender; 
gentle; flexible, pliable, yielding; pliant, 
supple, resilient, elastic, tractable | jJ 
iSL^l I. aVarika mild-mannered, gentle- 
hearted; iLiJl l?S tractable, manageable, 
docile, obedient; ,>J «ckj (bafnuhu) he 
suffers from diarrhea 

4J^J luyuna softness; tenderness; gen- 
tleness ; flexibility, pliability, suppleness | 
lJU-I ZjA sociability, companionable- 
ness, compliance, yieldingness, tractabil- 
ity 

,>!! alyan 2 softer; more tender; more 
gentle or agreeable 

o^l« midaijana friendliness, kindness 

jrJj talayyun; fLuJi <jXi softening of 
the brain (med.) 

<>!. mulayyin softening, emollient; 
dissolvent, diluent; aperient, cathartic, 
laxative; oLJL. laxatives 

2 jLJ see gj 

d\jj llwdn pi. ifj\J laiwwin* hall with 
columns, portico ; hall or chamber on the 
ground floor opening through a high 
arched entrance onto a courtyard; dais 
opening onto the main room through an 
arcade (in traditional Arab houses) 

oLj^J (Fr.) liyutindn lieutenant (in non-Arab 
armies; mil.) 



1 



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V abbreviation of J\* meter, 6lJL* square, 
and Sj j*>L* (foil, a date) after Christ, A.D. ; 
•f *f • J* ~ »^J-^ y^ 1 — ^Ir 5 * nc, » ^td. 

2 j» ma for U what? after prepositions: * ^\ ila 
ma whereto? where? which way ? whither? 
^ b i -ma with what? wherewith? { li-ma 
why? wherefore? /» JJ»- hatta ma and 
ft=»- hatta-ma how far? to which point? 
>*^U 'aZa-wwt on what? whereupon? what 
about ? **> 'ammfl from what ? what 
about? -i fi-ma in what? wherein? why? 
~t mimma of what? from what? where- 
from? 

U ma 1. (interrogative pronoun) what? (intro- 
ducing indirect questions) what | I iU ma- 
da (intensified) what? lili U-ma-da 
why (on earth)? ^11 L* what's the matter 
with you? what is it? J L, dU U etc., 
(with foil, verb) why? wherefore? what... 
for? why should I, should you, etc.? 
iJljj cJl L» ma anta wa-dalca what's that 
to you? what has this to do with you? 
what do you know about that? J I iL 
how would it be if . . . ? how about (doing 
it)? — ■ 2. (relative pronoun) that which, 
what; something which; whatever, all 
that ... | ^ii »li U see »LS; \j& L. ( r ada) 
and ^>- U (frata) except, save, with the 
exception of; 4*i U bi-md fihi includ- 
ing...; So*IaU »L*.1 j* 6lT U {imffii 
l-mu'ahada) the fact that the agreement 
has been signed, the agreement having 
been signed; OjSo U j— »l (aAsanu) the 
best in the world, the most beautiful 
thing that one can imagine; see also 
under olT and xt\ (aSaddu); 6^ U and 
,j« UJ see <>u; *\jj U see »ljj; — 3. (foil, 
an indefinite noun) some, some or other, a 
certain | U ^V li-amrin ma because of 
something or other, for some reason or 
other ; L. «_~-J li-sababin ma for a certain 
reason ; L. oi- (haddin) to a certain degree ; 



L Lji yauman ma some day, sometime 
in the future; — 4. (negation) not | 61 L 
(in) not (intensified); VI — u (UUt) only, 
nothing but, just; not till, not before; 
ol VI 4ju oS* Li {ilia an, with foil, verb 
in perfect) then he suddenly or unexpect- 
edly . . .; J>- — 61 L ma in — Aotta no 
sooner had he . . . than . . ., he had 
hardly . . . when . . .; ol VI ^ Lj wa- 
rm hipa ilia an or 61 VI j* Uj (with 
foil, verb in perfect) before long he ... , 
presently ...; then, thereupon; VI ^ l»j 
J>. — ol wa-md hiya ilia an — hatta no 
sooner had he ... than ..., he had 
hardly . . . when . . .; J>- i^ VI ^ Uj 
(hunaiha) it took only a short while till ... ; 
jJUj j* U (bi- r aduwin) he is no enemy at 
all; J*-\ Ja L. (ahadin) not a single 
person; — 5. (conjunction) as long as | 
L»- c— i L. ma dumtu hayyan as long as 
I live; jl U ma lam so long as . . . not, 
unless; — - 6. whenever; as far as, to 
the extent or degree that | ^jill ^lj l* 
(watatnl l-furas) (whenever opportunities 
came my way, i.e.) whenever I had a 
chance; — 7. the fact that (v^th foil, 
verb), <U» U {fa'alahu) = his doing it | 
UT) L. j»jj the day when he saw her; 
4sJiJ U ^Joa (maprah, laqttvhu) the place 
where I met him ; — 8. (before an indirect 
question with \'s\ ida and perf.:) lil U if, 
whether | U»>-LJ c-^T iil U ^jL- (sa-ara, 
ndjihan) I will see whether I will succeed; 
olSCVl j 6lf iil If <dL ('ammd, im* 
Jean) he asked him whether it were pos- 
sible . . .; — 9. (with foil, afala and aoc.:) 
jf J*«il U ma af#ala 'umara how ex- 
cellent Omar is! a\*-) L (ajmalahu) how 
handsome he is! — U ^Ui, U l^^iTsee 
JJ* and jff; 61 U see »-» bi 

,>jI. ma-bain antechamber, anteroom 
(of the Turkish Sultan); chief chamber- 
lain's office (in Ottoman Turkey) 



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J»L 



&, also ajU, mi'a pi. djZ* mVun, oU* mi'dt 
hundred; pi. old! the hundreds (arith.) \ 
Hb, &l j percent; o^JVl oli. m. a?- 
«Z«/ hundreds of thousands 

i£»£* mi'ait?* and ^JL* mi'ini centes- 
imal, centigrade; percentile, percent ual | 
(SjL* 4^ ('id) 100th anniversary, cen- 
tennial; \£* S--J or ij^L. JL-J (nisba) 
percentage; <>j^ ^-j-3 (daraja) centi- 
grade (thermometer) 

»U and JU see *j- 

OuU (Fr. maftTie'e) mdtlneh matinee 

»i>Li j>-L see ^^r^- 

jc-».L mujister master (academic degree) 

jj>-1» (Fr.) mdjur major (in non-Arab armies; 
mil.) 

jy-U mdkur pi. j**-[^» m#u?a&«r 2 house of ill 
repute, brothel 

IJU see U 1. 

jl* mar Mar, lord (OAr., preceding the names 
of saints), saint 

OjU mar* (tr.) March (month) 

,/jU mars, maris (Eg,, Magr.) March (month) 

iili-jU mdristdn lunatic asylum 

jljU (Fr.) marS march (mus.); march! (com- 
mand; mil.) 

JlijU (Fr.) mdrUal pi. -at marshal, field 
marshal (in non-Arab armies; mil.) | 
tfjT JUjL. (jaivwi) air marshal 

aJUjL. mdrisdliya marshalcy, rank or 
position of a marshal 

'iljl* murk pL -af mark (monetary unit) 



2 <Tjl* markn pi. -r7£ mark, sign, token | 4!f;L 
ijjU: (tijdriya) trade-mark; *i>«— *SjU 
(musajjala) registered trade-mark 

lS -5jL marl- s% Marxist 

4-wSjU marksiya Marxism 

OjjUJ al-marun the Maronites (Chr.) 

jjjU ?waril7ii pi. iij'j^ mawdrina 
Maronito (adj. and n.) 

SjL maza, IjL (Turk. m€2e) pi. mazawat (leb., 
syr.) hors d'oeuvres table, large spread of 
appetizers 

OjjU mazut, mazot and (tarn.) i^jL residue 
in oil distillation used as a fuel, heavy 
oil, diesel oil 

5->-jjU mdzukiya masochism 

,jAa mas (n. un. ») diamonds 

^L masi diamond (used attributively) 

^^-U mdsoki and t _ 5 Sj-L wMsokl masochist; 
masochistic 

L*-_^U masoklya and a-S*^-U musokiya 
masochism 

Sj_^-L masara pL jwl^. mawasir 2 pipe, 
tube; hose; pipestem; water pipe, water 
main; gun barrel; conduit, conduit pipe; 
pipeline (esp., for oil) | joUJl *j^*-L* ex- 
haust pipe 

u_j-*L (Fr. wacow) mason Freemason 

J j— L masorii freemasonic, masonic 
aJ^-L mdsoniya Freemasonry 

dJLiU mdsik pi. (i-L^I^* mawasik* tongs, fire 
tongs 

ikL w?aza (syr.) = 2JL, see alphabetically 



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j^pU, iJjpL. and ,j£j*{* see under y* 

Ji. ma'iqa a (jU ma'aq) to sob 

JSU ma'g' and jl* maqan pi. JL ma'a* 
qin inner corner of the eye 

iiL mdqa sobbing, sob 

jj* mw'g pi. jL.T a?n££ inner corner of 
the eye 

t-UTU (Fr. maquillage) makiyal face painting, 
make-up 

hSl» mdktna pi. -a(, J! &L. makd'in 2 machine 

^U-^U mcdagaS (eg.) Madagascar 

iWli ?)wzZ£a and UaJU matta Malta 

JJU maltl Maltese {adj. and n.) 

«uJL mdlaqa Malaga (city in Spain) 

U_P»JL ww&ankdliya, mdlinkoliyd or LTp^JL 
mdllkdliyd melancholia 

JL. mall Mali (country in W Africa); (adj.) 
pertaining to Mali 

UjOU malaiziyd Malaysia 

^>JU maktizi Malaysian 

LL ma'ma'a to bleat (sheep) 

itij^l* mdmfU mammoth 

Ou Tna'ana a (mcfn) to sustain, supply with 
provisions, provision, victual (# s.o.) 

*j\* ma'na pi. ma'andt, djj* mu'un 
navel, umbilicus ; umbilical region 

Zja mu'na and SjjJ* ma'una pi. <1>J* 
7nu'an provisions, food; store, stock; sup- 
ply; burden; trouble | <uj^*- oj* (harbiya) 
war material 



^JL. see under ~£* 

_^f U mango mango, mango tree (bot.) 

C^j4 U mangost mongoose, ichneumon (zoo/.) 

jtSUI (Fr. to JfancAe) al-mani the English 
Channel 

LJyL mdnoliyd magnolia (bot.) 

iSj»\^ mdnavn Manichaean 

4j^jU mdnawiya Manichaeism, doc- 
trines of Manes 

Sj^lLJl. mdnifdtura manufactured goods, 
dry goods, textiles 

y. jj L (It.) m&nifiatu manifesto, public 
declaration (of principles) ; list of a ship's 
cargo 

jlSLiL. manikdn, (also oBT^U mdnukan) pi. 
-at mannequin, fashion model 

j£~jI* (Fr.) maniker manicure 

■^IJL manlla Manila (city and seaport in the 
Philippines) 

4-jb L mdhlya pi. -a( quality, quiddity, 
essence, nature; salary, income; pay 
{mil,) 

(jjH* see under & 

jU wwty (^Zgr., Tun.) May 

jj^jL (It. ma&siro) mdyistro maestro, con- 
ductor 

^IjjS^U (Engl.) maikrobd§ microbus 

4j[* mi'a see it* 



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1045 



jil* mayu May 

jujA* (Fr.) mdycmez mayonnaise 

tjjU (Fr. maillot) mayyoh, mayoh pi. -at 
leotard: bathing suit 

C*» matta u (matt) to spread, extend, stretch 
(* s.th.); to seek to establish a link (Jl 
to s.o., <-> by marriage), enter into re- 
lations (Jl with); to be related, become 
related by marriage (Jl to), marry into 
the family of (J!); to belong ( Jl to); to be 
associated, be connected (Jl with) | c- 
Jl SJUlj (bi-silatin) to have close ties with 
s.o., be related (by marriage) to s.o.; to 
be connected with s.th., have to do with 
s.th.; 4JLJ! *-*J\i <J C* (bi-aqrabi s-sila) 
to be most intimately connected with s.o. 

4jU matta close ties; family ties, kinship 

tO» mataka a (math) to draw from a well 
(* water) 

>» mitr pi. jbul amtdr meter (measure of 
length) 

jjt* mitrl metric(al) 

JjJIjU (Fr. mitrailleuse) mitraliyoz machine 
gun 

js* mitro metro, subway; electric rapid 
transit 

£# mata'a a (mat' y a*i. mut r a) to carry 
away, take away (^ s.th.); — (fy* mutu') 
to be strong, firm, solid | jl^JI »a* (nahar) 
it was broad daylight, the sun was high 
II to make (« s.o.) enjoy (^ s.th.); to 
furnish, equip, supply (<~> • s.o. with); 
to give as compensation (* U to a divorced 
woman s.th.) | Zi\ <u^. God grant him 
enjoyment throughout his life; j**J\ *^. 
(ba§ara) to gratify the eye IV to make 
(» s.o.) enjoy (<~> s.th.); to have the 



usufruct (^ of s.th.) V to be blessed (i_j 
with) V and X to enjoy, savor, relish 
( v s.th.) 

ajCl* mufa pi. *i* muta* enjoyment, 
pleasure, delight, gratification; recrea- 
tion; compensation paid to a divorced 
woman (1st. Law); (also hd\ ^-Qvj) muta, 
temporary marriage, usufruct marriage 
contracted for a specified time and 
exclusively for the purpose of sexual 
pleasure (Isl. Law) | 4*dJ <jTUI recre- 
ation centers 

9-U* mata r pi. *cul amti'a object, thing; 
utensil; stuff, objects, commodities; 
luggage, baggage; effects, goods; prop- 
erty; household goods, furniture; — 
usufruct, enjoyment j <>*JI pbu in. al~ 
r ain delight of the eyes; P-lsil J*JL- 
saqat al-m. scrap, waste, discard, refuse; 
l^^J^ZM icuVI (sakslya) personal belong- 
ings; SiJLI pjb. m. al-mar'a cunnus (anat.) 

-ill amta' 2 more enjoyable, more de- 
hghtful ; recreative, recreational 

f-bui imtd r pleasure, delight, gratifi- 
cation (which s.th. affords) 

nxx" tamattu* enjoyment | ^x ^-*! 
ashum t. participating certificates, shares 
entitling the holder to participation in 
the net profit without the right to vote 

f-Lu^-l istimta enjoyment; love of 
pleasure, epicureanism 

*jU matV long 

?z£ m wmatti pleasant, dehcious, enjoy- 
able, delightful, gratifying 

*z£ mumatta* enjoying (<-* s.th.), in 
possession (<_j of) 

*z£ mumti' pleasant, delicious, enjoy- 
able, delightful, gratifying; interesting 

dJbu matk, mutk proboscis, trunk (of an in- 
sect); O anther (bot.) 



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1046 



(jC. matuna u (ijlx, matdna) to be firm, 
strong, solid II to make firm or strong 
(a s.th.}; to strengthen, consolidate, 
fortify (a s.th.) 

Jn* main pi. oju muffin, obu rnitan 
half, or side, of the back; back (esp., of 
animals, but also fig.); main thing, main 
part; body (e.g., of a document or 
journal, aside from footnotes, anno- 
tations, etc.), text (of a tradition, as 
distinguished from the isndd; of a book, 
as distinguished from the commentary; 
also, in general, linguistic or literary 
text); middle of the road, roadway, 
pavement; surface; deck of a ship | 
• - - jC Jp aboard {a ship or at 1 T>lane) ; 
j*~*>\ if* J* [m. il-bahr) by sea, sea-borne; 
*W if* J* ( m * H-hawd') through the air, 
air-borne 

Cf* main and «>:u matin firm, strong, 
solid | jrf-i/i/l ^ see jL\j\ (under £,1) 

iJbu matdna firmness, strength, solid- 
ity, hardiness; will power, strength of 
will, determination, backbone, firmness 
of character, fortitude; succinctness, 
conciseness of style 

,>*! ajntan 2 firmer, more solid 

(>xx tamtin strengthening, consolida- 
tion 

1 iS » maid 1. (interrogative particle) when? 
at what time? | J* JI and J. JU till when? 
how long? — 2. (conjunction) when, when- 
ever | L J, whenever 

3 J* rnaMa Matthew (Evangelist) 

ti>li* matdt cream, cosmetic 

Ji* matala u (J_^i. mutul) to resemble (» 
s.o.), be or look like s.o. («), bear a 
likeness (a to); to imitate, copy (• s.o.); 
to compare, liken (^ » s.o. to); to rep- 



resent, mean, signify (* s.th.), stand 
for (a); to stand erect (4jUj jo fiaina 
yadaihi before s.o. in audience), appear 
before s.o. ; to present o.s. to s.o. ; to pre- 
sent itself to the eye, be on view; to plant 
o.s., stand; to step forth, come forward, 
enter, appear, make one's appearance 
<esp. of an actor, on the stage) | Ji, 
^' c^i uo (b. yadayyi l-malik) to 
have an audience with the king, be 
received in audience by the king; — 

u (matl) to maim, mutilate (^-» s.o.); 

u {matl, 5k. mutla) to make an ex- 
ample (vj of s.o.); — matula u (Jj*. 
mutul) to stand, appear (-uOj ^ baina 
yadaihi before s.o. in audience) II to 
make (a s.th.) like s.th. else ( v ), make 
(a s.th.) similar, analogous (<-> to); to 
assimilate (biol); to give or quote as 
an example (<J v s.th. of, also a s.th. Jp 
of), exemplify (<J v with s.th. s.th.), use as 
a simile («-> a s.th. for) ; to compare, liken 
(u> a, e s.o., s.th. to); to punish severely, 
treat harshly (^ s.o.); to maim, mutilate 
(«_-» s.o.) ; to represent pictorially or graph- 
ically, show (a, * s.o., s.th.), picture, de- 
pict, describe (a, » s.o., s.th.); to portray, 
paint (» s.o.), sculpture a bust or statue (a 
of s.o.); to represent (. s.o., a s.th.); to 
act (on stage or screen), appear as an 
actor; to play, act (\jj* dauran a part 
or role), star (Ijjj in a role); to stage, 
perform (a a play); to form, constitute 
{chem.) | J^* g£\ A* J*, {ama'a L) to 
make a dreadful example of s.o., punish 
s.o. with utmost cruelty III to resemble 
(o s.o., a s.th.), be or look like s.o. or 
s.th. (a, »), be similar, bear a likeness 
(a, « to); to correspond, be analogous 
(a, o to s.o., to s.th.); to compare, liken 
(l-> 6 s.o. to) V to make o.s. similar, as- 
similate o.s. (^ to s.o.) ; to become 
similar (^ to), become like s.o. or s.th. 
(v), follow (lj s.o., s.th.), take after 
s.o. or s.th. («_.-); to take on the shape 
of s.o. (^j); to assimilate, absorb (a 



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1047 



> 



s.th.); to do likewise, imitate, copy 
(c-» s.o., s.th.); to imagine, fancy (<~> s.th., 
with o and verb; s.o. to do s.th.); to get 
an idea (» of); to give or quote as an 
example, use as a simile (<-> s.th.); to 
quote, cite (<-» a verse) ; to present itself, 
be represented, be visible, find visual 
expression (j in); to embody, personify, 
(im) personate, typify (a s.th.); to stand 
erect, appear (<o-U ,>> baina yadaihi 
before s.o.) | aj»\£- Ji/ {li-katirihl) it 
came to his mind, it occurred to him 
VI to resemble each other, be alike, go 
together, agree, match; to recover (j- 
from) | »U-iJl Jl or »UiH JjIc" {Ufa) to 
be on the way to recovery VIII to take 
as a model or an example, imitate, copy, 
follow {a s.th.); to submit, subject o.s. 
(J to s.o., to s.th.); to obey (a an order) 

Ji. miU pi. Jli*i amtal s.th. similar, 
s.th. of the same kind; image; equivalent; 
(with foil, genit. or suffix) s.o. like . . . , 
one like . . . ; s.th. like . . . ; Ji* mitla (prep.) 
and JiT ka-mitli similar to, like, just as ; 
one like; s.th. like; the same as; (just) as 
much as | aJU.* > hum mitluhu they are 
like him, they are of his kind ; JiJLU in the 
same manner, likewise, equally, also, too ; 
L. Ji* mitla ma just as, as well as; U Jic 
bi-mitli ma in the same manner as ; Jil I j>- 1 
ajr al-m. adequate payment or wages; 
Jxilj aLU {'dmalahu) to repay s.o. like 
for like, treat s.o. in like manner; la** 
JUL 4JL.UII (mabda al-mu' 'amala) prin- 
ciple of reciprocity; JiLL Jill SJLjU. 
{muqabalat al~m.) retaliation, reprisal; 
Jli.1 amtaluhu people like him, people 
of his kind; jSo jl Jli.1 people like Abu 
Bakr; Jlttl Sj-^J J I up to three times as 
much 

yii. mitlama (conj.) as 

Ji. mitll replaceable; fungible (Isl. 
Law) I iiill ij-Ji-i (jinslya) homosexuality 

Ji» mutla see Jl»l amtal 



Ji. «n2foZ pi. JUul amfaZ likeness; met- 
aphor, simile, parable; proverb, adage; 
example; lesson, similar case; ideal, mod- 
el; ■}&. matalan for example, for instance, 
e.g. J . - . Ji$" 4ii# he is comparable to ..., 
he is like...; j^\ J*, (asrna) or J* I Ji* 
(a'Jd) ideal; Jli*VI i-^ see Vy**» J^^l 
3/UI proverbs; Jzii J\j Jp (ra'2/i Z-m.) as 
the proverb says 

Jli. mitdl pi. ili.1 amtila, Ji- mutul s.th. 
equal; s.th. similar; simile, parable, al- 
legory: example; pattern, standard; ex- 
emplary punishment; model; image, pic- 
ture I ... Jli» Jp in the manner of...; 
after the pattern or model of ...; J* I Jli* 
(aid) pi. UL Ji» ( f ulyd) ideal; SJU Ji. 
(dliya) ideals; J»UUl1j IujJI Jli* w. ad- 
rfig^a im-n~nasdt a model of exactitude 
and energy 

Jit. mitdli parabolic; allegoric; typ- 
ical, representative; model; exemplary: 
ideal j 4p>JI Jli* m. n-naz f a idealist 
Jlill ^*Jiil (madhab) idealism (philos.) 
Ult. ~*jj~* (sura) ideal image, ideal model 
(psych.) 

*Jli. mitdlitfa exemplariness; idealism 
(philos. and in general) 

Jli* mattdl pi. -im sculptor 

HJli. matdla exemplariness, perfection, 
superiority; (pi. -at, JJli. matail 2 ) lesson, 
task, assignment 

Jjt. ma£i£ like, similar, analogous; 
equal, match | <*JLt« f. IfJLi* of his (its) 
kind, of her kind, his, her or its counter- 
part; d Jji. V (matila), Jjt* <I ^-J, 
JJu J J^ J (yasbiq) incomparable, 
matchless, unrivaled, unparalleled; d*k& 
L t T*>Lt. ,jp it differs from its kind 

Jji> mutul standing erect; appearance; 
presentation ; audience 

"4Jl*\ umtula pi. -at, JJU amdtil 2 



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1048 



example; deterrent example, warning, 
lesson; proverb; assignment, lesson 

Ji.1 amtal 2 , f. Ji. mutkl, pi. J? LI amdtil 2 
closer to perfection, coming nearer the 
ideal; ideal; model, exemplary, perfect | 
J Jill J^-Jl the ideal way to . .. 

J Lie" timtdl pi. J-jIx tatnatil 2 sculptured 
image; statue | J^aJ J lie (nisfi) bust 

J^ tamtil pi. J-JLc tatnatil 2 quotation 
of examples, exemplification; likening, 
comparison; assimilation; portrayal, pic- 
turing, depiction, description; represen- 
tation; diplomatic representation; dra- 
matic representation, acting, playing (of 
an actor); performance, show; dramat- 
ic art; exemplary punishment j J~ie 
i£j\J- {tijdri) commercial agency; Jjic" 
j">li (in motion-picture announcements) 
starring so-and-so; J^-Jl J-b badal at-t. 
allowance for representation, allowance 
for professional expenditure, expense 
allowance; J-^udl jlj theater, playhouse, 
opera house; J;i*JI tf fann at-t. dramatic 
art, theater; sculpture; J^xJl J^- J* 
for the purpose of illustration 

J^Jlc tamtili of or pertaining to the 
theater or stage, theatrical, histrionic; 
dramatic | J^ ^Aa (tnaVab) theater, 
playhouse 



tamtili yap\a,y {theat.) \ <J\±i i-Lir" 
(ginffiya) opera; 4-JLi aJLi/ (filmlya) 
film play, feature film ; TV play 

UjU mumatala resemblance, similari- 
ty, similitude, likeness, correspondence; 
analogy; exact equivalence (Isl. Law); 
O assimilation (plum.) 

Jic tamattul assimilation (biol.) 

JjU tamdtul matching, agreement, cor- 
respondence, resemblance, similarity, si- 
militude, likeness; symmetry; O assimila- 
tion (phon,); recovery, convalescence 



Jliul imtitdl obedience, compliance, 
consent 

JjU matil standing, standing forth 
placed, set down; displayed, on display; 
emerging, arising, cropping up, appear- 
ing, presenting itself | aJLp »U JJL 
(amdma T ainaihi) present before b.o.'s 
eyes; 6L*i) JSL (li-l-*iydn) visible, con- 
spicuous, evident, obvious ; &jjt*- j JJL 
(hadratihi) in front of s.o., in s.o.'s presence 

<IjI. matih, lamp, chandelier 

Ji* mumattil representing, representa- 
tive, representational ; — (pi. -un) repre- 
sentative (also, e.g., diplomatic), deputy, 
agent; performer, player, stage player, 
actor; comedian \ &j\4 <?£* {tijdri) com- 
mercial agent 

iki mumattila pi. -at actress 

lAit mumattiliya representation, agen- 
cy | v-L- <J&£ (siydsiya) diplomatic rep- 
resentation 

^£ mumattal depicted, portrayed; rep- 
resented; assimilated (biol.) 

JjU mumdtil resembling, similar, like, 
comparable; corresponding, analogous 

J?£. mutamdtil resembling each other, 
similar, of the same kind, homogeneous; 
mutually corresponding, homologous; 
identical; symmetrical; assimilating, as- 
similative 

Jiii mumtatil obedient, submissive, 
compliant 

ijli. matdna pi. -at (urinary) bladder 

1 ^» majja u (majj) to spit out, disgorge, 
eject, emit, discharge (a s.th.); to reject, 
dismiss, discard (a s.th.) II to become 
ripe, ripen, mellow 

r-l^- mujdj and 4*-^ mujaja spittle, 
saliva; juice 



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1049 



2 £. abbreviation of ALf mujallad volume (of 
a literary work), vol. 

Jdt majada u {majd) and majuda u (oLf 
majdda) to be glorious, illustrious, ex- 
alted II and IV to praise, extol, laud, 
glorify, celebrate V to be extolled, be 
glorified, be lauded, be praised; to boast, 
glory 

A£> majd pi. .slif i amjdd glory; splendor, 
magnificence, grandeur; nobility, honor, 
distinction 

t^jjf majdi laudable, praiseworthy, 
glorious 

JLtf. majid glorious, illustrious; cele- 
brated, famous ; glorified, exalted ; praise- 
worthy, laudable, admirable, excellent, 
splendid; noble | jl?M ujbS3l the Koran 

<£XJ~ majldi medjidie, a Turkish silver 
coin of 20 piasters coined under Sultan 
Abdul-Medjid; {of money) Turkish 

jL*! amjdd (pi. of xj£) people of rank, 
distinguished people 

A^l amjad 2 pi. a*-U amdjid 2 more 
glorious, more illustrious; more distin- 
guished 

JL^jc tamjld praise, glorification, exal- 
tation, idolization 

±**£ tamajjud self-glorification, self- 
praise 

y majara u {majr) to be thirsty, feel 
thirsty, to thirst 



j£ majr numerous (army) 

jj>*l> majur pi. j*>-\j 
a large, deep, earthenware bowl; also 
look up alphabetically 

j>l al-majar the Hungarians; Hungary 
djfi- majari Hungarian 



3 j£. ma jar a small weight = 18 Jol^ 
3.51 g {Eg.) 



Cj\j j*-l* see 



<SjT 



■\*ij£ majrip* Madrid (medieval Arab name 
of the city) 

iSjg- look up alphabetically 

SLf majla pi. Jl£ mijal, (coll.) Jj£ majl 
bhster; see also under J*- jalla 

J*-L majil pi. J*-{>* mawdjil 2 {tun.) cis- 
tern 

«*>^t mumajmaj indistinct, scribbled, il- 
legible 

1 f yi- majana u {mujn, dy£ mujun, *JLf 
majdna) to joke, jest; to scoff, mock, 
jeer III to jeer, scoff, gibe (« s.o.), mock, 
poke fun (# at s.o.), joke, jest (* with 
s.o.), make fun (e of s.o.), play wild 
jokes (* on s.o.) V to make insolent jokes 
VI to mock at each other 

~^\j£. majdna buffoonery, clowning; (pi. 
•at) prank; antic 

oUf tnajjdn impudent, insolent, unre- 
strained, wanton, shameless ; jester, prank- 
ster, wag, buffoon; free, free of charge, 
gratuitous; Ub£ majjdnan or b\£\i bi-l- 
majjdn free of charge, for nothing, 
gratis 

ij\ji. majjdnl free, free of charge, gra- 
tuitous 

4jLi majjaniya gratuitousness, exemp- 
tion from fees, remission of fees 

oy*- mujun buffoonery, clowning ; 
shamelesaness, impudence 

Oyr vtujuni brazen sarcast, cynic 
^L. mdjin pi. oUf mujjdn impudent, 



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1050 



shameless, brazen, insolent, saucy; joker, 
jester, wag, buffoon 

2 j»-U majiwpX. fc-\y> mawdjin 2 (= J^U) (tun.) 
cistern 

[jlj&jr magnlziyom magnesium 

tfjfi. majus Magi, adherents of Mazdaism 

^y*- majusl Magian; Magus, adherent 
of Mazdaism 

majuslya Mazdaism 



f mahh worn off, threadbare, shabby 

* muhh the best, choicest part, pith, 
gist, quintessence; egg yolk 

(J *£- mahasa a (mahs) to render clear, clarify, 
purify (a s.th.) II do.; to rectify, put 
right (a s.th.); to put to the test (a s.th.); 
to test, examine closely (a s.th.) IV to 
reappear, re -emerge, come out again 
V do. ; to be clarified, be purified VII to be 
clarified, be purified 

mahis shiny, flashing (sword) 



^a-^c" tamhis pi. -at clarification; test- 
ing, thorough examination 

^Jt*- mahada a (mahd) to be sincere (a « 
toward s.o. in), show or manifest sincerely 
{a o to s.o. s.th.; e.g., love, affection); — • 
mahuda u (a^j£- muhuda) to be of pure 
descent; to be pure, genuine, unmixed, 
unadulterated IV to be sincere (» » 
toward s.o. in) V to devote o.s. exclusive- 
ly (J to s.th.), be solely dedicated (J to 
s.th.) 

^±£ mahd (invar, for gender and num- 
ber) genuine, pureblooded; pure, un- 
mixed, unadulterated ; mere; sheer, down- 
right (e.g., lie, nonsense, etc.); LA£ mak* 
dan merely, exclusively, solely | (j*i*«x 
ajUi^-l bi-mahdi htiydrihi entirely of his 



own accord; l^J-U* ,j*>^> U-nahdi sali* 
hihd solely in her own interest, only for 
her own good 

a**j£\ umhuda sincere advice 

j£- mahaqa a (mahq) to efface, blot out, 
strike out, erase (a s.th.); to eradicate, 
exterminate, annihilate, destroy (a B.th.) 
IV to wane (moon); to be invisible (to- 
ward the end of the month; moon); to 
disappear, vanish, be destroyed V, VII 
(Jp»r ! or j^l immahaqa) and VXII to be 
or become effaced ; to be annihilated, be 
destroyed, perish 

j^£ mahq effacement, obliteration; erad- 
ication, extermination, annihilation, de- 
struction 

J I* mahaq, muhaq, mihdq waning of 
the moon; moonlessness (of the nights 
toward the end of the month) 

di£ mahaha a (mahk) and mahika a (mahak) 
to be quarrelsome, contentious, cantan- 
kerous, quarrel, wrangle, bicker; to dis- 
pute stubbornly III to pick a quarrel, 
quarrel, wrangle, have an argument (» 
with s.o.) IV and V = I 

iU- mahik quarrelsome, contentious, 
cantankerous, disputatious, bickering; 
quarrelsome person, bickerer, wrangler 

2SC*-U mumahaka quarrelsomeness, dis- 
putatiousness, petulance; quarrel, row, 
wrangle, dispute; (pi. -at) chicanery; 
bickering, wrangling 

*£i*-li mahik and dJU-lr mumahik quar- 
relsome, contentious, cantankerous, dis- 
putatious; quarrelsome person, bickerer, 
wrangler 

j£ mahala a, mahila a (mahl, t}j£ muhul) 
and mahula u (SJUs- mahala) to be 
barren (land, year) ; — mahala, mahila a 
and mahula u {mahl, Jlrf- mihal) to plot, 



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1051 



scheme, intrigue («-* against s.o.) IV to 
be barren and arid; to render barren 
(a the soil); to be overdue, be withheld, 
fail to set in (rains) V to seek to attain 
by cunning or through intrigues (a s.th.), 
strive cunningly (a for); to seek a pre- 
text; to propagandize or advertise (J 
s.th.) artfully or with unfair means | J**jc 
jj*jl i^udr) to use a pretext, make an 
excuse 

Jst makl barrenness, aridity, drought; 
dearth, famine; cunning, craft, deceit; 
(see also under J»- halla) 

<JL# mahMa pulley, block and tackle; 
see also <J>*- 

JU- mihdl slyness, cunning, craft, in- 
sidiousness 

J»-U mahil barren, sterile; bare, bleak 

J»*f mumhil barren, sterile 

j* mahana a (mdhn) and VIII to try, try 
out, test, put to the test, subject to a 
test (o s.o., a s.th.); to afflict, subject to 
a trial or trials (» s.o.); to examine (» 
s.o.) 

k£ mihna pi. ^ mihan severe trial, 
ordeal, tribulation; affliction; hardship, 
distress, suffering, misfortune 

jU&il imtvhan pi, -at test, experiment: 
examination | Jjat-aJl ol**i*l and jL*L.I 
iJjJiJI i. al-qabul entrance examination; 
JUI iUi*l i. an-naql grade promotion 
examination (school); jl^ OUcul (niliai) 
final examination 

,j^cj mumtahin tester ; examiner 

{fii mumtahan examined; tried, test- 
ed; examinee, candidate 

(/) U mahd u (makw) to wipe ofiF, rub 
out, scratch out, erase, strike out (a 
s.th.); to efface, obliterate, blot out (a 



s.th.) ; to wipe out, eradicate, exterminate, 
extinguish (a s.th.); to eliminate, abolish 
(a s.th.) j j**jc V la yumha ineffaceable, 
indelible II to wipe out, extinguish, 
exterminate, extirpate (a s.th.) V, VII 
( ( _ 5 >*j1 and jfi\ immaha) and VIII to be 
effaced, obliterated, extinguished, wiped 
out, exterminated; to disappear, vanish 

j£- mahw effacement, obliteration, blot- 
ting out; erasure, deletion; elimination: 
abolition, abolishment, annulment 

• Uuf mimhdh and ajU- mahhaya eraser 

»Uil immiha extinction, extermination, 
extirpation 

a^J\j» muhiya eraser 

Um mukk pi. ^Lrf- mijcak, *-\J£\ amjcdh cerebrum 
(anat.); brain; marrow, medulla; core, 
essence; purest and choicest part | S^»»a 
j-tifyl hijrat al-a. brain drain 

J& mukki brain- (in compounds), cer- 
ebral 

UJ.1 al-muka Mocha (seaport in Yemen Arab 
Republic) 

x jk makara a (jtiakr, jj&- muhur) to plow; 
to move, cut, shear, cleave (a through 
s.th.); (of a ship) to plow, traverse (a 
the sea) 

jj-l* makir plowing the sea (ship) 

l^-l* mdkira pi. j>-\j* mawdkir 2 ship 

^y-L makitr pi. j*-\y* mawdkir 2 brothel 

3j£ makraqa to brag, tell fibs; to swindle, 
cheat 

tiJ Ju£ mukada a u i (makd) to churn (a milk); 
to shake violently (a s.th.) ; — makida a 
(^ik wakad, mikdd) to be parturient, 
be in labor V = I makida-, to bear, 



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1052 



produce, bring forth, effect, bring about 
(jp s.tli.); to be churned (milk) 

(j^iis- makdd labor pains 

t/ l^ makld buttermilk 



Xj> Li makkada and 
pi. ^-o^-Lf mamdkid 2 churn 



mimkada 



Jast makata a u (makt, _Uy£ mukut) and V 
to blow one's nose 

J? Ik muktit nasal mucus, snot | jUlk 
^^JtJl m. as-sam,s and jUa^iJI jWLtf- m. 
a$'8aitan gossamer 

lilk mukatl snotty; mucous; slimy, 
ropy 

Jz-k- mukkait {eg.) sebesten (Cordia 
myxa L. ; bot.) 

J*£- II tamaktara to walk with a graceful, 
swinging gait 

l Jk mukl pL Jli-1 amkal, J^- mukul lever, 
pinch bar, crowbar 

2 D Uk mt&Za ( = S^) pi. J*, m^a;, Jlk 
makali nosebag 

makmada to rinse the mouth 



x> madda u (madd) to extend, distend, ex- 
pand, dilate {a s.th.); to stretch, stretch 
out (a s.th.), crane (a the neck); to 
draw out, protract (a s.th.); to spread 
out (a s.th.); to lay out (a s.th.), lay 
(a tracks, pipeline); to spread (a a net); 
to lengthen, elongate, prolong {a s.th.); 
to grant a respite or delay; to rise 
(flood, river); to help, aid, assist (* s.o.), 
support (<_-> « s.o. by or with), supply, 
provide (^ o s.o. with); to reinforce (a 
an army); to fertilize, manure (a the 
soil) | by? Ju ('umrahu) to prolong s.o.'s 
life (of God); *^u ju (ba$arahCt) to let 
one's eyes rove ; Jl j+*J\ -U (basara) to turn 



one's eyes, direct one's glance to; IjJU jl, 
u*j^ ' J (jidran, ard) to strike roots (tree) ; 
4J ~d U- 1 .u to lay a snare for s.o. ; <i>-j j, 
4jLjT jXaj (rijkthu bi-qadri kiscbihl) to 
cut one's coat according to one's cloth, 
make the best of it, adjust o.s. to 
the circumstances; <*U- jJUu <JL>-j x» 
(rijlaihi bi-qadri lihdfihi) do.; «w ju 
(santahu) to prick up one's ears; l£\l\ ju 
to set the table; ^Ul J jl. {maty) to take 
long strides; j*-l>U -U to lay pipe; 
Jvc^il x* (mau'ida) to extend the dead- 
line ; »Jb ju {yadahu) to extend a friendly 
hand, »Jb Ui ju to extend one's hand to 
s.o., show o.s. conciliatory II to extend, 
distend, expand, dilate (a s.th.) ; to stretch 
out (a s.th.); to spread, spread out (* 
s.th.) ; to lengthen, elongate, protract, pro- 
long (a s.th.) ; to discharge pus, suppurate, 
fester III to delay, defer, procrastinate ; to 
put off from day to day (a s.o.) IV to help, 
aid, assist (a s.o.), support (<-> a s.o. with), 
provide, supply, furnish (^ a, a s.o., 
s.th. with); to lend, impart (<_; a to s.th. 
s.th.); to reinforce (a an army); to post- 
pone, delay, grant a respite; to suppurate, 
fester | -d^b juI {bi-ajalihi) to grant s.o. 
another respite in this life (of God) 
V to be spread, spread out, extended, 
stretched out; to extend, stretch, spread; 
to lengthen, expand, distend, dilate; to 
stretch o.s., stretch out, sprawl (on a 
bed, and the like) VIII to be extended, 
distended, stretched; to be laid (wires, 
pipeline); to extend or reach (Jl to 
s.th.), stretch, spread (Jl to s.th,, over a 
distance); to be stretched out (hand, 
Jl toward); to last longer, be ex- 
tended; to lengthen, become drawn out, 
become protracted or prolonged; to be 
long; to develop, grow (Jl into) X to 
take, get, draw, derive, borrow (j* » 
s.th. from), provide o.s. with (a); to ask 
for help (a s.o.) 

Ju madd pi. ijJU mudud extension; 



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1053 



distension, dilation, expansion; stretch- 
ing; spreading; lengthening, elongation, 
prolongation, protraction; drawing out 
of the voice over long vowels (in Koran 
recitation) ; rising, rise (of water, of the 
flood); supply (^ with) | ^^aJl A* m. al- 
basar range of vision; madda l-b. as far 
as the eye can see; ^jy JU (tauri) the 
tide of revolution; c^UI J»>- -U m. katt a. 
laying of a pipeline; J&$\ -U m. an-nazar 
farsightedness, foresight; -OJ <^>jj>- the 
"litterae productionis" I j ^ {gram.) 

Sju madda pi. -at sign over alif (T) de- 
noting initial long a ('a), madda {gram.) 

JU mudd pi. aIjuI amddd, jIju midad 
mudd, a dry measure {Pal. = 18 1, 
Tangier = 46.6 1) 

Sju midda pus, purulent matter 

«ju mudda pi. a-u mudad period (of 
time), space of time, interval; while; 
duration; limited or appointed time, 
term; Sju muddata within, in the course 
of, during | ... «JU j within, in the 
course of, during; j^Jl ,y S.U {zaman) 
period (of time), space of time, interval, 
while; mvddatan min az-z. for a while, 
for some time 

:>ju madad pi. jIjuI amddd help, aid, 
assistance, support, backing, reinforce- 
ment; pi. resources; auxiliaries 

jlJu midad ink; lamp oil; fertilizer, 
manure, dung; pattern, style | :>!-U 4JU? 
jJJll sajjakthH bi-m. al-fakr to inscribe 
B.th. with golden letters; Jb-lj j>Iju Jp after 
the same pattern 

AjJU madid pi. :sJU mudud extended, 
outstretched, stretched, elongated; long, 
prolonged, protracted; tall, big; slender, 
high, towering; Jb-Ui name of a poetical 
meter ( AjJU uUj {zaman) or Sjuju Sju 
[mudda) long time; JuJU ^> {'umr) great 



age; _ / ^aJI JbJU m. al-basar farsighted, 
farseeing 

jl JU viadddd a creeping plant 

»JUl a midda warp of a fabric 

oj JU* tamdid pi. -oi lengthening, elonga- 
tion, prolongation; extension (also of the 
validity of a document, e.g., passport) 

jsIjuI imddd help, aid, assistance, sup- 
port, sustentation, maintenance, provi- 
sioning; supply {mil.)\ pi. -ttf auxiliaries, 
reinforcements, supplies 

iXc tamaddud extension, spreading, ex- 
pansion ; stretching, distention, dilation, 
dilatation, widening 

aIjh.1 imtiddd stretching, stretch, ex- 
tension, extensity; extensibility, distensi- 
bility; expansibility; widening, disten- 
tion, dilation, dilatation, lengthening, e- 
longation, prolongation; expanse; length; 
size, extent, spread, compass, range, 
scope I ilai*l J* along, alongside of 

jsIjUj^I istimddd procurement of sup- 
port, bringing up of reinforcements; sup- 
ply {mil,) 

it. mddd stretching, expanding, ex- 
tending, spreading; trailing, creeping 
(plant) 

oU madda pi. z\j* mawddd 2 stuff, 
matter; material possession; substance; 
material; component, constituent, in- 
gredient; fundamental constituent, rad- 
ical, chemical element, base; subject, 
theme, topic; school subject, field of 
study; discipline, subject matter, cur- 
ricular subject; article, paragraph (e.g., 
of a law, treaty or contract) ; stipulation, 
contractual term; pi. material, materials; 
agents, elements | SJL*! ol» {asllya) root 
of a word; SJjl *\j* {awwallya) primary 
elements; raw materials; ^Jjbf- s\j* 
(tijdriya) articles of commerce, com- 



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1054 



modities; J1*».=JI *\j* cosmetics; yU*»- alj^ 
(jinaiya) criminal cases (jur.); "^j>- *\j* 
(harbiya) war material; *U- aI^. raw 
materials; ^cLm*)! alj* dyestuffs, dyes; 
4~La 2>\ja (sulba) solid constituents, solids 
(e.g., of milk); O «£>-*- aI_^. manu- 
factured goods, ready-made goods; O ^j* 
»_«JukJI medicaments, drugs; <£U*^I il^ 
m. al-i r dsa, U Z$*1>\ alj* m. al-ma'is food- 
stuffs, food; yiJit al^* (gidaiya) food- 
stuffs, victuals, food, nutritive substanc- 
es; fodder; <illl al_^ m. al-luga vocabulary 
of a language; O tjlj^i oL*L. al^» (mte* 
dadda U-l-ha yawl ydt) antibiotics; ^li* al^» 
(multahiba) combustible materials, in- 
flammable matter; fuel; Sj:u al^. (ma* 
danlya) civil cases 0*w.); ^—JJi -s^. tex- 
tiles; »l£JVt jl^. m. al-insd" construction 
materials; yiSj alj* (waqafiya) preven- 
tives, prophylactics (med.) 

tpL. mdddi material; corporeal, phys- 
ical; materialistic; (pi. ~un) materialist; 
objective (as opposed to L ^j^') 

SjjL mdddlya materialism j o to Li I 
oU^^JLIj (ma* nawlydt) material and ideal 
things; 4-stjUJl i^lU historical materialism 

ijJut mamdud extended; outstretched; 
elongated; prolonged, protracted, drawn 
out; extensive, great, large; provided 
with madda (gram.) 

.sUj: mumaddad spread, outspread; out- 
stretched; stretched out, sprawling, ly- 
ing; extended, elongated, long 

& mumladd extended, outstretched; 
spread, outspread, laid out; extending, 
stretching, spreading; extensive, wide, 
large, comprehensive 

Xjl~a mustamadd taken, derived (j* 
from) 

4JI.U maddliya pi. £jU1.u maddliydt medal 

o^JI-u maddliyon medallion, locket, pendant 



f Iju (Fr.) madam madame, madam 

£.U madaha a (madh, 4*-ju midha) to praise, 
commend, laud, extol (* s.o.); to eulogize, 
celebrate in poems (» 8.0.) II do. V to be 
commended, be praised, be lauded; to 
boast (o» of s.th.), glory (^ in), pride 
o.s. ( v on), be proud ( v of) VIII = I 

rJu, madh commendation, laudation, 
praise; extolment, glorification; pane- 
gyrical literature; acclaim | *ul j ..jd! 
the glorification of God 

£-U madih pi. <|Iju madd'ih 2 praise, 
laudation, commendation; panegyrical 
poem, panegyric ; eulogy, encomium, trib- 
ute 

<^jO*l umduha pi. £aUI amddih? praise, 
laudation, commendation ; panegyrical 
poem; eulogy, encomium, tribute 

^xx tamadduh extolment, glorification; 
self-praise, vainglory, ostentation, swag- 
gering 

^aU madih and ^l-u madddh pan- 
egyrist, encomiast, eulogist 

J j.u marfar (coll.; n. un. I) clods of earth or 
mud, loam, clay | jOllj jj\ J* I ahl al- 
wabar wa-l-m. the tent- dwellers and the 
city-dwellers, the nomads and the 
sedentary population 

SjJL. madara clod of earth or mud; 
small hump of the ground 

2 »ij-u mudard 1 ' 2 pi, of j-JL* mudir, seejja 

^Jj-L* madras 2 Madras (city in S India) 

Jbj-U madrid 2 Madrid 



jJ-U (Engl.) midlin middling, of medium 
quality (com.) 



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1055 



LiJUju (Fr.) madfmzel mademoiselle, miss 

OJU II to found or build cities; to civilize, 
urbanize, humanize, refine V uxc ta* 

maddana to be or become civilized; j^ix 
tamadyana do.; to enjoy the comforts of 
civilization, the amenities of life 

ox. madina pi. jx. mvdun, ^i-U 
madain? town, city; oxU Medina; J I ail 
the ancient city of Ctesiphon | ^Ji ^jx. 
m. an-nabiy and »j>JJ oxU {manawwara) 
designations of Medina; v>LJl a^x> m, as- 
salam designation of Baghdad ; ^-*LS^1 Sjj-L. 
Cape Town; ^^1 O-Ul (fat&rd) the big 



Jju madanl urban, urbanized, city- 
dwelling, town-dwelling; civilized, re- 
fined, polished; civilian (as opposed to 
military), civil, civic; secular; town 
dweller, townsman, city dweller, urbanite, 
citizen, civilian; of Medina, Medinan 
(adj. and n.) ] 4-Jx. jijo (da'wd) civil 
action, civil suit, civil proceeding (jur.); 
Jjdl b\j^\ {tayardn) civil aeronautics; 
Jju dji\i civil law; Jx. £l« civil defense; 
JjJxU JUV {ahali) the urban population 

iJx. madanlya civilization 

^ Xc" tamdin civilizing, civilization, ad- 
vancement in social culture, humaniza- 
tion, refining, raising of moral stand- 
ards 

^iJLc tamdlnl civilizing, civilizatory, 
civilizational 

oxc" tamaddun and ^xc tamadyun 
civilization; refinement of social culture 

JXc tamadduni civilized 

iJUi» mtdamaddm civilized; sophisti- 
cated, refined, educated 

^JUi. mutamadyin civilized, provided 
with the comforts of civilization 



^X. III to grant a respite or delay (»to s.o.) 
IV do. VI to persist, persevere (j or <_j or 
Jp in), keep, stick, adhere ( j or cj or Jp 
to); to continue (j s.th.), keep or go on 
(J doing s.th.) ; to go far, go to extremes 
(J in) ; to continue, last, draw out 

^x. madan extension, expanse, stretch, 
spread, compass, range, scope, space, 
latitude, reach; distance, interval, inter- 
space; extent, degree, measure, scale, 
proportion; utmost point, extreme, limit; 
space of time, duration, period; (prep.) 
jj-u mad a for the duration of, during, in 
a (given) period of, in the course of | 
^Jl ^.u m. l-basar range or field of 
vision, visual range; 2LJ-I ^-U m. l-hayah 
lifetime; for life; ^jJ-l c$xU (hayawl) 
lebensraum; oljjxll ^x. m. d-dawardn 
continually, constantly, perpetually; ^-U 
C^j^t\ m. s-saut reach of the voice, calling 
distance; ^**JI <^x. m. Vumr lifetime; 
fb VI (^-U m. l-ayydm throughout the 
days, continually; JUj ^x. J I at a great 
distance; jb»1^ip ,jX. Jp { f asri a.) at a 
distance of 10 meters; ^xLl Xju far-reach- 
ing; ^xll JL*j *ix. (midfa f ) long-range gun; 
X^JI i£xU j in the long run, for the in- 
definite future; Ijl*j <^X. ^1j to reach 
unusual proportions; j^-Vl l$xU J after 
all, when all's said and done, in the last 
analysis 

Zx» madya, mudya, midya pi. ^X. 
mudan, midan, oLx. mud y at, mudaydt 
butcher's knife; knife 

^jXa madawi, mudawi, midawl cutler 

jU" tamddin: ^$1 a>, t^lpl <J>^ £* in 
the long run 

JjJL. (Fr. vtodele) model pi, -at model 

^JU II tamadyana see dx. 

Ju mud since (— x~* mundu) 



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J^ 



1056 



jJL. madira a (madar) to be addle (egg), 
become rotten II to scatter, disperse, 
spread or sprinkle about (a s.th.) V — I 

jJu jXt sadara madam scattered here 
and there 

jl» madir spoiled, rotten, putrid 

Ji. madaqa u (madq) to mix with water, 
dilute 

JJu madq watered wine 

JjJu madiq diluted, mixed with water, 
watered, watery 

Jli. madddq and Jili mumddiq in- 
sincere, hypocritical 

JJU madila a {madl, J IJL. modal) to reveal, 
disclose (<~> s.th. secret) 

k^JL* II tamadhaba see ^i 

X jm marra u (marr, jjj* tnurur, j2 mamarr) 
to pass (<^» or J* s.o., s.th. or by s.o., 
by s.th.), go, walk, saunter, or stroll by 
or past (t-j, Jp);to march past s.o. (fU), 
pass in review (*LI before s.o.; mil.); to 
pass, elapse, go by, run out (time); to 
come, go, walk, or pass along s.th. (^ 
or J*), skirt (^ or Jp s.th.); to pass, go, 
walk, move, march, travel (^ or j* or 
J* through), cross, traverse (,> a place, 
a country, a room); to flow through, run 
through; to fly through; to lead, run, 
out (j through an area; border), pass 
{j over), cross (j an area); to go or 
pass {<_j through a stage or phase), 
undergo (u a state or phase) ; to cross 
(Jp a border, a line, mountains, etc.); 
to fly (3j* over an area; airplane); to 
depart, go away, leave; to continue (J*ij 
to do s.th.), keep, or go on, doing s.th. | 
*jfi j* (dikruhu) it has been discussed, 
it has been mentioned above ; Li j* lT as 
it has passed before us, as we have al- 



ready mentioned; jUju^L j* to pass the 
examination; f*>L*j ja (bi-saldm) to turn 
out well, go off without mishap; <uL « 
ij~a-t (bi-basarihi) to scan s.th., peruse 
s.th. hastily; jjjll j* ^ (marra l-barq) 
to pass swiftly, flash past, flit past; 
flj&l yjA (marra l-k.) to pass as if nothing 
had happened, brush past; (*JU or) <u ^ 
Aj±& j* to overlook s.th. generously, 
pass over s.th. with dignity, treat s.th. 
with disdain II to let pass (a s.th.) ; to con- 
vey, carry or take through (a s.th.); to 
pass (a the ball, in soccer) [ 5 bill J icJL, JjA 
(qandh) to pass or take a ship through 
the canal IV to let (* s.o.) go by or past 
s.o. or s.th. (Jp or ^); to let (* s.o.) pasa 
(Jp or cj s.th.); to make (a, o s.o., s.th.) 
go through s.th. ( Jp or l->), lead, take or 
send {» s.o.) through (Jp or 4;), pass, 
stick (Jp or ^ a s.th. through); to insert 
(Jp or ^ a s.th. in) | Jp «^UJ ^1 (nazarahu) 
to pass one's glance over, let one's eyes 
wander over X to last, endure, continue, 
go on; to remain, stay; to continue (J* 
or ,3 s.th., JaJj to do s.th.), persist, 
persevere (Jp or j in s.th.), keep (Jp 
or j to s.th., Jujb doing s.th.), go on 
(J*ij doing s.th.), stick, adhere (Jt or 
j to s.th.) 

j* marr passing, going by; passage, 
transit; transition; crossing; progression, 
process, lapse, course (of time); iron 
shovel, spade; rope | oUjJl _^ Jp (m. iz- 
zamdn) in the course of time 

I j* marra pi. -dt> j\ja mirar time, turn; 



marratan once; 



O^j* 



marrataini 



twice; o!^ marratin repeatedly; several 
times, quite often; \j\j» mirdran several 
times, more than once, quite often; at 
times, now and then, occasionally, some- 
times j U %ja marratan ma or ~*ja olS data 
marratin once, one time, one day ; ^jp~\ Ija 
marratan ukra or »AjO»- lj* (jadidatan) 
once again, once more, anew; l^* .Uj »^, 
or I j* jp I ^ time and again, again and 



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1057 



J* 



again; lj>\ jti lJL\ (tilwa) time after 
time, time and again ; SJb-ij lj* (wdhidatan) 
at once, at one time; eventually, finally, at 
last; I j* jj- JS'\ {aktara) more than once, 
several times; S^IL at all, absolutely, 
entirely; (with neg.) not at all, never, by 
no means; lj* ys- gaira marratin or l*^ 
Ija repeatedly, several times, more than 
once; Zj* f kam marratan how often? 
how many times? **oi — It IjA for the 
sixth time; lj* y-^ li-akiri marratin or 
lj^^\ *jJi for the last time; lj* J /if li- 
awwali marratin for the first time; l^lj-. 
SjuAp {'adidatan) frequently, often; \j\j* 
\j\J±3j (wa-takraran) time and again, 
again and again 

jjj* murur passing; parade, march 
past (fU); passage, march, journey, or 
trip through (<->, <>., Jo); transit; flowing 
through, flow; crossing, traversal; fly- 
ing over (jji); uninterrupted sequence; 
traffic (street, tourist, shipping); pro- 
gression, process, course, lapse (of time) ; 
{eg.) inspection | tfj^'jjjW {jawvn) air 
traffic; uLjJl jjj* m, az-mmdn expira- 
tion of the deadline; jjj.\ l£'<& tad* 
kirat al-m. permit, pass, laissez - passer ; 
passport; jjJl\ ~&j>- harakat al-m. through 
traffic; jjj.\ ~<bj$ surtat al-m traffic 
police, highway patrol; jjj.\ pUiJ traffic 
regulations 

jimamarr passing, going by; elapsing; 
lapse, expiration (of time); transition; 
crossing; — (pi. -at) aisle, passage, 
passageway; oorridor; narrow connecting 
path, connecting passage; ford; (moun- 
tain) pass | Ji- J. (sufli) underpass; 
tSyrJ {jaunvi} air corridor; jU y water- 
way; i^JU- ji archway; jj^**Jl y Jp in 
the course of centuries 

j jX tamrir (act of) passing (soccer); 
(n.vic.) I j j£ pi. -at pass, transfer (of the 
ball, J to a teammate; soccer) 

jlj*l imrdr passing through, insertion 



j\j^jm\ istimrar duration, permanence, 
continuity, continuance, continuation, 
continued existence, survival; persist- 
ence | jij^-lj continually, constantly; 
\j\ rC.J\j Ulji (dawdman) constantly, con- 
tinuously, incessantly, without interrup- 
tion; jl^vu-V! ly quwat al-ist. inertia, vis 
inertiae 



+iJ\ 



istimrdrlija continuity 



jL mdrr passing; going, walking, rid- 
ing, etc., past or by; (pi. -un, SjU mdrra) 
passer-by, pedestrian, walker, stroller | 
e^i jlil [dikruhu) the above-mentioned, 
what has already been discussed 

^„:...» mustamirr lasting, permanent, 
enduring, constant, continual, uninter- 
rupted, unceasing, incessant; continuous, 
unbroken | j*z~* jLj (tayydr) direct cur- 
rent (el.); » j*z~+ C*U-^» (maujdt) contin- 
uous waves (phys.) 

marra u a {°j\j* mardra) to be or become 
bitter II to make bitter, embitter (a 
s.th.) IV to be or become bitter; to make 
bitter (* s.th.) VI to fight, contend, 
dispute (with each other) X to think 
bitter, find bitter (* s.th.) 

j* murr pi. j\j*\ amrar bitter; severe; 
sharp; painful; bitterness; myrrh | j* 
t^jUwaJI m. as-sahdrd colocynth {bot.) 

I* mirra pi. jj* mirar gall, bile; (pi. 
j\ja\ amrar) strength, power 

lj\j* mardra pi. J\j* marair 2 bitter- 
ness; galK gall bladder; innermost, heart | 
Ui*p *1j\j* cJi^Ji (insaqqat, gaizan) he 
burst with anger 

j- j* rnarlr pi. J\j* mard'tr 2 strong, 
firm, stubborn, tenacious, dogged, per- 
sistent, deep-seated, deep, profound 
(esp., of feelings); — bitter (taste, feel- 
ings) | I j ja &^* (dahka) a bitter laugh 

ijj* warlra pi. J\j* mard'ir 2 firmness; 



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1058 



determination, resoluteness; vigor, ener- 
gy, tenacity, doggedness ; steadiness, con- 
stancy 

^1 amarr 2 firmer, stronger; bitterer [ 
c\j+ s J\ the two bitter things (i.e., poverty 
and old age); (jr^^M <^-^ ^« l-amarrain 
to go through the worst, be exposed 
to greatest hardships 

jjjt mamrur bilious; foolish, crazy; 
fool 

\j* mara'a, ^j* man a a and }ja mania u 
(S »! ja maraa) to be wholesome, health- 
ful, palatable (food); — }j* maru'a u 
{»>jj* murua) to be manly; — }j* ma* 
ru'a u (}>\j* mara'a) to be healthy and 
salubrious (climate) X to find wholesome 
and tasty (a food); to enjoy, savor, 
relish (a s.th.); to be able to digest (a 
s.th.; also fig.); to take to s.th. (a), take 
a liking (<_; to), derive pleasure (a from) 

v'» I/*' * mra * an( i jj*^ imru* (with 
definite article >jl\ al-maf) a man; per- 
son, human being; .^11 frequently for 
Engl, "one", as *JA Ji> (yazunnu) one 
would think 

•]j»\ imra'a (with dcf. article sl^ii 
al-mara; pi. see S^j-J, etc.) woman; wife | 
dl ,„!,,! I l]j,\ (musalsala) Andromeda 
(astron.) 



jj* 



muru'a and 



>JSJ* 



the 



ideal of manhood, comprising all knight- 
ly virtues, esp., manliness, valor, chival- 
ry, generosity, sense of honor 

>,Cja mart manly, virile; healthful, 
salubrious, healthy, wholesome | Up* 
\1jja (ham an) approx.: may it do you 
much good! I hope you will enjoy it (i.e., 
food) ! 

*<£j* mart 1 pi. aSj*\ awria, *jj* muru 
esophagus, gullet 



J^~\j* marrdkuP, marrdkiP Marrakech (city 
in W Morocco); Morocco 

^£\j* marrdktdi, marrdkiH Moroccan 
(adj. and n.) 

<L>ja marata u (mart) to suck, bite (a one's 
fingers); to soften, crush, squash, mash 
(a s.th.); to macerate, soak (in water; 
a s.th.) 

x t;j* mar) pi. g-jj* rnuruj grass-covered 
steppe ; pasture land ; meadow 

•rj*j ?:j* hut") wa-marj confusion, jum- 
ble, tumult, hubbub 

t-j* maraj disorder, confusion, jumble 

2 jU- J - marjan, murjan (coll.; n. un. S) small 
pearls; corals | OU-^. <l\e" samak m. 
goldfish 

j\>-j* marjdni coralline, coral, coralli- 
(in compounds), coral-like, coral-red; pi. 
oUU-^ coral polyps, anthozoans (zool.) \ 

iJU-^. I j y*- atoll; 4-JU-^ ^l*i coral 
reefs 



7&?j* marjaha to rock II tamarjaha to swing 
back and forth, pendulate, dangle; to 
be in suspense, be pending, be in abeyance 

rj » mariha a (marah) to be gay, merry, 
cheerful, in high spirits, hilarious, exu- 
berant, lively; to be glad, happy, de- 
lighted; to rejoice, exult | ^yj rr 1 
(sariha) to do as one likes, proceed 
arbitrarily 

rj* marah joy, cheerfulness, gaiety, 
glee, mirth, hilarity, merriment, liveli- 



rjA wariA ph^^r* marha, ^^j* mardhd 
joyful, gay, happy, merry, cheerful, live- 
ly, romping, hilarious, exuberant 



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1059 



lTJ* 



r\jA mirdk jollity, hilarity, exuber- 
ance 

£j. mirrih joyful, gay, happy, merry, 
cheerful, lively, romping, hilarious, exu- 
berant 

^~j* marhd well done! bravo! | v ^j* 
bravo to ... 

j\jt mimrak of cheerful disposition, 
gay-tempered, blithe; gay, jovial person 



v*v* 



markaba to welcome (» s.o.) 



rj* maraka a (mark) to oil, anoint, rub, 
embrocate (a the body) II do. V to rub 
one's skin with a liniment, oil o.s., 
anoint o.s. 



marik soft; slack, flabby, flaccid 

maruk liniment; salve, unguent, 
it 

'£j* mirrih Mars (astron.) 



ointment 



ij* marada u {*jj* murud) and maruda u 
(olj* marada, Zsjj* muruda) to be re- 



fractory, recalcitrant, rebellious; to re- 
volt, rebel (J* against) II to strip (* a 
branch) of its leaves ; to plaster, mortar, 
face (a a building) V to be refractory, 
recalcitrant; to revolt, rebel (J* against); 
to be insolent, arrogant, overbearing 

&j* murdl pi. <£*\j* marddly (punting) 
pole, boat hook 

dj* mardd, marrdd pi. 4jj^ mardrid? 
nape, neck 

&ja marld pi. »b^ muradd' 2 refractory, 
recalcitrant, rebellious 

i\j£ timrdd pi. Jbjlc tamdrid 2 dovecot 

*j*\ amrad 2 , f. *b^* mardd' 2 , pi. *j* 
murd beardless; leafless (tree); dry, with- 
ered 

*jt tamarrud refractoriness, recalci- 



trance, disobedience, insubordination; up- 
rising, insurrection, mutiny, revolt, rebel- 
lion 

jjU mdrid pi. -un, o^ marada, ilj* 
murrdd refractory, recalcitrant, defiant; 
rebel, insurgent; demon, evil spirit, devil; 
giant 

j^u mutamarrid refractory, recalci- 
trant, disobedient, insubordinate, mu- 
tinous, rebellious 

^Jisj* mardaqus marjoram 

jbj^ marzubdn pi. l>j'^ maraziba vicege- 
rent, provincial governor, satrap (in an- 
cient Persia) 

J^yrjy m&rzajuS, J^yrJj* marzanjus = 

l * J * marasa w {mars} to soak (in water), 
macerate (* s.th.) Ill to exercise, pursue, 
practice (* s.th., esp., a profession); 
(intr.) to practice, have or operate a 
practice; to carry on, ply (a s.th., e.g., 
seafaring); to apply o.s. (a to s.th.), go 
in for (a) V to rub o.s. (<y with, against); 
to have trouble, be at odds (^ with); 
to exercise (<-» an office), pursue, prac- 
tice (c-j a profession); to work {^* with), 
be in practical contact, have actually 
to do (^ with s.th.); to have to cope 
or struggle {<~> with s.th.) VI to fight, 
struggle, contend with each other 

^ja mars game which is won by 
getting all the tricks 

^j* maris pi. ^j*\ amrds seasoned, 
practiced, experienced, veteran 

%*j» marasa pi. ,^-lj-l amrds rope, 
cord, line; cable, hawser 

^ja mirds and a*\jm marasa strength, 
power | (i*^! J^-- sahl al-m. tractable, 
manageable, docile, compliant; ^JS -AJ-*-* 



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1060 



or ,j*\jL\ <_-*-* sa r b al-m. intractable, un- 
ruly, refractory; ^l^il *j>*-^ intractabil- 
ity, unruliness, refractoriness, recalci- 
trance 

<~lj+ marlsa a kind of beer 

iS ~lj^ marlsl hot south wind (eg,) 

l+*j\j mumarasa pursuit, exercise, prac- 
ticing (of a profession); execution, imple- 
mentation; practical application; — (pi. 
-at) practice; experience, routine; (e^.) 
negotiation, treaty 

^j*j£ tamarrus practicing, practice (<-» 
of an activity, of a profession) 

^joj+z* mutamurris practiced, experi- 
enced, veteran 

a t r'J^ l°°k U P alphabetically 

8 \*>j* mursiya 2 Murcia (city in Spain) 

UL-^. marsiliyd Marseille (seaport in SE 
France) 

,>->• niarsin myrtle (myrtus; bot.) 

J^ja marasa u (mars) to scratch (* s.th.) 

iS\£j* mar Sal see JUjU 

^j* murs Morse (code) 



u-V* 



marida a (marad) to be or become 
sick; to fall ill, be taken ill II to make ill 
or sick (* s.o.); to nurse, tend (» a sick 
person) IV to make ill or sick (a s.o.) 
V to be infirm, ailing, sickly, weak VI to 
feign illness, malinger 

^j* marad pi. <j*\j»\ amrad disease 
malady, ailment; illness, sickness | ^j* 
JJJJi ^LJl m, al-baydd ad-daqiqi mil- 
dew; (C-^ u^j* C^»&*) nervous disease, 
neuropathy; Ji* ^j* ( r aqll) mental dis- 
ease; Lf *i- ^ja (fahmi) blight, blast (of 



grain); jfj ^j* (firanji) syphilis; J^ 
JU« (mu'din) contagious disease; ^1^,1 
<ji?Lj (babiniya) internal diseases; j*lj*l 
<lj^ (sirrlya) venereal diseases; ^1^,1 
ijA-^ (§adrlya) diseases of the chest, pul- 
monary diseases; «jU-l jULil j*U 
(harm) tropical diseases 



. murdin i 



<s*-> 



^j* maradi relating to disease, morbid, 
pathological, patho- (in compounds) 

( j*lj+ inarld pi. t^j* marda, ^^j* 
mardda sick, ill, ailing; diseased; unwell, 
indisposed; sick person, patient | jii^ 
^-ij (nafst) psychopath 

^jt mimrdd sickly, in poor health, 
ailing 

tyujt tamr%4 sick-nursing 

^jt mumarrid (male) sick nurse, hos- 
pital attendant ; ambulance man, first-aid 
man; doctor's assistant 

Xjfji mumarrida sick nurse, nurse (f.) 

,j*j+z* mutamarrid sickly, in poor 
health, ailing 

X>ja marafa u (mart) to tear out, pull out, 
pluck out (a hair) II do. V to fall out (hair) 

Sajj* marlt and J*jJ amraf, f. *IL^, 
marta" 2 , pi. S»j* murt hairless 

bU*j* martabdn pi. -at (syr.) jar made of 
glass or pottery with a lid for preserving 
fruit, pickles, marmelade, etc.; (eg.) = 
bl±>j (q. v.) 

fjM mora" a a (maf) to rub over, anoint (a 
s.th.) 



V 



pi. 9j*\ amru% 9\ja" 



U 



pasture 

*a*j* mur'a grease, oil 

*j^. marV fertile, productive (soil) 



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1061 



0j* 



f\j£ mimrd* thriving, nourishing, pros- 
perous (city) 

9j* II to roll {in the dust) (a s.th.); to rub 
over (a s.th.); to rub (a s.th.) IV to soil, 
sully, make dirty (a s.th.) V to roll, 
wallow (esp., in the dust); to waver 
irresolutely 

Itj-j* margarin margarine 

&»j* murfin morphine 

J j* maraqa u (3jj* muruq) to pierce, 
penetrate (^ s.th. or s.o. ; esp., of an 
arrow), go or pass through (^y.); to dart, 
rush, shoot, or fly past, pass swiftly; to 
hurry away, scamper away; to stray 
(e.g., of an arrow); to digress, deviate; 
to renege, renounce {esp. ^-01 <y the 
true faith) | -g*JI 3j+ (sahmu) {lit.: the 
arrow has passed through, i.e.) the matter 
is finished, done with, settled II to sing 

3 j* maraq and «^ maraqa broth, 
bouillon; gravy 

Ojja muruq straying, deviation; apos- 
tasy, defection, desertion, disloyalty 

j j j* muruqi (tun.) nickname of pro- 
fessional Koran reciters in Tunis; (tun.) 
pallbearer 

JjL. mariq pi. 3\j+ murrdq, S3_^ maraqa 
straying; apostate, renegade, defector, 
turncoat, deserter; heretic 

jjlt mumdriq insolent, impudent 

tjij» marqus Mark (Evangelist) 

fj» II tamarkaza to concentrate (j on, at, 
in); to be centered, have headquarters, 
be concentrated (J at a place); to settle, 
establish o.s., gain a footing, take root; 
to consolidate one's position ; to gravitate 
(J to) 



yfjA look up alphabetically 

jfj* tamarkuz concentration; consol- 
idation (of a position) 

tjS'ij^ marrakus 2 , marrdHP Marrakech (city 
in W Morocco) ; Morocco 

^iTI^ marrdkusi, marrdlcisl Moroccan 
(adj. and n.) 

yfjA marl&z marquis 

o_£*j+ (Fr. marmiton) marmaton and OjL>ja 
pi. -at kitchen boy, scullery boy 

x j*j* marmara to be or become bitter; to 
become angry II tamarmara to murmur, 
mumble; to grumble 

jaj£ iamarmur bitterness (of feeling), 
embitterment 

2 j*j* marmar marble 

i£j*j* marmari marble (adj.) 

\ajkj* mamiota (eg.) to spoil, damage (a 

s.th.) 

OjJLtmjA see JjIajm 



cT*V* 



mirmis rhinoceros 



1 U J * inarama u i$\j* marana, Ojj* murun> 
Zjj* muruna) to be pliant, flexible, 
ductile, elastic; — (Ojj* murun, AJi^* 
mar ana) to be or become accustomed, 
get used (Jp to) II to train, drill (* s.o.); 
to accustom, condition, season, inure 
( Jp o s.o. to), make (e s.o.) get used (Jp 
to) V to become accustomed, get used 
(Jp to); to exercise, practice (^ s.th.), 
train (Jp in), be practiced, trained, 
experienced (Jp in); to be drilled, drill 



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Oj* 



1062 



Oj* matin pliant, pliable, flexible, bend- 
ing; elastic; plastic; supple, limber, lithe; 
ductile, extensible; yielding, compliant 

4j \ja mardna and "<6jja muruna pliancy, 
pliability, flexibility; elasticity; ductili- 
ty; plasticity; agility, nimbleness; resili- 



j>j£ iamrln pi. -at, ^jU" tamdrln 2 
exercise, practice, training ; military train- 
ing, drill; practical experience; expert- 
ness, skill; preparatory training, (period 
of ) probation, apprenticeship, traineeship j 
tjljfcjl ^>j£ (ibtida'i) basic training; ^jlc" 
<j -H>- (jundlya) or ^S1™p z^h^yC ('askari* 
ya) military exercises, maneuvers; O j- j* 
o jbjll coaching, tutoring ; extra drill {mil.) ; 
4-^bj ub/ (riyddiya) gymnastic exer- 
cises; j> j*d\ c*& undergoing preparatory- 
training, engaged on probation (official, 
employee) 

b\j* mirdn expertness, skill; exercise, 
practice, drill, training; habituation, hab- 
it; accustomedness ; practical experience; 
routine 

by!" tamarrun exercise, practice, train- 
ing 

by mumarrin trainer, coach ; instruc- 
tor; drill sergeant 

by mumarran practiced, seasoned, ex- 
perienced, trained, skilled ( Jp in) ; ac- 
customed, used (J* to) 

bj+z* mutamarrin practiced, seasoned, 
experienced, trained, skilled (J* in); 
accustomed, used (J* to); probationer, 
undergoing probation, probationary 

2 (JjjL pi. 4Jj\j* look up alphabetically 

*Lfj* ™ r * w; Ijy >4 banu m. Merinids (Ber- 
ber dynasty in NW Africa); OjmJS al- 
marlnlyun do. 



l jjA marw Merv (present-day Mary, town in 
Turkmen S.S.R.) 

i£jj* marwi, marawl native of Merv 

2 jja marw (coll.; n. un. S) pebble; flint 

ljji\ al-marwa name of a hill in Mecca, 
nowadays levelled off; see ( _^J1 as-sa'y 

z »jj* see mjja 

1 ( ^ J * III to wrangle, argue, dispute (• with 
s.o.); to resist, oppose {t> s.o.); to contest 
(J s.th.) VI to wrangle, quarrel with each 
other VIII to doubt (J s.th.) 

4j^* murya, mirya doubt, quarrel, 
wrangle, argument, dispute 

*\ja mira quarrel, wrangle, argument, 
dispute; doubt | *\ja "^ (bi-ld) or *\j» V 
<lj (mira' a) incontestable, indisputable, 
unquestionable, undisputed, uncontested; 

unquestionably . . 



b\ J 

that 



2 ul^* pi. of t\j* see Jj 

fjA maryam 2 Mary, Maria 

4~c ^ maryamlya sage (bot.) 

l y mazza u (mazz) to suck; to sip VIII to 
adsorb (a a substance; chem.) 

y muzz sourish, acidulous 

j\j*\ imtizaz adsorption {chem.) 

2 1y (Turk, meze) mazza pi. -at (eg.) tidbits, 
appetizers 

^y mazaja u (mazj, Ay mizdj) to mix, 
mingle, blend (<yt different things, ^ * 
s.th. with) III to form a mixture or 
compound, be mixed, be blended, mix, 
mingle, blend, combine (a with s.th.); 
to adapt o.s. (* to s.o.), humor (o s.o.) 



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1063 



lT* 



VI to intermix, intermingle, interblend, 
be intermixed, be intermingled VIII to 
be mixed, be mingled, be blended, mix, 
mingle, blend (*_> with) 

^y mazj mixing, blending 

^\y mizaj pi. «U-j-f amzija mixture, 
medley, blend; temperament, temper, 
nature, disposition ; frame of mind, mood, 
humor, vein; physical constitution; con- 
dition, (state of) health | ^j^j ^y 
(damawi) sanguine temperament; ~\y 
iSi^j** (saudawi) melancholic tempera- 
ment; tfjijju* r'j* (safrawt) choleric 
(or bilious) temperament; l5 *aL g\y [baU 
garni) phlegmatic temperament; g\jL\ 
aLJI ( r dmm) popular taste; ^^*i r}y 
delicate nature, weakly constitution; 
r\jl\ jsj£- hot-tempered; ^Ijil Js^^l. 
munharif al-m, unwell, indisposed, out 
of sorts; ^y Ja\ji V l-i* {yuwdfiqu) this 
is not to my taste 

£y mazij compounded, blended (j* of ) ; 
mixture, medley, blend (j- of); combi- 
nation, compound, alloy 

pjlx tamazuj intermixing, intermin- 
gling, interblending, intermixture 

rl>»l imtizdj mixture, blend 

rj» mazaha a [mazh) to joke, jest, make fun 
III to joke, make fun (» with s.o.) 

+-y mazh, *\y muzah, mizah and l^\y 
muzdka joking, joke, jest, fun 

**-y mazha (n. vie.) joke, jest 

■Ay mazzah and rjL mdzih joker, 
jester, buffoon, wag 

j> mizr a kind of beer 



£> maza'a a (maz*) to run, bound, tear 
along, gallop along; to tear apart (a 
s.th.); to tear, rip (j* * s.th. off) II to 



pick, pluck (a wool or cotton); to tear 
to pieces (a s.th,) 

Ac-y muz'a, miza pi. 9y muza, miza* 
piece, bit, bite; flock of wool 

Sy mazaqa i [mazq) to tear, rend, rip apart 
(a s.th.) II to tear, rend, rip apart (a 
s.th.); to tear up, tear to pieces, shred 
(a s.th.) V to get torn, be rent; to be in 
shreds, get torn to pieces ; to burst open, 
tear, break, snap 

oy mazq tearing, tearing up, rending; 
tear, rent, rupture 

*»y mizqa pi. 3y mizaq piece torn 
off, shred 

JjJjc* tamzlq tearing, rending, shred- 
ding, fragmentation 

yy mazmaza to sip 

by muzn (coll.; n. un. 5, pi. oy muzari) rain 
clouds 

l±y mazlya pi. [Ay mazdyd and <j jU mdziya 
pi. -at advantage; privilege, prerogative; 
excellence, superiority; merit, virtue 

^j~* massa a (mass, Lr ^-^ masts) to feel, 
finger, handle, palpate (a s.o., a s.th.); to 
touch (o s.o., a s.th.); to violate (a s.th. 
sacred), infringe (a upon); to cohabit 
{a with a woman); to hit, befall (« s.o.; 
damage, calamity) | tpb <~» (bi-adan) or 
*j^j <u^> (bi-suin) to harm, wrong, hurt 
s.o.; ^iJI *j— j { _ r * to be injurious, dam- 
aging to s.th., hurt, impair, prejudice 
s.th.; Jl i»-U-l ii— * [hajatu) circum- 
stances require . . . , (it) is necessary, 
urgently needed; \j} i _ r ^ {lugman) to hit 
a mine III to touch (e s.o.); to be in 
touch, be in contact (» with s.o.) VI to 
touch each other, be in mutual contact 

Lr ^ mass touching, touch; contact; 



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1064 



misfortune, calamity; attack, fit (of a 
disease); insanity, madness, frenzy, pos- 
session; violation (^ of s.th.), infringe- 
ment {«_-> against) | ^J-l ( _ r w m, al- 
kummu attack of fever; J>-I-U1 i>VL> ^JL! 
(amn) threat to internal security; 4jU»I 
uyi-l j* (j*. {asatohu) he has gone crazy 

i*» massa (n. vie.) touch 

^U^ misds touching, feeling, han- 
dling, fingering, palpation; violation (^ 
of), infringement, encroachment (^ e.g., 
upon a right, a possession , the territory 
of a country); connection, relation, con- 
tact | c-j ^L*. *J it is connected with . . . , 
it touches upon . . . , it concerns ; <J \J 
<-; j^l — » concerning . . . , regarding . . . 

,j~a-w» masls touching, touch | iJ ^>^ Xs- 
i»-U-l should the necessity arise, if (or 
when) necessary; Jl i»-LL1 ,^-w j _^a he is 
in urgent need of . . . 

4*-U mumdssa touching, tangency; ad- 
jacency, contiguity; contact 

^U tamdss (mutual) contact 

^L mass tangent; touching (^ s.th., 
also fig., upon s.th.); adjacent, adjoining, 
contiguous; urgent, pressing, important [ 
<Ju* <U-U- urgent need, exigency; 1U-U-I 
<JI iwL. it is urgently needed; jl^^^U 
(kakrabai) short circuit 

^^—J mamsus touched; palpable, tan- 
gible; mentally deranged, insane 

^[i mumass tangent (math.) 

ojL. (It. mostarda) mustarda mustard 

4^-*» mistilca = slSsk^o. 

ik-~» (It. mastdlo) mastilla pi. -a£ tub 

1 ^ J masaha a (mash) to stroke with the 
hand (a s.th.); to wipe off, wipe away 
(a s.th.); to rub off {a H.th.); to wash, 



wash off (a s.th.); to wipe out, blot out, 
erase (a s.th.); to clean, polish (* 8.th,); 
to smooth, smooth with a plane, to plane 
(a s.th.); to rub (^ * s.o. with); to anoint 
(^ a s.o. with); to deprive, dispossess 
(^ * s.o. of), take away, withdraw (j. , 
from s.o. s.th.); — (mash, i-L* misaha) 
to survey (a land, estate, etc.), make a 
cadastral survey (a of) II to wipe off 
(a s.th.); to rub, anoint (o s.o.); to 
cajole, coax, wheedle, persuade (» s.o.); 
to Christianize (e s.o.) Ill to cajole, coax, 
wheedle, persuade (o s.o.) V to wipe 0.8. 
(<_j with) ; to rub or anoint o.s. ; to be rub- 
bed, anointed ; to provoke {i-*s.o.), pick a 
quarrel (lj with) | *Ub ^J to wash o.s.; 
^LoL £~jc and *4-UpU r— £ to fawn 
on them, court favor with them; ~*J 
pl-tfVlj cjUcVIj to grovel, court favor in 
a cringing manner 

£_• mash wiping, wiping off; clean- 
ing; rubbing, embrocation; anointing, 
anointment, (extreme) unction; measure- 
ment; surveying (esp., land survey); 
official survey; polling; statistical evalu- 
ation | (S *\j s t\ ~~* m. al-aradi land survey; 
i^jbjj £*~* radar measurement 

£— mish pi. rjm* musuh coarse woolen 
fabric, haircloth, sacking; pi. hair shirt, 
monastic garb, monk's frock | rj~L\ £**d 
labisat il-musuha to take the veil, become 



*^-~* masha (n. vie.) a rubbing, em- 
brocation; anointing, anointment; unc- 
tion; tinge, shade, air, appearance, 
veneer (fig.); trace, touch (of s.th.) | 
(j-ij^l hm~* extreme unction; ^j**^ ^> 
^JLL to administer extreme unction to 
a sick person; JUJ-I ^ «*««• (jamdl) a 
touch of beauty 

^L** )nassdh land surveyor (= *-L* 
^I^Vl); bootblack, shoeblack, shoeshine 



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o-t*. massdha pi. -at windshield wiper; 
plane (tool) 

ia-Lw. misaha pi. -at plane, surface; 
area; acreage; floor space; surface 
extent; terrain sector (mil.); surveying, 
survey; geodesy; cadastre [ ^L?^' ^-L*» 
m. al-arddi land surface; area, acreage; 
IjU !U-L~. (ma'iya) area of water; ^UJLst. 
a^LII maslahat al-m. survey depart- 
ment, land registry office; 4*-l— it J>~w* 
diq al-m. lack of space, space limitation 

ryy» masih pi. *.Uu*~. musaha 2 , l j^^ 
mashd anointed; wiped, clean, smooth; 
«~~i.l the Messiah, Christ 

i jn~*j' maslhl Christian, Messianic; (pi. 
-un) a Christian | l y- r -ll j>jl\ {din) the 
Christian faith, Christianity 

ILswJ.! al-masihiya Christendom ; Chris- 
tianity, the Christian faith 



c-* 



mimsah and 



mimsaha pi. 



£*\j mamasih* dust cloth, dust rag, 
cleaning cloth; washcloth; dishrag; floor 
rag; doormat; scraper 

«-U masih bootblack, shoeblack, shoe- 
shine | O ?*l J\ Jr^*" ^^^ windshield 
wipers 

ry~£ mamsuh wiped, wiped off, wiped 
clean; cleaned; smoothed, planed; pol- 
ished; smooth; anointed; abraded, worn 

(coin) | yjjdl ^ £>-J (»Mt'tt<x) senseless, 
meaningless, inane 

'^L* timsah pi. ^U ta<mds%h? crocodile 
(zooJ.) 



£~* masaka a (mask) to transform ( Jf — j* * 
s.o, from — into), transmute, convert 
(* s.th.); to falsify, distort (a s.th.); to 
mar, spoil (a s.th.) 

P~a mask transformation, metamor- 
phosis; transmutation, conversion; falsi- 



fication, distortion, misrepre^ 
metempsychosis 

jnuw* mask, misk pi. r>— musuk trans- 
formed into an animal; misshapen, de- 
formed, disfigured ; ugly, misshapen mid- 
get; freak, monstrosity; monster 



muska (eg.) buffoon, harlequin, 



clown 



£--*. maslk transformed; disfigured, 
defaced, deformed, ugly; tasteless, in- 
sipid, stale 



G>-* 



mamsuk transformed; marred, 



spoiled; disfigured, defaced, deformed, 
ugly 

_^ maslcara to ridicule, mock, deride (* 
s.o.) II tamaskara to make fun (J* of), 
laugh ( Jp at) 

JL*» II to massage (o»Lipi a'daahu s.o.'s 
limbs) 

a— * masad (coll.) pi. iU-* misad, jL— I 
amsdd palm fibers, raffia 

a~-jc" tamsid massage 

1 «jj-U look up alphabetically 

2 ^^ r ^ misra the 12th month of the Coptic 
calendar 



(It. mostra) mastara pi. jW— * masatir 2 
sample, specimen; see also J**> 

masqat 2 Masqat (seaport and capital of 

Oman) 



L~. masaka u % (mask) to grab, grasp, 
clutch, clasp, seize (<_> or a s.th.), take 
hold (u or a of); to hold, hold fast (^ 
or a s.th.); to stick, cling, cleave, adhere, 
hang on (^ to) | oULJ-l iL« (hisdbdt) 
to keep the books, keep the accounts; 
jj»V' «" tiL* (daffata l~u.) to be at the 



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dL^ 



1066 



helm, be in charge; 4jLJ iii-~ » (Usdimhu) 
to keep one's tongue in check II to scent 
with musk (a s.th.); to have (* s.o.) seize 
or hold IV to seize, grip, grasp, clasp, 
clutch, hold (<^» or * s.th.); to hold fast, 
grab (<_> or a, t> s.o., s.th., j- * s.o. by his 
hair, and the like); to hold back, keep, 
detain, restrain (a, * s.o., s.th., ^ from); 
to withhold, not to expend (a s.th.); to 
refrain, abstain, keep, desist (^ from), 
forbear, cease, stop { jc doing s.th.), keep 
away, remain aloof (^ from); to keep, 
retain (<*Jj J* a s.th. for o.s.) | <iL^\ 
vfJLJU (amsik) keep ...! Luij 4*Jti <ii~J 
waqifari) to hold o.s. upright; *JLj *£JL~.I 
(bi-yadiht) to take s.o. by the hand; dL-J 
«^j (yadahu) to take s.o.'s hand; ciC—l 
jjJU^JI ^ to stop publication, fold up 
(newspaper); <CU dJL,l (lisdnahu) to 
keep one's tongue in check; jLJI dJL*.! 
(6a£ma) to constipate (med.); <u*j iL-1 
= 4a.j .u-, see J.j (ramaq) V to hold 
on, hold fast («_> to), clutch (<-j s.th.); to 
stick, cling, cleave {<_> to); to hang on 
(c-» to), persist (cj in); to keep, adhere 
(^ to s.th.); to rise (prices), harden, 
firm up (quotations) | <ul-uL ^lLJ; (bi- 
ahdabihl) to be most devoted to s.o., be 
at s.o.'s beck and call, be under s.o.'s 
thumb; >U JJI ^l-ub dLuc'to adhere, cling 
to s.th.; aAj ^iJL^c" (bi-ra'yihi) to stick 
to one's opinion; i_A.^Vb dL*x to keep 
cool, keep one's nerves under control, 
hold o.s. together VI to hold together, be 
firmly connected, be interlocked; to 
compose o.s., pull o.s. together; to 
remain undaunted, remain calm, be 
composed; to stay on one's feet; to be in 
full possession of one's strength; to 
refrain, abstain, keep (^ from) X to 
keep, stick, cling, adhere (<_j to); to 
grab, seize (uj s.th.); to refrain, abstain, 
keep {y- from) 

c£JL*« mask seizure, grip, hold; de- 
tention | J\sJ&\ dL*. bookkeeping; ^JL*. 



£>LLJ~1 m. al-hisabat keeping of ac- 
counts, accountancy 

iSw. maska pi. masakat grip, hold 

dJL* misk m. and f. musk | ji-\ ^JL. 
m. al-jinn a variety of goosefoot (Che- 
nopodium Botrys; bot.); *ls£l dL>* m. al- 
kitdm lit.: the concluding musk (i.e., 
with which, originally, a letter was final- 
ly perfumed), the best following in the 
end, the crowning touch 

aSL*. miska a little, a touch, a glimpse, 
a whiff ( j* of) 

di— *• musuk and <Sw* musaka grasp- 
ing, greedy, avaricious 

iSw. muska pi. *il«* musak handle; 
hold; grip; handhold, support [ J*VI &L*. 
m. al-amal that to which hope clings 

i$w- muska, musuka and 45~L- masa* 
fca, misaka avarice 

jSL*. muskdn earnest money, pledge 

iJL^ misdk dam, weir; hem, border 

tiL«* masik tenacious; avaricious, mi- 
serly; watertight, waterproof 

£]L-*I imsdk seizure; restraint, deten- 
tion, check; stop, cessation; abstinence; 
avarice; constipation (med.); time of the 
day which marks the beginning of the 
Ramadan fast 

yi*»J imsdkiya calendar of fasting 
during the month of Ramadan 

tiLS tamassuk adherence; devotedness, 
devotion, attachment; written commit- 
ment, I O U ; firming-up, or consolidation, 
of the market, hardening of quotations [ 
dl «:ll J_jjli legal moratorium, moratory- 
law (jur.) 

dJUU" tamasuk holding together, co- 
hesiveness; coherence; cohesion {phys.); 
firmness, solidity; tenacity 



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1067 



TUh* 



iJU*sJ istimsdk adherence, loyalty (^ 
to) 

dL*£ mumassak musky, musk-scented, 
perfumed 

dLwf mumsik holding, clutching, grab- 
bing; checking, restraining, withholding; 
economical, thrifty; grasping, greedy, av- 
aricious 

tilt".- mutamassik holding fast, hang- 
ing on, clinging, adhering ; tenacious ; firm, 
solid 

«2JL£« mutamdsik holding together, co- 
herent, cohesive, hanging together, firmly 
connected, interlocked; continuous, un- 
interrupted; firm, solid; tenacious; com- 
posed, calm and collected 



mustamsik composed, calm 



(mind) 



2 jt£~*. muskati muscatel (wine) 

jSL-» II tamaskana to become poor, be re- 
duced to poverty; to pretend to be poor; 
to feign poverty or humility; to be sub- 
missive, servile, slavish, fawning 

kSL*» maskana poverty, misery; hum- 
bleness, humility, submissiveness 

(>SL** miskln pi. -wn, ^\fl~* masdkin 2 
poor, miserable; beggar; humble, sub- 
missive, servile 



jjSL* moskofi Muscovite 

m* masmara (from jL-~« 
up (a e.g., a crate) 



mis-mar) to nail 



(>**) II to wish (* s.o.) a good evening | iJL*. 
j£\* abI massdka ll&hu bi-l-kair good 
evening! Ill see «^ III; IV to enter 
into evening; to be or become in the 
evening; to spend the evening (J at); to 
become, come to be (ace: s.th,); with 



foil, imperf.: he has now come to a point 
where . . ., it has gone so far that now . . . | 

{jr +\ lil jAjJuj ~*\ 1M aLuj (asbaha) he 
does so in the morning and in the evening 

»U« masd* pi. i-— I amsiya evening; 
masd' an in the evening | (J ^\ »L- masd'a 
amsi yesterday evening, last night; *L~» 
j£\ m. al-kair or ,/i-l; SjU~* good 
evening! #L*. r-L^ sabdha masd'a morn- 
ings and evenings, in the morning and in 
the evening 

JU* masa* I evening (adj.) | jL>-Nl 
L! Li I the evening news 

X r ^\ umsiya pi. -at, ^U amdsiy 
evening; L**Nl al-umsiyata tonight, this 
evening; ^L~.l umsiydtin on many 
evenings, evening after evening 

ijml mumsin spending the evening (J 

at a place) 

^ mumsan evening time 

Sj_*-~ . = Sj^-L. look up alphabetically 

(S ^> masa i (masy) to make lean, cause to 
lose flesh, emaciate (a livestock; of the 
heat) 



_^^ (Fr. Monsieur) misyu Mr.; sir 

J^ massa u (mass) to suck the marrow (a 
from a bone) ; to macerate, soak in water 
(* s.th.) 

J^> miss whey 

J.jt* masu$ napkin 



£^ 



masij pi. ^Li*l amSdj gamete, germ cell 



«JL. masa ha a [mash) to administer extreme 
unction (« to s.o.) 

i^L. masha extreme unction 



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1068 



J*£* ma^afa u i {maSt) and II to comb (a hair) 
V and VIII to comb one's hair 

JaJL. mify, mvM pi. i>UJ am§at, J»ll* 
mi$dt comb; rake; bridge (of stringed in- 
struments); O (mil) cartridge clip | 
J»-Ji Jai* m. ar-rijl metatarsus, instep 
(anat.); jUI JaJL* m. al-yad metacarpus 
(anat.) 

J*!* muSti toothed, indented, jagged, 
dentate; comblike, pectinate 

.kJLc tamSit combing, carding (of wool) 

Jail* m&Mt barber, hairdresser 

ikiU mdiifa lady's maid; (woman) 
hairdresser 

Jaiuf mumaJSap combed, carded (wool) 

JJL. masaqa u {maSq) to draw out, stretch, 
extend (a s.th.); to comb (a s.th.); to 
tear, tear up, shred (a s.th.); to whip, 
lash (* s.o.) V to be or get torn or shredded 
VIII to snatch away, whip away (j* a 
s.th. from s.o.); to draw, unsheathe (a 
the sword) 

«_££* maJq pL JtJL.1 amsdq model, 
pattern (esp., one to be copied in writing) 

ji*. misq slender, slim, svelte 

«H« mUqa pi. JJL* mi§aq flock of wool 
or cotton; rag, clout, shred; scrap of 
carding wool; scrap of hemp, oakum 

JJL. nwMq slender, slim, svelte 

J Li* muSaq scrap of flax or hemp; 
oakum, tow 

i*Li* muSaqa scrap of flax or hemp; 
oakum, tow | jj*> SSli* floss 

JLil.1 imtiSaq slenderness 

3j^£ mamsuq slender, slim, svelte | JSj-i/ 
*LJ-lT (ka-l-husam) slender as a wand 

dLiU look up alphabetically 



j^Li* miSlattz sweet-kerneled apricot 

^i^i* mi$mi$ (coll.; n. un. *) apricot; apricot 
tree | dT& J*JL> (kitabi) bitter-kerneled 
apricot; ^jjt- or ^jj ^ (latizi, ha* 
mawi) sweet-kerneled apricot 

tf * > ■ ■*•■» mifaitii apricot -colored 

!>U-1* mu&muUa, mtimitta medlar (6o(.) 

<L-1* muSmula, mUhnila medlar (6o(.) 

A^Jtll al-maShad Meshed (city in NE Iran) 

(j-t» and ^i.) ^p** mo^a * (ma$y) to go on 
foot, walk; to go; to pace, stride; to 
move along, proceed ; to march | LJ b ^ 
to scatter slanderous rumors II to let or 
make (• s.o.) go or walk; to adapt, adjust, 
fit, accommodate (« a s.th. to) III to 
keep pace, keep in step (» with s.o.); to 
go alongside (a e.g., a river bank); to 
go along, keep up, keep abreast (a, » 
with s.o., with s.th.), keep to s.o.'s (•) 
side; to be likeminded ( j » with s.o. in 
s.th.), be guided by the same consider- 
ations or principles (j as s.o. in s.th.), 
act in unison ( j » with s.o. in s.th.) 
IV = II; to have an aperient effect (» 
on s.o. ; med.) V to go on foot, walk; to 
take a walk, to stroll, promenade; to 
walk slowly, saunter; to pace, move 
along, stride along; to keep step, keep 
up, keep abreast, go along, agree, 
harmonize, be compatible, be consistent, 
be in accordance, be in keeping («* with), 
fit, suit <£. s.th.), be appropriate, cor- 
respond, come up ( .* to s.th.) ; to proceed 
(J* in accordance with a principle or 
method); to follow, observe (Jp a 
principle) | <JU»jl j JU approx.: to 
perfuse s.o.'s limbs (of a sensation); JU 
**— *- J ijismiki) to course through s.o.'s 
body (blood); UUij ii*. JU {jai'atan 
wa-dahaban) to walk back and forth, pace 
up and down VI to conform, be in har- 



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1069 



mony (« with), be adapted, adapt o.s. 
{*., or j with ace, to s.th.) 

jJL. ma&w a laxative, aperient 

^Ju masy going, walking; walk 

iJL. misya manner of walking, gait, 
pace, step, bearing, carriage 

♦LL. masid* pi. -un good walker; walker 
{atklet.) 

4jLU maMdya pi. -a( long, narrow 
carpet, runner; O baby walker, gocart; 
hallway, corridor; footpath, path(way) 

^.i mamsd pi. ^Lr mam&Mn hallway, 
corridor, passageway, passage; aisle; 
footpath, path(way), alley; promenade; 
crossing, overpass, bridge; bridge of a 
ship; runner, small rug 

jl* l-t-c tamassiyan mcfa (or J*) in 
conformity with, in accordance with, ac- 
cording to 

^SL mdsin pi. SlSw musah going, walk- 
ing; pedestrian; foot soldier, infantry- 
man; SLili walkers, pedestrians; the 
infantry; Lit* mas' iy an on foot | ^Ui Jp 
( = Fr. en passant) in passing ; on the run ; 
without sitting down; by the way, inci- 
dentally 

*jiU masiya pi. ,J>\f* mawdsin live- 
stock, cattle 



jjt* II tamaswara (from jlj. 
run an errand; to walk 



miSwdr) to 



^ maspa (1st pers. perf. masistu) a and 
(1st pers. perf. masastu) u (mass) to suck, 
suck up, soak up, suck in, absorb (a 
s.th.); to sip, lap, lap up, lick up (a 
s.th.); to suck out (a s.th.) V to sip 
gradually, drink in small sips (a s.th.) 
V III to suck, suck up, suck in (a s.th.); 
to sip, lap, lap up, lick up (a s.th.); to 



soak up, absorb, swallow up (a s.th.); to 
drink down, empty (a a bottle) 

^ya* mass sucking, suction, suck, 
sucking up, soaking up, soak, soakage, 
absorption | u *l\ <^a$ qosab al-m. sugar 
cane 

3u^» massa (n. vie.) sucking, suck, suc- 
tion; sip 

^La. massds one who sucks, sucker; 
cupper; bloodsucker, extortioner, usurer 

4^La* musdsa that w^hich one sucks, 
s.th. to suck | v-~*aiJl i^Ux. m. al-qasab 
sugar-cane refuse 

^La. massdsa screech owl; vampire 

^^a. masls moist, damp (ground) 

u st z ,t* missis string, twine, packthread 

^aJ mimass suction pipe, sucker; 
O siphon 

u *Laz*\ imiisds sucking, suck, suction; 
sucking up, soaking up, soak, soakage, 
absorption | ^LauVl iy quwat al-imt. 
suction 

^j^ti mam-sus soaked up; drained, 
exhausted; emaciated, very lean, skinny 

^tci mumlass soaking up, absorbing; 
absorbent, absorptive 

a* II to found, build, settle, civilize, colo- 
nize {a a place); to Egyptianize, make 
Egyptian (a s.th.) V to become a pop- 
ulated, civilized area, become a big 
city, a metropolis; to Egyptianize, adopt 
Egyptian ways; to become an Egyptian 

j^a* misr pi. jUa^l amsdr big city; 
metropolis, capital; — misr 2 , (colloq.) 
masr Egypt; Cairo | Sy^Uil j^j> Cairo; ^ 
•ajjj. \ Heliopolis ; Ji-Jl j^a (mfld) Lower 
Egypt, UWI j^a {'ulyd) Upper Egypt; 
^j^JI y^st. *jjj^*- (jumhuriyat m.) Arab 
Republic of Egypt 



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1070 



^j^la misri Egyptian; Cairene; (pi. 
-uri) an Egyptian; a Cairene, a native of 
Cairo 

\j~** misriya Egyptianisrn, Egyptian 
national character; (pi. -at) Egyptian 
woman or girl 

C>U j~*V> al-mi$riydt Egyptology | »UU 
^l^Miii r ulamd' al-m. Egyptologists 

jwt* rnasir pi. lj*a*\ amsira, b\j~*z+ 
musrdn, ^jUa* masdrln 2 gut; pi. bowels, 
intestines, guts, tripe; see also under jw» 

juax" tamslr settling, settlement, col- 
onization, civilization; Egyptianization 

*«,-- mutamassir Egypt ianized, nat- 
uralized in Egypt 

»&!«*• mastakd\ mustaka and .JL**. masta* 
kd mastic, resin of the mastic tree (Pis- 
tacia lenticus) ; liquor distilled from mas- 
tic | *lSvk«ail ly? sajarat al-m. mastic tree 
(Pistacia lenticus; bot.) 

La* masala u to curdle (milk); to strain, 
filter (* s.th.) 

J^l* mad whey; (pi. J>-«* musul, 
jLtJ amsal) serum, vaccine (med.) \ 
pjJI J*a* m. ad-dam blood serum (med.); 
J^all le Him al-m. serology 

J^t* masZt serous {med.) 

^xt^A* masmasa to suck (* s.th.); to suck up, 
soak up, absorb (a s.th.); to sip and turn 
around in the mouth (a a liquid) II ta* 
masmapa to sip and turn around in the 
mouth (a a liquid) 

( _ r <L. rnadda u (madd, iJ ^ r ^ madid) to hurt, 
pain (* s.o.); to burn, sting (* s.o.); to 
torment, harass, trouble, molest (<--> » 
s.o. with); — (1st pers. perf. madUtu) 
a {,jaJl* itiadad, U J^^» madid, aJ>\Jl* 
maddda) to be in pain, feel pain, suffer; 



to be distressed, worried, troubled IV to 
cause pain (o to s.o.), hurt (* s.o.); to 
torment, torture, agonize (* s.o.) 

^^i. madd pain, torment, torture, 
anguish, agony; painful, burning, sting- 
ing, smarting 

^^i. madad pain, suffering, torment, 
torture, anguish, agony, affliction, dis- 
tress; sour milk | *~±a J* unwillingly, 
reluctantly, grudgingly 

^Uau muddd brackish water, brine, 
salt water 

<J>L** maddda agony, torture 

^t mumidd agonizing, tormenting 

jjut madara, madura u and madira a (madr, 
madar, jyJt* mudur) to turn sour (milk) 

j*k* madir and ^U madir sour (milk) 

jji* <*} lugat mudara the language of 
Mudar, the Arabic language 

kJL* madaga a u (madg) to chew (a s.th.} | 
p*^Ji U (kaldm) to slur, speak in- 
distinctly 

iuA> madg chewing, mastication 

4kJk* mudga pi. k^k» mudag s.th. to be 
chewed; bite, bit, morsel; small chunk 
of meat; O embryo; O chewing gum | 
y* 4jwa* (tayyiba) titbit; '*XJu <d*>- 
•U'Vi j (ja'alahu mudgatan) to make 
s.o. the talk of the town, send tongues 
wagging about s.o. 

vXji* mudaga s.th. chewed, chew, quid 
madmada to rinse 



t ^A» madd i (mudiy) to go away, leave, 
depart; to make off, decamp, abscond; 
with <_j: to take s.th. away, remove s.th.; 
to pass, elapse, go by, expire, run out 
(time); to advance, progress (j in); to 



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1071 



proceed (j in or with s.th., also ^), 
continue (j, also v s.th., to do s.th.), 
go on (J doing s.th.) ; to pursue, practice, 
exercise (j s.th., also <+» j /* mihnatin 
a profession); to penetrate deeper, enter 
deeper, go deeper (j into s.th.); to 
bring to an end, wind up, terminate, 
conclude, accomplish, cany out, execute, 
perform {J* s.th.); (with imperf.) to set 
out to do s.th., proceed to do s.th.; — 
(»LA* mada) to be sharp, cut (sword) | 
•iLw iS A* (sabilahu) to pass away, die; 
<dL*~J iS A* (U-sabilihl) do.; aLa- JU- <^. 
(li-hali 3.) see JU-; *jJl J*- ^^-i* (bai f ) 
to conclude a bargain; iili J& c-^. 
j^i ($uhurun) months have passed 
since then; ju^ J <^i. {kaldmihi) to go 
on talking; ^. L. t5 ^L. let bygones be 
bygones! no more of that! iS Jn {^ 
(fi-ma) or oLJ\ ,> ^ \S (zamdn) 
formerly, previously, heretofore, once, 
before, in the past; JU- JJi j& (J ^ix > jl 
Jam yamdi gairu qalilin hattd it did not 
take long until . . . , before long . . . ; 
c~Jl* 4l* j-o mm sanatin madat one 
year ago; cJU* (^«j and he went on to 






say, and he added; «uU 



t?*» 



Ul; 



UaS ( ^A* see qudum II to make pass, cause 
to go by; to spend, pass (a time, <j with 
s.th.) IV to spend, pass (a time); to 
carry out, execute, perform, accomplish, 
conclude, terminate, wind up, bring to 
an end (a s.th.); to pass, put behind o.s. 
(a examination); to undersign, sign (a 
s.th.) | J* »jm\ iS ^\ [amrahu) to throw 
one's full support behind s.th., endorse 
s.th. wholeheartedly 

^ mudly departure, leave; passing; 
lapse, elapsing, expiration (of a period 
of time); continuation (j of s.th.); 
deeper penetration, deeper insight (j 
into); carrying out, execution, pursuit 
(j of an intention, of a plan) 1 5 Jill d ^L. m. 
al-mvdda lapse of time, superannuation; 
•All ^Ju: tfiLifl (tamalluk) usucapion, pre- 



scription {jur.) ; y,J\ ^Jla Jp (m. iz-zaman) 
lastingly, for long, permanently; j ( jmI\ 
<-j^»I (harb) the continuation of the 



*L*a mada sharpness, keenness; pene- 
tration, sagacity, acute discernment; 
energy | ie^Jl »Uu strength of purpose, 
resolution, determination, energy, go 

^i*i amda sharper, more incisive, more 
effective 

I kx tamdiya execution, performance, 

accomplishment, completion; spending, 
passing (of time) | cJj\ «~<2X *. al-waqt 
pastime 

•Li*! imda 3 realization, execution, ac- 
complishment, completion; signing, sig- 
nature | *LL.V! ^-L* the undersigned 

^ui mddin pi. ^j* mawddin sharp, 
keen, cutting; acute, penetrating, in- 
cisive, effective; energetic; past, bygone; 
^LLl the past; past tense, perfect, 
preterit {gram.) j iej*H ^X* resolute, 
determined; ^ 111 _^JL)1 (sahr) last month 

L yk: mumdin signer, signatory 

^i murndan undersigned, signed 

Ja* matta u {matt) to expand by pulling, 
stretch, draw out (a s.th.); to draw 
tight, tighten, tauten (a s.th.) II to 
expand, stretch (a s.th.); to scold, revile, 
abuse (a s.o.) V to expand; to stretch; to 
distend, widen, spread, lengthen; to be 
capable of extension or lengthening, be 
expandable, stretchable, elastic; to be 
rubbcrlike 

Ja* matt expansion, extension, stretch- 
ing, distention, lengthening, drawing out 

JjUm mattdt expandable, extensible, 
stretchable, elastic; dilatory; rubbery, 
rubberlike; rubber; caoutchouc 



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1072 



J»lk* maMdti of rubber, rubber (in 
compounds) 

Jake" tamattut expandability, exten- 
sibility, elasticity 

^k* matara u to rain (^IjJl dj^ matarat 
is-samau it rained); to shower with 
rain {» s.o.; of the sky); to pour out (<-> « 
over s.o. s.th.), shower, douse (*-* * s.o. 
with); to do, render {» s.o., jlfi 6i- 
kairin a good turn, a favor); to run 
swiftly (horse), speed away IV to rain 
(of the sky); to cause (a s.th.) to rain 
(J*, upon); to shower (uj » s.o. with 
or a Jp upon s.o. s.th.), heap (<_> « 
or a J* upon s.o. s.th.) | <lJU Jx.1 
^ ^(.j (wdbilan) or j* JjIjj a^! (6i- 
wdbilin) he showered him with a hail of 
(e.g., stones), with a rain of (e.g., blows), 
with a flood of (e.g., abuses, threats), 
etc. X to ask for rain; to ask (j* or » 
s.o.) a favor; to wish (a for s.th.), desire 
(a s.th.); to invoke, call down (a J* 
upon s.o. s.th.) 

Joa matar pi. jlk.1 amtar rain | *ki 
jUa*V -X^ji mahatta li-rasd al-a. pluvio- 
metrical station 



Ijz* matra, matara pi. 
rain shower 



-at downpour, 



Jo* matir and j^> matir rainy, abound- 
ing in rain 

Jai mimtar and ljh.i mimtara pi. 
Ja\j mamdtir 2 raincoat 

J*Ia matir rainy, abounding in rain 

JaJ mumtir rainy, abounding in 
rain | lj*£ J\y> rainy seasons, periods of 
rain 

bJL* matrana to raise to the rank of metro- 
politan or archbishop, consecrate as 
metropolitan or archbishop (» s.o.) II ta* 



matrana to be instated or consecrated 
as metropolitan (Chr,) 

L>\Ja* mutrdn, matron, mitrdn pi. aJjIL 
matdrina, j> jlk. matdrin* metropolitan, 
archbishop (Chr.) 

H^k. matrana dignity or office of a 
metropolitan, metropolitanate, archiepis- 
copate (Chr.) 

<Jjsu matraniya, vlA* mutrdnxya 
pi. -at diocese of a metropolitan, arch- 
bishopric, archdiocese ; *J\J»* 8ea * and of- 
fice of a metropolitan or archbishop [Chr.) 

jk. V to smack one's lips 

Jk« matala u {mail) to draw out, leng hen, 
extend, stretch (a s.th.); to stretch 
(a a rope); to hammer, forge, shape by 
hammering (a iron); to postpone, defer, 
delay; to put off (^ » s.o. with) III to 
tarry, temporize, take one's time; to 
put off («_> * s.o. with) 



J^k. matiil deferring, delaying, 
crastinating, tardy, dilatory, slow 



pro- 



4JU4. matila pi. Jjlk* matd'il 2 wrought 
iron 

4&U mumdtala postponement, de- 
ferment, procrastination, delay 

(jk.) Ik. matd u (matw) to quicken one's 
pace, hurry, walk fast IV to mount (a 
an animal); to ride (a on an animal) 
V to stretch o.s., loll ; to stretch (<-> s.th., 
one's body, one's limbs) ; to walk proudly, 
strut, swagger VIII to mount (* an 
animal); to board (a a vehicle), get in 
(a), get aboard (a); to ride (a on an 
animal, in a vehicle) 

a^k. matwa hour, time, moment 

Ik* matiya pi. Llk. matdyd, J*» 
matly mount, riding animal; expedient, 
means to an end, instrument, tool 



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1073 






m ma' a (prep.) with; simultaneously with; 
together with, accompanied by, in the 
company of; in the estimation, eyes, or 
opinion of; in spite of, despite ; toward, in 
relation to ; — U* ma' an (adv.) together ; at 
the same time, simultaneously ; with one 
another | jl ^ although; jl V' — ui ^j 
wa-ma'a anna — ilia anna although — 
nevertheless . . . , to be sure — but — , it is 
true — but ...; «iiU « or \1» ** in spite 
of it, nevertheless, notwithstanding, still ; 
li» JT ** in spite of all that; Lip •o^ £. 
(kaunihl ganlyan) although he is rich, for 
all his being rich, rich as he is; ~ cr J 
<«j&-l (laisa) he is not for the govern- 
ment, he doesn't side with the govern- 
ment; JajU-1 ^* along the wall; *** of 
it was with him, he had it with him; 
Cm L. what do you have with you? 
what have you brought along? what's 
up your sleeve? t)1 j ^ C — II (a-lasta) 
don't you also think that . . . ? wouldn't 
you share my view that . . . ? JjL-j J-**^"' 
4*« Sj ^JtJ i ista'mala wascfila l-qaswati 
ma'ahu he brought harsh measures to 
bear on him; «-*j^' f,^' C $ ar b) at 
the outbreak of war; j>J)i\ £• (fajr) at 
dawn 

Z*a ma'iya company; escort; suite, 
retinue, entourage, attendants | oȣ 
u^Ai (Im J) in the company of so-and- 
80; Iaa 4-ax herein enclosed, herewith 

m V to wind, meander 

JU* pass, mu'ida to have a gastric ailment, 
suffer from dyspepsia, have a stomach- 
ache 

aJU« ma'ida, mi'da pi. .u. mi r ad stom- 
ach 



^.u, ma'idi, mi'dl of or pertaining to 
the stomach, gastric, stomachic | ^\j*\ 
4jJU» gastric diseases; ajJ*. ^y- (kumma) 



gastric fever (med.); 4jJU- a»-j3 (qarha) 
gastric ulcer (med.) 

j yjt mamud suffering from a gastric 
disease, dispeptic 

U.U. ma'dana to cover with metal (a s.th.) 

j^ ma'ira a (ma'ar) to fall out (hair) IV to 
become poor, impoverished, be reduced 
to poverty V = I 

j I*. ma rr ar (eg.) braggart, braggadocio, 
swaggerer 

S* ma'z, ma'az goat (as a genus); (coll. and 
pi.) goats 

jci, maiz pi. ^\j* mawa'iz 2 , >** ma'iz 
a goat; a billy goat; 3^U a she-goat 

jU. ma"dz goatherd 

^pjm ma'asa a (ma's) to rub (a s.th.); to 
squash, crush (a s.th.) 

^^U. mu'ida a (ma'd) and VIH to be annoyed 
(Jp by), be angry (,y at), resent (j- 
s.th.) 

^*Uul imti'dd anger, resentment, an- 
noyance, displeasure; excitement, agita- 
tion 

^JuCJ mumta'id annoyed, vexed, angry ; 
upset, excited 

ia*. ma'ata a (ma't) to tear out, pull out, 
pluck out (a hair, feathers) 

jajw nia' it and Ja**l am' at 2 , i. »Ua** 
mata 2 , pi. Jsuw mut hairless, bald 

til** ma' aha a (ma f k) to rub (a s.th.) 

AJj^fS^. ma'karuna macaroni 

i^ ma' ma' a pi. «U* wwi'fflmj' 2 confusion, 



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1074 



jumble, mess, tohubohu; tumult, uproar; 
turmoil; pi. wars, battles 

oU**. ma r ma f an raging, roar (of a 
storm), turmoil, thick (of a battle), 
height, climax {of heat and cold) | 
tJ^aJi OU.«a» m. as-saif high summer; 
*UJLli uU*jl. deepest winter 

z l yww ma e ma'i yes-man 

^ IV to apply o.s. assiduously, devote all 
one's efforts { j to s.th.) ; to be keen, in- 
tent (j on), be eager (j for); to exam- 
ine closely, study carefully, scrutinize 
{J s.th.); to go to extremes (j in s.th.), 
overdo, carry too far (j s.th.) | j**l 
^ Jk3\ (nazara) to fix one's eyes on 
s.th., regard s.th. attentively, examine 
s.th. closely, scrutinize s.th. V to become 
engrossed or absorbed, bury o.s. (j in), 
regard attentively, examine carefully 
(j s.th.), look closely (<j at s.o., at 
s.th.), scrutinize (j s.o., s.th.) 

OjcU maun pi. «> p !>* maw « f ^ 2 im- 
plement, utensil, instrument; vessel, re- 
ceptacle, container; (coll.) implements, 
utensils, gear; (syr.) ream of paper 

tijc-l* ma' una pi. -at, c"-^j* ma>wd r in 2 
{eg.) lighter, barge 

^f^f-L. md'ungi pi. -lya (eg.) boatman, 
bargeman 

jUJ im an and JkS\ cl*J i. an-nazar 
close examination, careful study, scrutiny 
(j of s.th.); jU*1 devotion {<j to s.th.), 
care, carefulness, assiduity, diligence, at- 
tentiveness, attention 

l yS tama rf un close examination, care- 
ful study, scrutiny; care, carefulness | 
j^^rj carefully 

(j*+) U. mcfa u (»U. mu*a) to mew, miaow 
(cat) 



l ^. mi' an, ma r y and »U. mi r a* pi. ,U 
am"d\ owl am'iya gut; intestines, bowels, 
entrails | J^jaJI ^i the small intestine; 
iaJUJI -*il the large intestine 

£y* mi" awl of or pertaining to the 
intestines, intestinal; enteric | ijjJJ J.I 
(hummd) typhoid fever, enteric fever, 
abdominal typhus 

2 L*l* ma r iya see *> 

>*. ma'yara (fromjL*. mi'ydr) to standardize 
(a s.th.) 

SjU. (Turk., < Fr.) magdza pi. -a* (ten.) shop, 
store | <»U SjU. ( f amma) department 
store 

iL^. mugdt (eg.) root of Glossostemon Bra- 
guieri (hot.) 

j±* magar and 3^. miigra reddish, russet color 
jk»\ amgar 2 reddish brown, russet 

^*jk* magraba to Moroccanize (a s.th.) 
<ijk* magraba Moroccanization 

i yikA magasa to cause gripes; pass, mugisa 
(mags) to have gripes or colic, suffer 
from colic 

(j.oi* wia^s, magas and ,j^uA* wagls 
gripes; colic | ^jjT ^^U. (fotfatf) renal 
colic 

^y^ mamgus suffering from colic; 
having gripes 

Jai* magata a (magt) to stretch, extend, 
expand, draw out II do. 



mutamaggit stretchable, elastic 
(rubber) ; tough, viscous, ropy, sticky 

^^Jai^ magtasa to magnetize, make magnetic, 
subject to magnetic induction (a s.th.) 



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1075 



■£• 



II tamagtasa to be magnetized, become 
magnetic 



, magtasa magnetism 
{J JnJj: mumagtas magnetized, magnetic 

ijJJ ^Jl>- kasab al-mugna, JJiil ^tJ- k* 
al-mugna mahogany (wood) 

jA>b** etc. see ^^a^* 

kJ» magnate to magnetize, subject to mag- 
netic induction (a s.th.) 

Ja^jf mumagnat magnetic, magnetized | 
UJJt Jaij£ magnetic tape 

l/ j i kJw and (j-JktlJw magnatis, migiiatls mag- 
net | O dkjlf ^-jJaJL. (kahrabal) elec- 
tromagnet 

j^jtkJw and ^jJ*Ijl» magnatial, mignatlsl 
magnetic; hypnotic 



• and 45-jJ»Ui« magmtisiya, mig* 
nafUiya magnetism 

-jlJw magnisiya magnesia 

J^ll al-magul, al-mugul the Mongols; the 
Moguls | Jjiil ^ Mongolia 

J^i* maJgully muguU Mongohan; Mogul 
(adj.) 

Cm maqata u (maqt) to detest, abhor, 
loathe, hate (» s.o., a s.th.); — rnaquta u 
(£Cu maqata) to be abominable, de- 
testable, loathsome, hated, odious II = 
maqata; to make (» s.o.) hateful (Jl to 
s.o.), make s.o. (Jl) loathe {» s.o.) 

C-2* magtf hate, hatred, detestation, 
loathing, aversion, disgust; hateful, odious 

cJu maqlt and o_jJLf mamqut hated, 
detested; hateful, odious; detestable, 
abominable, loathsome, repugnant, dis- 
gusting 



,,jJjXL* maqdunis parsley 

fJjXL* maqdunly maqdonl Macedonian (adj. 
and n.) 

LjjJLi. maqduniyd, maqdoniya Mace- 
donia 

juu maqa'a a (mcuf) to drink avidly, toss 
down (* s.th.) VIII pass, umtuqi'a to 
turn pale 

*jc£ mumtaqa* pale, pallid, wan, sallow 

Jl. maqala u {maql) to look (» at s.o.), eye, 
regard {* s.o.) 

4JL1* mvqla pi. JJL. muqal eye; eye- 
ball | <>*JI 4JU. m. al- r ain eyeball 

□ jpll, maqaniq (= JiUi) small mutton sau- 
sages («s ; yr.) 

iSC* makka 2 (usually followed by the epithet 
2U Sill al-mukarram&) Mecca 

Jli makki Meccan (adj. and n.) 

iJjSC makkuk pi. dl^SlS^ makdkik 2 
drinking cup; shuttle 

iij5"L mdkuk pi. li-LS^ maivdklk 2 
drinking cup; shuttle 

tiiC makata u (niakt, Cj^SC mukut) to 
remain, abide, stay, live, dwell, reside 
(uina place) 

JuSC maAtf and dj^SC mukut remaining, 
staying, lingering, abiding; stay, sojourn 

ijrjSi* see j_>T 

*JlSC* makdama to macadamize, pave (* street) 
(•IjiSC (Fr.) makaddm macadam 

Jj-6C malduni Macedonian (adj. and n.) 
LJjASC makduniyd Macedonia 



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1076 



^SC makara u {makr) to deceive, delude, 
cheat, dupe, gull, double-cross (<_> s.o.) 
Ill to try to deceive (e s.o.) 

j$L> makr cunning, craftiness, slyness, 
wiliness, double-dealing, deception, trick- 
ery 

IjSi* makra ruse, artifice, stratagem, 
wile, trick, dodge 

jlS^. makkdr and jj5v» ruakur cunning, 
sly, crafty, wily, shrewd, artful; sly, 
crafty person, impostor, swindler 

^5""L makir pi. 1J$L* makara sly, cunning, 
wily 

<->jj£« mikrob pi. -«£, ^jlfC makarib 2 microbe 

*jjj$i* makaruna macaroni 

ijSu* makasa i {males) and II to collect taxes 
III to haggle, bargain (* with s.o.) 

^S^ maks pi. <_*-_>£• mukus tax, specif., 
excise or sales tax; toll, custom, duty, 
impost; market dues | ^j^ jta custom- 
house 

^ ISL. makkas tax collector 

cfJL— SZli al-makslk Mexico 

JL«S1* maksiki Mexican (adj.); {pi. 
•uri) a Mexican 

jSL^SJ miksiko Mexico City 

•j^SLU al-mukaUd Mukalla {seaport in Southern 
Yemen) 

\j£« makuna u (ijlx. makana) to be or 
become strong; to become influential, 
gain influence, have influence (jl* with 
s.o.), have power II to make strong or 
firm, consolidate, strengthen, cement, 
establish firmly, deepen (* s.th.); to 
lend weight (a to s.th.); to put down or 
set down firmly (a s.th.), give (a s.th.) 



a firm stance; to put {© s.o.) in a position 
(,y to do s.th.), give {« s.o.) the possibility 
(^ to do s.th.), enable (j- » s.o. to do 
s.th.), make possible (j* « for s.o. s.th.); 
to place (^ s.th.) in s.o. 1 s («) hands; to 
furnish, provide (<>. o s.o. with); to 
give or lend a firm position {J to s.o., 
to s.th.); to give power ( j J to s.o. 
over) IV to enable (^ o s.o. to do s.th.); 
to be possible, feasible (* for s.o.) | <c&e 
yumkinuhu he can (ul do s.th.); jl ^£c 
it is possible that . . . ; it may be that . . . , 
possibly . . ., perhaps . . . , maybe . . .; jS"\ 
^j: U (aktara) as much as possible; ^ 
^SCc it is impossible V to have or gain 
influence, weight, or prestige (Xs. with 
s.o.), have or gain power; to be native, 
indigenous, resident; to gain ground; to 
spread; to be consolidated, firmly estab- 
lished; to consolidate, strengthen, gain 
in strength; to seize {j* on s.th.), possess 
o.s., take possession (j* of s.th.); to 
have command or mastery {^ of s.th.), 
command, master {,y s.th.); to be in a 
position, be able (^ to do s.th.), be 
capable (^ of), have the power (j* to 
do s.th.) X to consolidate, strengthen, 
deepen, become firmly established, estab- 
lish itself; to seize (,y on s.th.), possess 
o.s., take possession (j* of); to have 
command or mastery (,y of s.th.), 
command, master (j- s.th.); to be able 
(jj. to do s.th.), be capable {^ of) 

i^C mukna, makina power, ability, 
capacity, capability, faculty; possibility; 
strength, firmness, solidity, intensity, 
force, vigor 

o&a pl. cO, j5"Ul and «jl£. see dj" 

^vSC* makin pl. *U£L. mukand' 2 strong, 
firm, solid; firmly established, unshak- 
able; deep-seated, deep-rooted, deeply 
ingrained, inveterate (feeling) ; influential, 
distinguished, of note, of rank, respected; 
powerful, potent 



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1077 



J- 



jSCl amkan 2 see j£-z* 

,>SCc" tamkin strengthening, consolida- 
tion, cementation; deepening, intensi- 
fication; fixation, establishment; en- 
abling, enablement, capacitation; livery 
of seizin, investiture {I si. Law) 

olSd imkdn pi. -at possibility; ability, 
power | j \SL VI jJuu bi-qadri 14. or jtf Jp 
ol£.Vl as much as possible, as far as pos- 
sible; olSCVI {** 'adam al-i. impossibil- 
ity; Ot£.Vl &* when (if) possible, pos- 
sibly; 6 1 *Jl£»t j it is in his power, he is 
in a position to . . .; olS^^I j j* it is in 
the realm of possibility; OlSC*Vi j ^ it 
is impossible, unthinkable, inconceivable 

ijlSsJ imkdniya pi. -at possibility; 
O potential (phys.) 

j^x" tamakkun power, authority, con- 
trol, mastery, command; ability, capa- 
bility, faculty; restraint, self-control, self- 
possession (also ^jJcS^ j-. J&) 

^U mdkin strong, firm, solid, lasting, 
enduring 

JsU mumkin possible; thinkable, con- 
ceivable | j& jf impossible; o\ jCii j* 
possibly, perhaps, maybe 

<l>b$J! mumkindt possibilities 

^SC^u mutamakkin an adept, a profi- 
cient, a master; strengthened, cemented; 
firmly established, firmly fixed; consoli- 
dated; deep-rooted, deep-seated, deeply in- 
grained, inveterate; lasting, enduring; de- 
clinable {gram.) [ j£J O^* 1 * (amkan 2 ) de- 
clinable with nunnation, triptote {gram.); 
$L>\ j&. l ^S^» (gairu amkana) declinable 
in two cases, diptote (gram.); j£*^» j£ 
indeclinable (gram.); 4i*-U- j ^*^* (jalsa* 
tihi) firmly seated ; 4ii j* j£*~* (fannihl) 
& master in his field or art 

r <&» makina and iuTU mdkina pi. -o< and 
jjK* makd'in 2 machine 



^SC ma&ani mechanical 

^•^SC nwjfcrwwiato mechanize, motorize (a s.th., 
esp. an army) 

<j5L. wwftnona mechanization; motor- 
ization 

atrj^* see ^J 5 " 

^LSv. (Fr. maquillage) makya%, mikgaj face 
painting, make-up 

^ maJZa (1st pers. perf. maliltu) a (JL. 
malal, J ^>U maZdJ, U ^L maUla) to be or 
become weary, tired, bored, impatient; 
to tire, become tired (* of s.th.), become 
fed-up (a with) | Jx V indefatigable, 
untiring, unflagging IV to be tiresome, 
irksome, wearisome, boring, tedious, 
vexatious; to vex, annoy, irritate ( Jp or * 
s.o.); ( = JJ) to dictate (J* * s.th. to 
s.o.) V to be wearied, fed-up; to be 
bored; to be restless, fidgety; to embrace 
a religion («i. millatan) VIII to embrace 
a religion (JL millatan) 

J* mall weary, tired, fed-up; bored 

aL malla hot ashes, live embers 

HL miUa pi. JJL. milal religious com- 
munity ; religion, creed, faith, confession, 
denomination 

J* milll religious, confessional, de- 
nominational | J* ^Jbf (majlis) court of 
justice of a religious minority (in Egypt 
abolished since 1956) 

U. mulla pi. JL mvlal basting stitch, 
tacking stitch; spring mattress 

JU malal and J "A. maZdZ tiredness, 
boredom, ennui; listlessness, weariness; 
annoyance, irritation, vexation 

J">U muldl morbid unrest, 
fidgetiness, feverishness 



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*}'$* malala weariness, boredom; im- 
patience; ennui, tedium 

JLji. malul tired, wearied, bored; weary , 
fed-up, disgusted 

J* mulla bread baked in hot ashes 

JjJLe mamlul offensive, disgusting 

Ji mumill tiresome, tedious, boring, 
wearisome, irksome, loathsome, dis- 



2 J* mill pi. -at (formerly) the smallest 
monetary unit in Palestine and Jordan, 
V1000 of a Palestinian pound 

t>U mala* a a (*J* mal\ S^U maVa, miVa) 
to fill, fill up (u or ^ or * a s.th. with) ; 
to fill out {a a form, a blank); to take 
up, fill, occupy (a space); to fill (a a 
vacancy) | y>-di :A* (dahra) his (its) fame 
spread far and wide; kUI hU {saata) 
to wind up a watch or clock; <u5jU t>U 
*IW-! {sidqaihi bi-l-hawd 3 ) to puff one's 
cheeks; ,>*)! hk* i^aina) to satisfy 
completely, please; <j:^SCiJl> *\JJ&\ ^L. 
{fadaa bi~s~sahva) to fill the air with 
complaints, voice loud laments; u»li^w 
(fdhu) to talk big about . . . , shoot off 
one's mouth about ...; — [j* malt a 
to be or become filled, filled up, full, 
replete III to help, assist, support, back 
up (Jt * s.o. in), side (e with s.o.); to 
make common cause, join forces (J* * 
with s.o. against) IV to fill (a s.th., also 
a vacancy) V to fill, become full; to be 
filled (a or <y with), be full (a or <> of) 
VIII to fill, become full; to be filled 
(glass; pass.); to be filled (a, j* or v 
with s.th., a also with a feeling), be full 
(a, ^ or ^. of, a also of a feeling); to fill 
(a s.th.); to fill up (a s.th.); to imbue, 
fill (» s.o., a with a feeling) 

»J* maV filling (also, e.g., of vacancies); 
filling out 



*J* mil 3 pi. »"^Ll amffi filling, quantity 
which fills s.th., fill; quantity contained 
in s.th. I »L j*£jl <uUl »J* m. ihdbihl l-kib* 
riyau he is all pride and arrogance; »J. 
<daj m. batnihl as much as one can 
eat, one's fill; ^ii »J* m. qadahin a 
cupful; jJ\ #J* m. al-yad a handful; 
4jL5" >J* m. H&a'ihi corpulent fat; *Jx 
^«II bi-m, il-fam in a loud voice; *Jjc 
<u» bi-miVi flhi with a ring of deep 
conviction (with verbs like "say", 
"declare", "exclaim", etc.); loudly, at 
the top of one's voice or one's lungs 
(with verbs like "shout", "cry", etc.); 
aJjJ> (,J^ or) #Jj iU*» dahika bi-miVi 
(or miVa) Udqathi to grin from ear to 
ear; iai-ijl *jl. Cjj^oj JU (bi-sautin 
miVuhu §-§afaqatu) he said in a voice 
full of mercy ...; j hji-\ »J* J (m. 
al-hurrlya) I have complete freedom 
to ... , I am completely at liberty to ... ; 
j»jj-l aji* \JSja tJaSj (mauqifan miVuhu 
l-hazm) he assumed a posture that was 
all determination; JL>- »J* cJl (haydtl) 
you are all my life; V-**" *S* C^i ( m ^' a 
jafnaihi) he is sound asleep, he sleeps the 
sleep of the just; »jJL* »J* »il> idhika 
miVa Qadrihl to laugh wholeheartedly 

"^l» mala? pi. oU amZo" crowd, gather- 
ing, assembly, congregation; audience; 
(general) public; council of elders, no- 
tables, grandees | *Ai! Jp publicly, in 
public; jlLJI ti. J* (to. il-'dlam) for 
everyone to see, before all the world; 
J* VI SW (a'Za) the heavenly host, the 
angels 

a.^U muld'a, D ^ mildya pi. -of 
wrap worn by Egyptian women; sheet, 
bed sheet 

♦J., ^ fflolT full (^ of), filled, 
replete (^ with); bulging, swelling (lj 
with); plump; stout, fat, corpulent, 
obese; rich, abounding (<->"i); well-to-do, 



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wealthy; solvent | UJLJl »J* m. al-badan 
stout, fat, corpulent 

0*SU mal f an, f. ^^L ?nard" or diS-. pi. 
*^U mi/a 5 full, filled, replete; plump, fat 

S^Lf mumaUCa partiality, bias; col- 
laboration [pol.) 

,:>U imla filling (also, e.g., of a va- 
cancy) 

,*>b.l imtild' repletion, fullness; full, 
round form, plumpness; bulkiness; fat- 
ness, stoutness, corpulence 

•jLr mamlu filled, filled up; imbued; 
loaded 

*JLi mumalv partial, biased, prej- 
udiced; collaborator (pol.) 

'Jit mumtali full, filled, filled up, 
replete | ~J-I *Jxi m. al-jism stout, fat, 
corpulent 

Ijj^L. malariya malaria 

■$/^L malam Malawi (country in E Africa) 

£% maldyu, ji^l\ jj^ juzur al-m. the 
Malayan Archipelago 

*L malaja u (malj) to suck (a the mother's 
breast) VIII to suck 

Uj, malaj pi, £-1^ mawdlij 2 trowel 

jJL. malaha u a and maluha u {^jL muluh. 
a>-^L muluha, a*-^U malaha) to be or 
become salt(y); — maluha u (h-*>h> 
malaha, l?~jL muluha) to be beautiful, 
handsome, pretty, comely, nice, elegant 
II to salt, season with salt (a s.th.); to 
salt away, salt down, preserve with salt, 
corn, cure (a s.th.) IV to be salt(y) 
X to find (a s.th.) beautiful, pretty, nice, 
or witty 

^U milh (also f.) pi. £iW amldh, 



£-:>U milah salt; gunpowder; witticism, 
wittiness, wit, esprit | jj*I&l ^* bitter 
salt, Epsom salt; jjjUl ^JU m. al-bdrud 
saltpeter; gunpowder; ^js* ^* (sakrl) 
rock salt; *UU1 ~L m. at-ta'dm table 
salt; jiUUJl JU w. an-nusadir sal am- 
moniac, ammonium chloride; ^o-u* £^*' 
ma'diniya) mineral salts 

*JL mtIA salty, saline 

jJL. ftuZAt salt, salty, saline 

4#JL* ?/ii/Aa bond, obligation, commit- 
ment, covenant 

^JL. mulha pi. ^U mttfctA funny story, 
anecdote, bon mot, witticism 

r ^U malldh pi. -£« sailor, seaman, 
mariner; navigator; — (mor.) ghetto of 
Moroccan cities | Sj-'UJl t-^U pilot; £% 
r l_>jl l m. al-fada astronaut 

^^U malaha beauty, grace, graceful- 
ness; elegance; kindness, kindliness, 
friendliness, amiability; saltiness, salt 
taste, saltness, sahnity 

^•>L malldha pi. -a£ salina, saline 
spring; saltern, saltworks, salt mine; 
saltcellar 

^^U milaha navigation, shipping | 
Zj{£- h-^s (tijdriya) mercantile ship- 
ping, maritime transportation; l*-^ 
Sjjs*- (ya«?u;*ya) aviation; iJ^-ia a*-^ 
{ddkiliya) inland navigation; yU*i 4*-*}U 
(fadalya) space travel, astronautics; 
ij^ 5»~^U (nahrlya) river traffic; ^^ 
o-^UB navigable 

j- ^U miZafa navig; L ional, shipping, 
marine, maritime; nautical 

^-jJL. muluha saltiness, salt taste 

pJL* malih pi. ^-*>U milah, £%\ amldh 
salt, salty, briny, salted; pretty, hand- 
some, comely; beautiful; nice, pleasant, 



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1080 



agreeable; witty | (eg,) ^JL UU ( e alqa) 
a sound beating 

JL.1 amlah 2 , f. »UJL. malha* 2 saline, of 
high salt content 

*»-jJul umluha pi. *JU1 amalth 2 joke, 
anecdote 

SaJLr mamlaha pi. lie mamalih 2 salina; 
saltern, saltworks; saline spring; saltcellar 

«Jjc" tamlih salting, salting down, pre- 
servation in salt, corning, curing 

1L mdlih salt, salty, briny 

fj\j* mawdlih 2 (pi. of U-L malt'Aa), 
citrus fruits; (syr.) salted nuts, peanuts, 
almonds, etc. 

£jLt mamluh salted, salty 

•Jli mumallah salted; salted down, 
corned, cured 

~JLi*w. mustamlah brilliant, witty, 
bright, clever, interesting 

1 *JL. malaka a (malk) to pull out, tear out 
(a s.th.); to wrench, dislocate, luxate 
(a a joint, a limb) VII pass, of malaka 
VIII to pull out, extract (a s.th.) 

**JU malih tasteless, insipid 

2 V~jl» mulukiya Jew's mallow (Corchorus 
olitorius; 6o(.) cultivated as a pot herb; 
a thick dark -green sauce made of this 
herb, served with meat and other dishes 

{eg-) 

JUL* malida a (malad) to be tender (esp., 
twig) 

jlJUI amdlid 2 tender twigs 

jJU amlad 2 , f. »1jlL malda 2 tender, 
flexible 

ji. (Fr. meleze) malaz larch (hot.) 



S* malisa a and malusa u (L>% malm, 
<*-ji. mulusa) to be smooth, level, even 
II to make smooth, to smooth, level, 
even (a s.th.); to make slippery {* s.th,); 
to pass the hand, brush (with the hand) 
(J* over), stroke, caress ( J* s.th.) V to 
become smooth; to glide, slide, slip; to 
grope; to slip away, escape VII (also ^i.1 
immalasa) to become smooth; to glide, 
slide, slip; to slip away; to escape 

( _ r JL malas (eg.) a thin outer garment; 
silk fabric for women's dresses 

(jJL. malts smooth, sleek 

S-^U maldsa smoothness 

^JLI amlas 2 , f. »UL. maUa' 2 , pi. ^JL 
muls smooth, sleek 

tjai* malisa a (malas) to glide, slide, slip; 
to slip away, escape; to disengage o.s., 
free o.s., (^, ^ from an obligation), rid 
o.s. (j*, jp of) V to rid o.s. (^ of), shirk, 
dodge, evade (,y s.th.) 

^j^L malis smooth, sleek, slippery 

jaL malls smooth, sleek, slippery; 
miscarried fetus, stillborn child 

{ ja\s tamallus slipping away, escaping, 
escape 

1 iaL malata u (malt) to plaster with mud 
or mortar (a a wall) ; to shave off (a hair) 
II to mortar, plaster (a a wall) 

UL malt (eg.) stark naked | JaL uI^p 
( r urydn) stark naked 

JaJL. milt pi. J*tA*l amlat, Js.^L mulut 
dishonorable, discreditable; scoundrel | 
JaL UU kilt milt or kalt malt pell-mell, 
in confusion 

_L> *>U mi?a( pi. JaJL mulut mortar 

.LJL. malit and JaLI amlat 2 pi. JaJL mufe 
hairless 



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^LL 



2 ^JU malta Malta 

jaJL, maltl Maltese (adj. and n.) 

^UJL malgdS Madagascar 

^Ui. malgaM Madagascan (adj. and n.) 

\$L maliqa a (malaq) to flatter (» s.o.) II = I; 
to even, level, plane (a s.th.) HI = I 
IV to become poor, impoverished, be re- 
duced to poverty V to flatter (Jl, 6 or « 
s.o.) 

jJU maliq and 3^ malltiq flatterer, 
adulator 

iiL malaqa pi. -atf, J^Ul amZag (e^.) 
Egyptian mile, league, the distance of 
approximately one hour's walk 

Si!/ mimlaqa planer, leveler ; roller 

jJLc" tamllq and jLc" tamalluq flattery, 
adulation 

jLx. mtUamalliq pi. -#«■ flatterer 
'*iJU look up alphabetically 



ill. mcdaka i (malk, mulk, milk) to take in 
possession, take over, acquire (a s.th.), 
seize, lay hands (a on), possess o.s., take 
possession, lay hold (a of); to possess, 
own, have (a s.th.), be the owner (a of); 
(esp. saiidi-ar.) to marry (l*- a woman); 
to dominate, control (a s.th,); to be 
master (a of); to rule, reign, exercise 
power or authority, hold sway, lord it 
(J* or a over); to be capable (a of), be 
equal (a to) ; to be able, be in a position 
(jl or a to do s.th.) | JiJdl *SCJu {gaiz) 
anger overwhelmed him, got the better 
of him; o^LL. *yt~ 4-U diU {janvCa 
ma$a f irihi) to dominate s.o.'s every 
thought and deed, be uppermost in s.o.'s 
mind; «u-*- 4JU dlL (hissahu) to take 
possession of s.o.'s feelings; <*Jp dlL. 
<S {lubbahu) to preoccupy s.o.'s heart; 



4^L! aA* dlL. (nafsahii) to lay hold of 
s.o.'s soul, dominate s.o.'s thinking, affect 
s.o. deeply, stir up, arouse, excite s.o.; 
^AjJ *^Ic viit* {amrahum) he won power 
over them, gained control over their feel- 
ings; La^.1 <-ju J* dAL {amrahd) to have 
o.s. under control, keep one's temper; dlL 
•BvJi ^ <>^' ^ainain, buka') to hold 
back the tears; *~Ju dlL. {nafsahii) to 
control o.s., restrain o.s.; oi diLc. jl he 
could not refrain from . . . , he couldn't 
help it, he had to . . .; «c^ (dllc*) c&* U 
{yamlnuhu) his fortune, his property, 
his possessions, what he owns, cSd* U 
*Iju [yaddhu) do. II and IV to make 
(♦ s.o.) the owner; to put (0 s.o.) in pos- 
session (a of), transfer (e to s.o.) owner- 
ship (a of); to transfer, assign, make over, 
convey (a » to s.o. s.th.); to make (» s.o.) 
king or sovereign { Jp over) IV to marry 
(U a a man to a woman; saudi-ar. also 
LfJU * and l^ic a)) V to take in pos- 
session, take over, appropriate, ac- 
quire (a s.th.), take possession (a of 
s.th., * of s.o.), seize, lay hands (a on 
s.th.), lay hold (a of s.th.); to possess, 
own, have (a s.th.), be in possession (a 
of); to become king or sovereign (Jp 
over); to become prevalent, become 
fixed, take root (habit) VI to gain 
control (a over a feeling, 4~Ju nafsahii 
over o.s.); to control o.s., restrain o.s., 
hold back; to refrain, keep (j* from 
s.th.) I jp dlilc" U he couldn't help 
(doing s.th.), he couldn't refrain from ... 
VIII to possess, own, have (a s.th.); to 
gain, win (a s.th.); to acquire (a s.th.) | 
*er^ is^^y ^^ (nawasiya s-Sai') to 
be master of s.th., rule over s.th. X to 
appropriate (a s.th.), take possession 
(* of); to dominate, control (a s.th.); 
to possess, own, have (a s.th.); to master 
(a s.th.) 

dlL mulk rule, reign, supreme authori- 
ty, dominion, domination, dominance, 



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sway, power; sovereignty, kingship, roy- 
alty; monarchy; tenure, holding, right of 
possession, possessory right, ownership 

JiL milk pi. i]^\ amldk property, pos- 
sessions, goods and chattels, fortune, 
wealth; estate; landed property, real 
estate; pi. possessions ( = colonies); 
lands, landed property, estates | £j^Ll 
4is*\ {amiriya) or S^SCi-l il^.1 gov- 
ernment lands; cUjlt vilL landed prop- 
erty, real property, real estate, realty, 
immovables; J^l. ^i. personal estate, 
personal property, personalty, movables; 
^V 4">U {mabmya) developed lots, 
real estate developments; £J:>LV1 ^>-L,, 
ii^-Vl ji landowner; ^i diL (amirl) 
government property; jlk. diL. (mutlaq) 
general property, fee simple (absolute) 
{Isl. Law); ^JU jJL joint property, 
joint tenancy, co-ownership; ajJu *ilL m. 
yadaihi subject to s.o.'s power or at s.o.'s 
disposal, personal property of s.o. 

*fl* malik pi. i]jL muluk, 4^.1 amldk 
king, sovereign, monarch 

<&• mai^ct pi. -af queen | jy.1 ^U 
m. al-jamdl beauty queen 

4L malak (for £itA-) angel | ^jU dL 
guardian angel 

J1U wmtel possessory, possessive, pro- 
prietary; civilian, civil {as opposed to 
military) | ^SX ^^ (WZa) civilian 
clothes; t JL <J^. (muwazzaf) civil serv- 
ant 

JlL. malakl royal, kingly, regal; mo- 
narchic, sovereign; monarchist; angelic 

<Sl» malaklya monarchy, kingship, 
royalty 

ZSl* milkiya pi. -at property; owner- 
ship {jur.) ; landed property, real estate, 
farm property | 5^1 m A Si. (adabiya) 
literary copyright; ^U ;L£L (kd$sa) 
private property; i.U yQ, famma) | 



people's property, state ownership; yCiil 
tSj&\ {kubrd) large landed property; 
i£W £> naz' a?-m. expropriation, dis- 
possession 

aSCU maZafca pi. -arf trait of character, 
natural disposition, aptitude, bent; gift, 
faculty, talent, knack 

CjjS^L malakut realm, kingdom, em- 
pire; kingship, royalty, sovereignty | 
olj^l CjjS^L m. as-samdwdt the King- 
dom of Heaven (Chr.) 

tJj^L malakutl divine, heavenly 

iS^L malak, mildk pi. -at foundation, 
basis, fundament, essential prerequisite 

*J^ mildk (tun.) betrothal, engage- 
ment; engagement present (of the fiance - 
to the prospective bride) 

SjL muluki royal, kingly, regal; mo- 
narchic; monarchist 

<SjL* mulukiya monarchic rule, mon- 
archist^ kingship, royalty; monarchist 
leaning 

ii^U malldk pi. -un owner, proprietor; 
landowner, landholder, landed proprietor | 

o-f^i\ jLS~ kibdr al-m. large landowners 

JSU malldki private 

iLU malik pi. ,&CL mulakd* 2 king; 
possessor, owner, proprietor 

iSCJL. malika queen 

*5Ci* mamlaka pi. ^\j mamdlik 2 
kingdom; empire, state, country; royal 
power, sovereignty | SJU^dl ^CUI {mutta* 
hida) the United Kingdom 

iLLc" tamlik transfer of ownership, 
conveyance of property, alienation 

dJU" tamalluk taking possession, oc- 
cupancy, seizure; possession; right of 
possession, possessory right, tenure, hold- 



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ing; domination, control, mastery | ilU 
Oj«Ji home acquisitions, home ownership 

dUlc" tamdluk self-control 

ii^l imtildk taking possession, oc- 
cupancy, seizure; possession; right of 
possession, possessory right, tenure, hold- 
ing; domination, control, mastery | £i*&ul 
^Jl imt. an-nafs self-control 

£j^Ux-i istimldk pi. -at acquisition; 
appropriation, taking possession, occu- 
pancy, seizure 

dJlL malik reigning, ruling; owning, 
possessing, holding; (pi. -un, lS*A» mulldk) 
owner, proprietor, master, possessor, 
holder | j,ji-\ dHU heron {zool); JS fJ^U 
{kibdr) and £bUI jLf large landowners 

J3L. malikl Malikite, belonging to 
the Malikite school of Islamic Law; a 
Malikite 

y^JUl al-mdliklya the MaliMte school 
of Islamic Law 

i]jU mamluk owned (J by), in pos- 
session (J of), belonging (J to); (pi. dJLH* 
mamalik 2 ) white slave, mameluke ; Mame- 
luke | iljlt jf incapable of individual 
possession, (res) extra commercium (Isl. 
Law) 

J"Ju mamluB Mameluke (adj.) 

till* mumallik assignor, transferor, 
conveyer, alienator 

dJki mumtalak owned, in possession; 
pi. ol&Lc mumtalakdt property; es- 
tates, landed property; possessions, de- 
pendencies, colonies | ^! ol£i^f (amirl* 

ya) government property; 4 , Ut U olSvJbuil 

(muataqilh) the Dominions 

jJ* abbreviation of jwi* millimeter, mm. 

J*L rmlmala to hurry, hasten; to make 
restless, make fidgety (* s.o.) II tamalmala 



to murmur; to mumble; to grumble, 
grouch, be disgruntled; to toss and turn 
(in bed); to fidget, twist back and forth; 
to wriggle ; to be restless, fidgety, nervous ; 
to twitch nervously; to wave to and fro, 
waver 

iLi. malmala unrest, restlessness, fidget- 
iness, nervousness 

JJLx tarmlmul murmuring; grumbling, 
grouching; restlessness, fidgetiness, ner- 
vousness; fidgeting; wriggling 

IJ^dL rnakmkdliya, malinJcdliyd melancholia 

X (J*) ">L mala u (malw) to walk briskly, 
run II to make (* s.o.) enjoy (a s.th.) for 
a long time (said of God) IV to dictate 
(a Jp to s.o. s.th.); to impose (a Jp on 
s.o. s.th.) V to enjoy (j*, v» * s.th.); 
to follow (a a trend, method), pursue, 
pay close attention to (a an event, pro- 
cess) X to take from dictation (a s.th., 
a a from s.o. s.th.); to have imposed on 
oneself (a s.th.) 

•^U malan pi. *'%\ amla open country, 
open tract of land; steppe, desert 

oUli! al-malawan day and night 

«jL malwa malouah, a dry measure 
(Eg. = 2 ^Xi = 4.125 1) 

J* mally (relatively long) period of 
time; UL mally an for quite a while, for 
a long time 

O »^ mimlah dictating machine 

»^Ul %mlc? dictation; O transmission 
(of a telephone message) ; correct spelling, 
orthography 

*□ oSL» milaya pi. -at (eg.; < »^ muld'a) 
sheet, bed sheet; (= «JJ iS* milaya U§) 
wrap of traditional Eg. women covering 
the whole body from head to foot, con- 



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1084 



cealing the hair, held together by hand 
in front 

4JL* mallya pi. LtA« maldyd {tun.) gar- 
ment of Bedouin women 

jLU (Fr.) mt'Zyar pi. -at (U.S.) billion, (G.B.) 
milliard 

Aj*>4-* (Eg. spelling) milligram and pl>JU 
pi. -of milligram 

JL (Fr. millieme) mattim, malim pi. -a£, 
J*>U malalim 2 the smallest monetary 
unit in Egypt ( = V1000 pound); see also 
under pJ 

Jv*JL» millimitr pi. -a£ millimeter 

Oy-L* milyon pi. -aJ, t>j^U maldyin 2 million | 
4>j*>UlI ^U^l millionaires 

i^jU_jJU milyonari millionaire 

^^JU milyoner millionaire 

*** abbreviation of ,/uJU millimeter, mm. 

*** mifflffla see p ma 

U mimmd < raw 7na; which, a fact which 
(referring to a preceding sentence) 

,y mimman < min man 

1 < y man 1. (interr. pron.) who? which one? 
which ones? 2. (relative pron.) who; the 
one who; those who; one who; whoever, 
whosoever, everyone who, he who 

2 i y min (prep.) 1. of; some, some of, (a) 
part of; belonging to, pertaining to, from 
among | ,y off to belong or pertain to, 
be among ..., fall under...; j! dili J- 
(anna) among other things ...; j- ^jl» 
(man) some of them; ^ ~£Uj — j* ^ 
some of them — others . . . , there are 



(were) those who — and others who...; 
lMJ 6* Jtj (rajvX) a man of the 
Koreish tribe; AS^\ j* *jj (ycwm, 
ayydm) some day, some day or other; 
Jj*^ i> ./•' («mr) s.th. or other, some 
affair, some business; fLUI ^ Jfl 
(ta f am) he ate (a little, some) of the food; 
^SOl j* <t^jlj U ma raaituhu min al- 
kutub (what I have seen of the books-) 
the books I have seen; ^sf j* olj L 
(what I have seen of books =) what(ever) 
books I have seen; J-L^-i ^ <oi U God 
has no partner whatsoever; jAJL ju-1 ^ I 
(aAadm yaqdiru) nobody can . . . ; ^ L. 
^^ (saksin) there is absolutely none 
who . . . 

consisting of, made of, of (material) | 
7j3- ^ <->jj (taub) a garment of silk, a 
silk dress 

at, on (time) [ JJJl ,y (lail) at night; 
aaji j-. (yaumihi) on the very same day ; j* 
«ecL* at that moment, at once, right away 

at, on, by (place) | <u£l* ^ «^» (AagzaAu, 
mankibihl) he shook him by the shoulder 

like, as, such as, as for instance; 
namely, to wit | SjJUJIj LJI ^y 4-Jjl c*UL? 
oljVlj (sifat azaliya, r ilm, qudra, irdda) 
eternal attributes such as knowledge, 
power, volition; -tfl^i-l *xJU U ^ Ijl 
ol j-* (sahha) if what the newspapers 
say is true, namely that . . . 

in an exclamation: '£LJ ^ l$J_jk L ya 
fulahd min lailatin oh, the length of the 
night! what a long night it is! «ui>-l L 
Jj- j* ma akaffahu min himlin how 
light a burden it is! J^Ji ^ -t^j (wai* 
ZiaM) woe to this fool! ^ . . . J b ya fa- 
. . . min see b 

in relation to, with respect to, toward | 
\S"J ^ LJllI ju^LL. Germany's intentions 
as far as Turkey is concerned 

substituting for an accusative (original- 



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ly, in a partitive sense) : l^ljJ* j* dlli J"il 
this kindled her curiosity 

2. from, away from, out of, from the 
direction of | L* j* sy*"' ukruj min 
huna get out of here! jI-Uj j* >U- he 
came from Baghdad; J»^ ^ (tarq/i) 
and JJ j* (qibali) on the part of, on 
the side of, from, by; Jl — ^ from — 
(up) to; <J\j 41* (jlT (wa-tfoiAt) to 
depend entirely on s.o., be inseparable 
from s.o., appertain to s.o.; j -$i* utT U 
what share they had in ... , to what 
extent they were involved in..., what 
part they played in...; (bli^l) L'Lel 
iti tu imdnan {iHiqadan) minim bi-anna 
since we believe(d) that . . . 

from, beginning . . . , starting . . . , since, 
for; after | j^ j* (Sahr) for a month 
(past), since one month ago; *JU ^ 
{rmtdda) for some time (in the past); 
iiljj-l oJU ^ -U Oju (ba r da ayyamin) 
a few days after these events 

before, ago \ ^\* JA\ ^ (alfi 'am) 1000 
years ago (or since 1000 years ago); j» 
ilj (zaman) quite some time ago; for- 
merly, previously (or for some time now) 

of, by, at, about (denoting the source 
of one's fear, fright, alarm, apprehension, 

etc.), e.g., j* ^ji, j* JjU, etc. 

against, from (with verbs denoting 
protection, defense, warning, freeing, 
exemption), e.g., ^ 4*1., ,y «U-, j* <oj*~ t 
,> «UpI, etc. 

through, by, via (with verbs of motion 
to denote the way, route, or means) | 
V^' *> J*--* be entered through the 
gate; O.U1 ^ ^ (morro) he passed 
through, went by the town: j^ JU; 
£jUJl Jl ^jJi\ (nafada, darb) going 
through the alley he reached the main 
street 

than (with the comparative) | j* ^yl 



ol aqtvd min an too strong as to ..., too 
strong for . , . 

due to, owing to, for, because of ; at, 
about (with verbs denoting emotions; 
as, for instance, "be amazed", "be 
delighted 1 ', "be glad", etc.), e.g., & ^^, 
j. ,/m, etc. | U* J*. I ^ {ajli h.) therefore, 
for that reason; L* ^ hence, because of 
that 

by, through (with the passive to 
indicate the doer, agent, perpetrator) 

as to compounds such as o*j j*, it^- j^, 
ij- 5 t>» j& t>» Jj Cr* see w^der the 
second word; ^ as verbal government 
see under the verb 

3 j* manna u (mann) to be kind, kindly, be- 
nign, gracious, benevolent, obliging (Jp 
to or toward s.o,); to show, grant, or 
do s.o. (Jp) a favor, bestow blessings, 
benefits, favors (Jp upon s.o.); to grant, 
award, present, give (o* J* to s.o. s.th.), 
confer, bestow graciously ((_-» Jp upon 
s.o. s.th.), bless (i_j Jp s.o. with), inspire 
(v-> Jp s.o. with; of God) IV to tire, 
fatigue, weaken (e s.o.), sap the strength 
(• of s.o.) V do. VIII to be kind, kindly, 
benign, gracious, benevolent, obliging 
(Jp to or toward s.o.), to show, grant, 
or do s.o. ( Jp) a favor, bestow blessings, 
benefits, favors (Jp upon s.o.); to bestow 
or confer most graciously (<_> Jp upon 
s.o. s.th.), kindly grant, award, or give 
(<-> Jp to s.o. s.th.) 



^ mann 
benefit, 



gracious bestowal; favor; 
boon; gift, present, 
largess; honeydew; manna; (pi. iU>! 
amndn) a weight of 2 JUj rati | JLj «cx 
by the grace of God 

Kj* minna pi. ^ minan grace; kind- 
ness, kindliness, good will, friendliness, 
amiability, graciousness, benevolence, 



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1086 



benignity; favor, act of kindness, bene- 
fit, blessing, boon, gift, present 

ii» munna pi, j*V munan strength, 
vigor, stamina | ill juxS strong, vig- 
orous, sturdy 

uli* mannan kind, kindly, benign, 
gracious; munificent, liberal, generous; 
benefactor; uliil (one of the attributes 
of God) the Benefactor 

bj^> manun fate, destiny; fate of 
death, death 

jLi*l imtinan grateful obligation, in- 
debtedness, obligedness, gratitude 

dj^£ mamnun indebted, obligated, ob- 
liged, grateful, thankful (J to s.o.); weak, 
languid 

jLJ^u mamnuniya grateful obligation, 
indebtedness, obligedness, gratitude 

JU mumtann indebted, much obliged 
(J to s.o.) 

&« mintul menthol 

manjanlq f., also m., pi. -at, Jilf 
majaniq* mangonel, ballista, catapult 

j3+L* mangu mango 

via manaka a (mank) to grant, give, accord, 
award (a » to s.o. s.th.), bestow, confer 
(a * upon s.o. s.th.) Ill to bestow favors 
(• upon s.o.) X to ask s.o. {•) to grant or 
to award (a s.th.) 

^ manh granting, giving, donation, 
bestowal, conferment, award(ing) 

4*«x* minka pi. ~l» minak act of 
kindness; privilege; gift, present, do- 
nation, grant, favor, benefit, benefaction; 
compensation; remuneration, allowance, 
indemnity {jur.); scholarship, stipend | 
i.l»Vl **^* m. al-iqdma living allowance; 



ijwU <>*l* {jami'iya) academic scholar- 
ship; ^£JI ^U»l» to. as-suhna housing 
allowance, rent allowance 

f\* manih donor, giver, granter 

1 Jai. mandal, Jadl \->j£ ($arb aUm. a magic 
practice in which a fortuneteller, or a 
medium (JaJ.1 ^jUi or JjuII f\j), proph- 
esies while contemplating a mirror-like 
surface 

2 JjA1. mandil, mindil pi. Jj-afcu manddil* 
kerchief; handkerchief; head kerchief | 
«jjl ji\ JjOX. (abu uya; eg.) head scarf 
worn by traditional Eg. women 

-C* mundu and Ju mud 1. (prep.) since, for; 
ago | j+Z x* [Sahr) for a month (past), 
since one month ago; a month ago; (*IjI -Ll- 
(ayydm) for the past few days; a few 
days ago; ^J -i^ Jul* ( r akd) of late, 
lately, recently; J*Vl JL. (ana) from 
now on, henceforth; *^JI JL. (yaum) as 
of today, from this day on; itUI JL« 
from now on; immediately 

2. (conj.) since, ever since, from the 
time when j \j^ *>UL j^T Jul. (/i/Za?i) 
since I was a small child 

j£*Ji\ al-monastir Monastir (city in Tunisia) 

^pill jf bahr al-mans the Sea of Le Manche, 
i.e., the English Channel 

S-j^iJL. manSvhiya (from Copt. manSopi) cell, 
living quarters (Copt.-Chr.) 

LjjJtJL. man&ihriya Manchuria 

^jjJUL. manSuri Manchurian 

Uj..^:. man§un monsoon 

^Li* mantara to throw down, toss down 



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jk-. mantaqa to gird (c-> a s.th. with) II to 
gird o.s,, swathe o.s. (^ with), wind 
around one's body (^ s.th.) 

"4s Ja^ mantilfia {syr.) slipper 



*l» mana'a a {man') to stop, detain, keep 
from entering or passing (* s.o.); to 
hinder, prevent (a s.th.; j* or j* « s.o. 
from), keep, restrain, hold back {» s.o. 
^ or jc- from); to bar, block, obstruct 
(a * s.o.'s way or access to); to withdraw, 
take away (j^ or jp or a « from s.o. 
s.th.), deprive (^ or jp or a » s.o. of); to 
forbid, interdict (j* or jc or j> » to s.o. 
s.th.), prohibit (^ or ^ or * » s.o. from); 
to decline to accept, declare impossible 
or out of the question (oi that); to 
refuse, deny (j* a or & a s.th. to s.o.), 
withhold (jp a or * a s.th. from s.o.); 
to stop, cease (a doing s.th., jp with 
regard to s.o.), abstain, refrain {a from 
doing s.th., ^ with regard to s.o.); to 
ward off, avert, keep, keep away (^ a 
s.th. from s.o.); to protect, guard {j* o 
s.o. from), defend (o s.o., a s.th., ^ 
against); — manu'a u {f-L* mana% «pL* 
mancfa) to be strongly fortified, inac- 
cessible, impregnable; to be unconquer- 
able, invincible, insurmountable II to 
fortify, strengthen, make inaccessible 
(a s.th.) Ill to put up resistance, act in 
opposition (« to s.o.), oppose, counteract 
(» s,o.), work against s.o. (<>); to stand 
up, rise (o against s.o.); to resist, oppose 
(j s.th.), offer resistance, object, raise 
objections (J to s.th.), revolt, rebel 
(j against s.th.); to refuse, deny (a » 
s.o. s.th.) V to refuse, decline {j* to do 
s.th.); to desist, refrain, abstain, keep 
(^ from s.th., from doing s.th.), forbear, 
leave off (jp s.th.), stop, cease (jp doing 
B.th.), avoid (j& s.th. or doing s.th.); to 
be or become inaccessible, unassailable, 
impregnable; to strengthen, grow in 
strength; to seek protection <<_-> with or 



in) VIII to refrain, abstain, keep (<jp 
from doing s.th.), forbear (jp s.th.), 
stop, cease (^p doing s.th.); to refuse 
(jp to do s.th.), decline, turn down (^p 
s.th.); to ward off, resist (^ s.th.), with- 
hold o.s. (^p from); to deny o.s. (^p to 
s.o.); to refuse to have anything to do 
(Jp with), keep aloof (Jp from); to be 
prevented (jp from); to be impossible 
(Jp for s.o.) ; to be refused, not be tolerat- 
ed, be unwelcome 

*i* man hindering, impeding, ob- 
struction; prevention, obviation, preclu- 
sion; prohibition, interdiction, ban, in- 
junction; closure, stop, discontinuation, 
embargo; withdrawal, deprival, dis- 
possession; withholding, detention | £-. 
J^jLl m. al-haml contraception; i}j*+d\ «!■ 
m. at-tajawwul barring of traffic, traffic 
ban; curfew; J Ul« (man* an) for the 
prevention of . . . 

Z*l* man' a resistance, power, force, 
vigor, strength, stamina, insuperability, 
invincibility 

*-!* mani pL#l*L« muna'a 2 unapproach- 
able, inaccessible, impervious, impenetra- 
ble, forbidding; well-fortified; mighty, 
strong, powerful; impregnable, uncon- 
querable ; insurmountable, insuperable, 
invincible, immune | i-Jli-l *gi« strong, 
unassailable; «^ju j>-\*- insurmountable 
barrier 

i*L* manaa inaccessibility; strength, 
impregnability; hardiness, sturdiness, 
power of resistance; immunity (to a 
disease, also dipt.); imperviousness, im- 
permeability, impenetrability, forbidding- 



«!•! amna' 2 harder to get at, more 
forbidding; offering greater resistance 

aju\j mumana'a opposition; resistance, 
revolt, rebellion; O inductive resistance 
(d.) 



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1088 



•i*" tamannu' rejection, refusal 

p-U^.1 imtind' refraining, abstention (^y- 
from); abstinence; refusal, denial; impos- 
sibility 

«JU rndni' hindering, forbidding, etc., 
see I; preventive; prohibitive; — (pi. 
juI^. mawdni* 2 ) hindrance, obstacle, 
obstruction; impediment; a preventive, 
preservative, prophylactic; objection; — 
(pi. -at) O cutout, anti-interference 
device (radio) | LJL tsh ^ (ra'a) to 
have no objections; *jL *il Za mani'a 
there is nothing in the way, nothing 
prevents me (you, etc.) from (£*); JL— 
«Jl^ll sibaq al-m. hurdle race (sport) 

i*5U mdnfa: jjtl^aJI iuU lightning rod 

fjjt mamnu* forbidden, prohibited, 
banned, interdicted; indeclinable (gram.) | 
&*-jc}\ fyi no smoking! J^-jJ' 9^J no 
admittance ! keep out ! off' limits ! 

ULtyjr mamnu'iya forbiddenness 

*x.£ mumtani* refraining, abstaining, 
forbearing ; rejecting, refusing ; prevented ; 
forbidden, interdicted, prohibited, ban- 
ned; inaccessible (J* to s.o.); forbidding, 
inscrutable, impenetrable, elusive; diffi- 
cult to imitate; impossible 

jj-jjUL. manganls manganese 

Jj*dl al-mongol, also al-mungul, the Mongols 
dj~* mongoti Mongolian 
LJ^iLi mongoliyd Mongolia 

*>Lix. (It. manovella) manafdla crank 

->_jJb^ monolog, monlog see r>L^ 

(jL* and ^-) lu wwma « (manw) and J* 
mand" * (many) to put to the test, try, 
tempt, afflict (oj « s.o. with; of God); 
pass. ^* muniya to be afflicted (<-> 



with), be sorely tried (<-> by), suffer, ] 
sustain, undergo, experience (<_* s.th.), 
be affected, hit, smitten, stricken (u 
by) ; to find by good luck, be so fortunate 
as to find (J s.th.) II to awaken the 
desire (u or * » in s.o. for), make s.o. 
(b) wish (<-> or * for); to make (* s.o.) 
hope (uor* for), give (» s.o.) reason to 
hope («-» or a for), raise hopes (o or > 
of) in s.o. (e); to promise (ul, v » s - - 
that) ] i_> <-»ij ^. (nafsahu) to indulge 
in the hope of..., have every hope 
that... IV to shed (a blood); to emit, 
ejaculate (a sperm) V to desire (a s.th.), 
wish (a for s.th.; a J s.o. s.th.) X to prac- 
tice onanism, masturbate 

^» manan and Ll. manlya pi. IL. 
mandya fate, destiny, lot; fate of death; 
death 

J* minan semen, sperm 

fjjL* minmm seminal, spermatic 

^» minan m. and mind f. the valley 
of Mina near Mecca 

SL. manah Manat, name of an ancient 
Arabian goddess 

"Lx* munya, minya pi. ^ munan wish, 
desire ; object of desire 

Z^\ wmnlya pi. uU amanin, <jU 
amdniy wish, demand, claim, desire, 
longing, aspiration 

^Loc" iamniya and »Ltl imnd' emis- 
sion, ejaculation of the sperm 

jjt" tamannin pi. -ai wish; desire; 
request 

»L*zJ istimnd' self-pollution, mastur- 
bation, onanism 

rj^>-» ^nonolog pi. -at monologue; solo act 
(cabaret, vaudeville), comic song 



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1089 



J** 



jL*j^* manumitr pi. -at manometer, pressure 
gauge 

Li! al-minyd El Minya (city in central 
Egypt) 

^yr ts* ( Fr -) wint-Zfib miniskirt 

**l4> muhja pi. £f« muhaj, ^U^* muhajdt 
lifeblood, heartblood; heart; innermost 
self, intrinsic nature, core; soul; life | 
\&W J JU^fl £^A> {fu r ina.t) hopes re- 
ceived the deathblow 

•it* II to spread out evenly (a s.th.); to 
smooth, smoothen (a s.th.); to pave (a 
a road); to flatten, plane, make even or 
level (a s.th.); to arrange, settle, straight- 
en, put in order (a s.th.); to free from 
obstacles, clear, pave (a s.th.; esp., 
the way, J for or to); to make easy, 
facilitate, ease, make easily accessible 
(a J to s.o. s.th.); to get ready, prepare 
(a s.th.), make (a a bed, etc.); to pass 
{*j&\ al-lcurata the ball, J to s.o.); (verb 
alone, without qualifying direct object) 
to pave, open, clear, or prepare the way 
(u» J for s.th. by or with), open, prepare, 
begin, start, initiate, bring about, set 
in motion (v J s.th. by or with) V to be 
paved, be clear or cleared, be or become 
open (way) ; to be or get settled or arrang- 
ed; to go smoothly, go well, come off well; 
to be in order, be put in order, get 
straightened out 

Af* mahd pi. sj+» muhud bed; cradle j 
aUI! J* jl^II £* (lahd) from cradle to 
grave; oA$* j 4x* to nip s.th. in the 
bud; sJL^. J oK"* to be still in its be- 
ginnings or infancy, not have progressed 
beyond the early stages 

*lp mihad place of rest, resting place ; 
bed; bosom, pale, fold (fig., in which 
s.th, rests) | 'f UjJI ilf to. ad-dimag thala- 
mus {anat.); oLf« ti*j {watta'a) to make 



s.th. easily accessible, make s.th. con- 
venient or effortless; jJuJl jI$- *J -U~j 
see ia— j basata 

x^' tamhid smoothing, leveling, pav- 
ing; facilitation, easing; preparation; 
foreword, preface, proem; introduction; 
preliminaries | J 1 -i—^-c" in order to 
facilitate . . . ; in preparation of ... , as a 
preliminary step toward . . . , for the pur- 
pose of . . . 

t^-u^x" tamhldi introductory, prefatory, 
preliminary, preparatory | ^j-U^c oU^I 
{ijradt) preliminaries; preliminary pro- 
ceedings {jur,); <j*zix" S*. (hukm) inter- 
locutory decree, interlocutory judgment 
{jur.); <j-^" j\J {qardr) provisional in- 
junction, temporary restraining order 
{jur.) i c$JUfjc" rj$ {sarh) prefatory remarks 

x$i mumahhad leveled, smoothed, 
smooth, even, level; well-ordered, well- 
arranged, well-prepared; prepared, clear- 
ed, open (way); paved (road) 

a*\j mumdhad paved, improved (road) 

x j4» mahara u a (mahr, jlp mahdr, SjL^* 
mahdra, jj+* muhur) to be skillful, 
adroit, dexterous, skilled, adept, pro- 
ficient, expert, experienced, seasoned; 
— u a {mahr) to give a dower (U to 
the bride) III to vie in skill (a with s.o.) 
IV to give a dower (U to the bride) 

JH £. mahr pi. jj^a muhur dower, bridal 
money; price, stake; ransom 

j+* muhr, pi. jlpl amhar, SjL^. mihdra 
foal, colt 

lj4* muhra pi. j& muhar, Cj\j^» 
muhardt filly 

*jlfr* mahdra skillfulness, adroitness, 
dexterity, skill, expertness, proficiency, 
adeptness; pi. oljl^ skills, crafts 

y>L. mdhir pi. l_^» mahara skillful, 



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1090 



adroit, dexterous, skilled, proficient, 
adept, expert, practiced, experienced, 
seasoned | ^L. J*U skilled worker 

*j4* muhr seal, signet; stamp 

j I Sj+m muhrdddr keeper of the seal 

jj^£ mamhur having a seal or stamped 
impression 

uU-^ mahrajdn, mihrajdn pi. -at festival, 
festivity, celebration | Litfajj- oU-j^ Fes- 
tival of Britain 

O J*» makaq albinism (biol.) 

O J^*-*' amhwf, f. *\X&. mahqd* 2 albino; 
albinic (biol,) 

<li^» mahaka a (mahk) to grind, crush, 
bruise, pound 

iSC^. makha, muhka freshness of youth, 
bloom of youth 

J^. makala a {mahl, *1$* muhla) to tarry, 
dawdle, be slow, take one's time (j in 
s.th.) II and IV to give (* s.o.) time, 
grant (» s.o.) a respite or delay V to be 
slow, proceed slowly and deliberately 
<<j in s.th.) | »LL^ j J^/ (kutdhu) to 
slacken one's pace; Jjh J^c* he said 
slowly... VI = V; X to ask (» s.o.) for 
a respite; to ask ( e s.o.) to wait 

J^,. mahl, mahal slowness, leisureliness, 
ease; leisure; "&$* mahlan slowly, leisurely, 
in no hurry | J^. Jp slowly, leisurely, in 
no hurry; dl^- mahlaka easy does it! 
take it easy ! dli^. J* take it easy ! take 
your time ! 

il^ muhla respite, delay; time limit 
for a decision, time to think s.th. over 

lUf. muhaila large boat (ir.) 

JI4J imhdl grant of respite, con- 
cession of a delay 



JL^.1 imhali tending to delay, dilatory 

J^-c' tamahhul slowness, deliberatenessl 
J^^j slowly; gradually 

J^*i* mutamahhil slow, deliberate, lei- 
surely, unhurried, easy 

Ja1^L» mutamdhil leisurely, comfort- 
able, easy, unhurried, slow 

\#a mahma (with apoc. or perf.) whatever, 
whatsoever; no matter how much, how- 
ever much, much as ... ; whenever I 
j*^ <> u^d W* {yakun, amri) or ^ 
(*<^) j- 1 t> 0^- (awrw, &f »n) what- 
ever the case may be, be it as it may; 
whatever may happen 

^ mahana u a (mahn, k+* mahna) to 
serve (<> s.o.); to humble, degrade, treat 
in a humiliating manner (» s.o.); to 
hackney, wear out in common service, 
wear out by use (a s.th.); — mahuna % 
(i!L^. mdhdna) to be despicable, base, 
low, mean, menial III to practice (* a 
profession) VIII to humble, degrade, 
treat in a humiliating manner {» a.o.); 
to revile (* s.o.); to despise {* s.o.); to 
employ for menial services (* s.o.); to 
hackney, wear out in common service, 
wear out by use (a s.th.); to practice 
professionally, as a trade (a s.th.) 

<^. mihna pi. ( y^» mihan work, 
job, occupation, calling, vocation, pro- 
fession, trade, business | %j>- ~k+* (Hurra) 
liberal profession 

iS +» mihni, mihani professional, voca- 
tional; gainfully employed; pi. o^ 
professionally active or working people | 
^$11 i-ojaJI vocational training; illjVI 
J^il (irsdd) vocational guidance 

,>,£. mahin pi. ♦li^ muhand' 2 despised, 
despicable, contemptible, vile 

uL^ui imtihdn degradation, humilia- 



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1091 



V 



tion, contempt, disdain; abuse, misuse, 
improper treatment 

a*1» mahin pi. ul^* muhhdn menial 
servant 

i\+* mahah pi. o|_^f* makawat, oLf* m* 
Aayaf wild cow 

UU look up alphabetically 

y abbreviation of Ji*>» model 

miaow 

»\j* muwd' mewing, miaow (of a cat) 

! »U and JU see *j» 

'yU see *i» 

UUp moMWt/a pi. ^W^J* P iece of furniture, 
pi. furniture, furnishings 



(o^.) tl*U mata u (maut) to die; to perish; 
to lose life, become dead; to abate, sub- 
side, die down, let up (wind, heat); 
j C^U to be mad about, infatuated with, 
ready to die for, extremely fond of II and 
IV to make (»s.o.) die, let <♦ s.o.) perish; to 
kill, put to death (« s.o.); to be the death 
of s.o. (*), cause the death of s.o. (o) 
IV to mortify (-wiJ o.s., one's flesh) ; to 
suppress, deaden (a s.th.) VI to feign 
death, pretend to be dead; to feign 
weakness; to be sluggish, listless, slack 
(j in s.th.) X to seek death; to defy 
death, sacrifice o.s., risk one's life; to 
strive desperately { J for), make desperate 
efforts (j in order to); to fight desper- 
ately 

£jy maut and ~&ja mania death; 
decease, demise | Lr i s jl &j* (abyad) 
natural death 



inanimate thing; barren, uncultivated 
land, wasteland 

OUjn mautdn, mutdn dying, death; 
epidemic, plague 

C*— mayyit, mait pi. ol^l amwat, 
Jj* mauta lifeless, inanimate, dead, de- 
ceased 

<-... maita corpse, carcass, carrion; 
meat of an animal not slaughtered in 
accordance with ritual requirements 
(I si. Law) 

xl^ mlta manner of death | h~* 
JUaj N I death of a hero, death in battle 

£>l£ mamdt place where s.o. died; 
decease, death 

IfUl imdta killing; mortification (of 
the flesh) 

Z\^*\ istinidta death defiance; des- 
perate effort, desperate struggle (<j for) 

cJU ma' it dying, moribund, mortal 

C~£ mumlt lethal, fatal, mortal, dead- 
ly | iui 'cX±- (hati'a) mortal sin 

Csii mumat antiquated, obsolete 

c _..."-* mustamit death -defying, reck- 
less, heroic; martyr; suffering a martyr's 
death 

jyj* motor pi. -at motor 

jSv-jjj- (Fr« motocycle) motoslHl pi. -at 
motorcycle 

[ rJA ) -.1, mdja u {mauj, jU-j^ muwajdn) to 
heave, swell, roll, surge (sea); to be 
excited, agitated (^ by) II to ripple (» 
the surface of water, etc.); to wave 
(a the hair) V = I; to rise in waves; to 
ripple, be rippled (as, the surface of 
water); to undulate, move in undula- 
tions; to sway, roll VI to be waved, be 



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TLT 



1092 



undulate; to form an undulating line 
(Jj*- around); to flow, flood, swell, surge; 
to fluctuate, move as a wave, roll back 
and forth, be constantly changing 

rj* mauj pi. ~\ja\ amwdj billows, 
surges, seas, breakers; waves; ripples; — 
(n. un. 1^-j* mauja pi. -at) billow, surge, 
sea, breaker; wave; ripple; oscillation, 
vibration, undulation | Jjjt ^j* long 
wave (radio); ^wx5 r-^* short wave 
(radio); li^yj. -ry. (mutawassit) medium 
wave (radio); <Jj~* g\j*\ (sautlya) sound 
waves; lj+z~*» ?r!>^ (mustamirra) contin- 
uous waves; iJUm^aw ^l_^l (mvdmahilla) 
damped waves; 4~SL»x+ £•'_?•' (mun r akisa) 
reflected waves, indirect waves; ^-1^*1 
*4*-j* (muioajjaha) directional beams (rap 
dio); O *J^- ^r>* (harra) heat wave, hot 
spell; ^UUl *^-j* m. as-sabdb bloom of 
youth, freshness of youth: IU-^1 £*- sa'at 
al-m. amplitude; *>-ji\ J^> tul al-m. wave 
length (radio); jISclJ l*-^ a wave of dis- 
approval; Jai*JI oUj^ m. as-sukt ripples 
of anger (in a crowd); j-u^/l ^-IjJ Jt 
on the ether waves 

4*rj* mauja pi. -at see under 57 j* nwm? 

^■l_y mawwaj undulating, undulant; 
surging, rolling; waved, undulated, un- 
dulate; O (pi. -at) transmitter (radio) 

fi.jjt" tamwij waving (of the hair) | 
jijU I J* £j^i! cold wave, permanent wave 

rye" tamaivwuj pi. -at oscillation, vi- 
bration; undulation, undulant motion; 
swaying, rolling | v>^ ^W-J^" (sautlya) 
sound waves; O *\j$ r^" <• aZ-hawa* 
atmospheric vibrations 

£-L md'ij surging, swelling, rolling, 
tumultuous, stormy, high (sea) 

tj£ mumawwaj undulated, undulate, 
waved, wavy, wavelike, undulatory | 
r-jjr Xa*- (haU) wavy line 



£>*^ 



mutamawwij surging, rollings un- 



dulating, undulant, wavelike, undulatory; 
wavy (hair) | V>*^' ^^ (hummSj uq. 
dulant fever, Malta fever, brucellosis 
(med.) 

£j£* mutamawij undulate, waved, 
wavy, rippled; curled; fluctuant 

Si^. moda pi. -at fashion, style; fashionable; 
pi. hat fashions, millinery | o^ll Jp of 
the latest fashion, fashionable, modish, 
stylish 

JjOj-. model, also Ji^. model, pi. -at model; 
pattern 

1 (j>») J*-* mara u (maur) to move to and 
fro, move from side to side V do. 

j\ja mawwar Q pendulum 

jj£~ tamawwur swaying, swinging mo- 
tion; \jy:~ to and fro, back and forth 

2 jL look up alphabetically and under j* marra 

3 «j^l al-mora Morea, Peloponnesus 

4 »jLi-l see SjLiu-l under ^1 

□ rj^Jj* muratizm (eg.) rheumatism 

(jijjj* murdni (syr.) = JjjU look up alpha- 
betically 

^?rj}j*Jj* morfolojipd morphology 

wj_j- morfem morpheme (gram,) 

i?}jj* murfln morphine 

LJ \ii jja muritdniyd Mauritania | \j^f 
i**'^-'^' ^Wj>* (jwmfouriyat m.) Islamic 
Republic of Mauritania 

Jbjj- muntdni Mauritanian 
S-^iJj* morishl Morisco (in compounds); 



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1093 



0^-SC^jjii the Moriscos (in post-Islamic 
Spain) 

ULLj^. murlt&niya (NW African spelling) 
Mauritania; cf. Ubjj* 

jllu jja murltanl Mauritanian 

<jjj* murina pi. -at wooden beam, rafter 

*jj* mauz (coll.; n. un. *) banana 

a »jU look up alphabetically 

^j\}ja mozdyko mosaic 

Jj^j^., j-^lj^. mozamteq 2 , muzambiq* Mo- 
zambique, Mocambique (country in SE 
Africa) 

^L mas, L-U and ^l* look up alphabetically 

l lS *j* musd f . , pi . ^ I j* mauxisin , ^ 1^* 1 
amwas straight razor 

^^ m«$a Moses | ^j* dif samak m. 
sole (zool.) 

iSj^j* musawi Mosaic(al) 

*sja*>j* (It. mostarda) mustarda mustard 

£~<j* moskuy mosko Moscow 

jUL*j* musiqar musician 

J~-^ muAiqa (f.) music 

j~*j* mimqi musical; (pi. -un) musi- 
cian | ILjrf a)T musical instrument 

<JL^ mwtgf^a musicality 

jiU mai (n. un. 3) leguminous plant with 
black edible grains, Indian pea (Phaseo- 
lus max. L. ; hot.) 

j*jll al-mausil Mosul (city in N Iraq) 



"k^ja moda pi. -at = «±j* (look up alphabetic- 
ally) 

itU look up alphabetically 

Jij* see J>L 

*J^. II to make rich, enrich (e s.o.); to 
finance (a s.th.) V to be financed; to 
become rich, wealthy X to become rich, 

wealthy 

JL mdl pi. <Jlj-»1 amwal property, 
possessions, chattels, goods; wealth, 
affluence; fortune, estate; money; in- 
come, revenue; assets, capital, stock, 
fund; {eg.) tax, esp., land tax; {Isl. Law) 
marketable title; pi. property, assets, 
chattels, goods; pecuniary resources, 
funds; taxes | JL ji wealthy, rich; 
J»l— »-l JL (ihtiyati) reserve fund; JL 
6LUVI (ep.) land tax; fl>! JL w. 
al-kardm ill-gotten gain; ^.jS^-t JL 
(e#.) taxes; Ijjk* J 1^*1 {muqarrara) 
direct taxes; Jli JL (naqli) or J_j£^. JL. 
movable property, movables (7sJ. Law?); 
CjU J I* landed property, real property, 
immovables; r>as* _r^ JL {mutaqawwim) 
thing without commercial value (7sZ. 
£au>); J Li I frJ treasurer; J Li! C-aj &ati 
al-m. (public) treasury; JL ^lj etc., see 

JL «wxZ* monetary, pecuniary, fi- 
nancial; finance (in compounds); fiscal; 
financier, capitalist | JL. c^j (bait) 
finance house, banking house; JL ^JS 
(tadakkum) inflation; aJL i> (sana) 
fiscal year; *JL i.l_^ (garama) or Sjji* 
iJU a fine 

*JL mdliya monetary affairs, finance, 
public revenue; finances, financial sit- 
uation | iJUi Sjljj finance ministry 

Jlj* mawwal pi. -wre (tr.) financier, 
capitalist 



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1094 



Jj^jc" tamwll pi. -at financing; (eg.) 
taxpaying 

Jy mumatmvil pi. -un financier, finan- 
cial backer; (eg.) taxpayer 

Jy m-wnawwal propertied, wealthy, 
rich; {pi. -uri) capitalist 

Jj^u mutamuwwil rich, wealthy, well- 
to-do; (pi. -un) financier, capitalist 

2 t}\jA mmmvdl pi. Jjj|>* mawawfF short, 
popular love song, sung solo in a plaintive 
tone 



UI^j mawdliyd do. 



r^ 



mum wax 



»L»»* mumiya , \*j* mumiya pi. -ai mummy 

(jj*) jU mowa « (maun, <JJ« mu'na) and 
II to provision, supply with provisions 
{» s.o.); to provide, furnish, supply {», 
a s.o. or s.th.., cj with) V to store up 
provisions, lay in provisions, provision 
o.s. 

Zja muna provisions; (eg.) mortar 

IjjA tamwin food supply, provision- 
ing; supply; replenishment | i^j*=^ <$J* 
turuq at-t. supply lines, supply channels 
(mil.) 

^jx tamwlni supplying, supply (in 
compounds); catering (in compounds) 

*J!>* P 1 - of 1 ^r*' ^Lr» <ilr P 1 * of 2 *^ 
v£k>* ^o^ ^*^ monotype {^p.) 
^>>* see ^>* 



Cr->* 



munik Munich 



(oy>) *l« «mA# « (mawfe) to mix (^ * s.th. 
with); — u a (mauh, ojj* muuh, i*U 



mdha) to abound in water II to abound 
in water; to pour water (a into), admix 
water (a to); to thin, dilute, water 
down, adulterate (a s.th.); to falsify 
(a, Jp s.th.), misrepresent (a s.th.); to 
feign, afFect (J* cj s.th. toward s.o.); to 
camouflage (a s.th.; Syr., mil.); to coat, 
overlay, plate (^ a a base metal with 
gold or silver) IV to add water (* to) 

»L ma* pi. *L» miyah, *\j*\ amwaK 
water; liquid, fluid; juice | ^jU-l ►lif 
fluently, smoothly, like clockwork; »L 
tr i-j1 (abyad 2 ) cataract (eye disease); 
Jjjl *U (azraq 2 ) glaucoma (eye disease); 
j*j}\ »L m. az-zahr orange-blossom wa- 
ter; L_jLi]l »l* m. as-sabdb freshness of 
youth, prime of youth; ^J& »L (W6) 
fresh water, potable water; <jjlp »U pi. 
4j jli &L, carbonated water, mineral water; 
{Jj}j&\ *U Eau de Cologne; a>-jJ1 *L m. 
al-wajh honor, decency, modesty, self-re- 
spect; <4*-j »L 31 j I araqa rrtd'a wajhikl to 
sacrifice one's honor, abase o.s.; to dis- 
honor, disgrace s.o.; «t^-j »U J-ij do.; »L 
ijjl m. al~ward rose water; ^iSl *L» 
(iqlimiya) territorial waters; jlk.^1 »L» 
m. al-amtar rain water; VJ^ aL. (jauflya) 
ground water; aJL^L- *L» (sahiliya) coastal 
waters; \J\ A* _^j banu m. as-samcb the 
Arabs ; »U £+% bait m. toilet, W. C. 

j>U ma hi and ^jL. mm#I watery, 
aqueous, aquatic 

(jU mai aquatic, water; liquid, fluid; 
hydraulic | IJl* o\ji\ water colors 

^LaL look up alphabetically 

*>jL mawiya and 4JL. malya juice, 
sap 

ajjj:" tamwih coating, plating; cloth- 
ing, attire, garb; overfilling; feigning, 
pretending, affectation; camouflage (Syr., 
mil.); distortion (of facts), misrepresenta- 
tion, falsification | <bj+d\ ^^ ha's at4. 
overfull cup 



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1095 



J? 



rJ £" tamwihi feigned, sham, mock, 
make-believe | \x,** h^ mock attack, 
feint 

4j^L> see 6 ja 

C— « arid 4X^« see £jj* 

jjitu* mitador (eg.) matador 

U^U^ metafiziqa metaphysics 

1*-j)jjj~» metorolojiyd meteorology 

WA>V mitplojiya mythology 

(«^) ,-L maha i (maih, '^y^» maihuha) to 
strut, walk with affected dignity; to 
waddle V and VI to reel, totter, stagger; 
to swing X to ask (* • s.o. a favor), 
request (* s.th.) | & b^ ^P 1 ('udran) 
to apologize for s.th. 

(JU) iU mdda i (maid, b\ jl* mayaddn) to 
be moved, shaken; to waver, totter; to 
sway; to swing; to feel giddy, be dizzy; 
^ iU to shake s.th. violently | ,> £ol* 
^j^l isJ- (ardu) the ground shook 
under him VI to sway back and forth, 
swing from side to side 

Sjl* mlda pi. JL- mij/od (ep.) lintel, 
breastsummer (arcA.) 

»!ju m*c^' measure, amount, length, 
distance; mlda a (prep.) in front of, 
opposite, facing 

jlju* maiddn, middn pi. j^W* mayddln 2 
square, open place, open tract; field; 
arena; battleground, battlefield; combat 
area, fighting zone; race course, race 
track; playground (fig.); field, domain, 

line, sphere of activity | w-jj-dl o'j-* 

drill ground; military training center; 

yji-1 ulJL* m. al-harb theater of war; 

JLJI olJ^ race course, race track; 



J^JI jl-U. m. al-amal field of activity, 
scope of action; JlxUI Ola-* battlefield; 
b\jj.\ j in the field, at the front (mil); 
Jlv^l 61jl. j in the field of business, 
in business matters; J**)l o\x~* ,y £>- 
to be put out of service or commission; 
jljull J jfi to turn up, appear on the 
scene; JjJjUl O^JU j (m. a4-Saraf) on 
the field of honor; jIjlU g\*+ fieldpieces, 
field guns, infantry howitzers; JAI~- 
oIjlU musktSfd l-m. field hospital 

JIjl^ maiddni field (in compounds ; mtf.) 

ju*U ma id pi. i^ motia dizzy, sea- 
sick 

SoJU ma'ida pi. -a«, oJl^ mawa'id* 
table | £>^ *^ 1 -* operating table; 
ojJI Sju'L. m. as-sma dressing table; 
ljiJ\ *OjU 7^. as-sufra dining table 

UIjl, middliya, middlya pi. -<& medal; me- 
dallion | (Sj>"jy , w*) ««** y ,A =* (- a * 
Aa%a, fiddiya, bronziya) gold (silver, 
bronze) medal 

i(^) jU mdra i (mair) and IV to provide 
(<JLp 'iyalahu for one's family) 

Sj^ mint pi. j? miyar provisions, 
supplies, stores 

jL. mayydr caterer, purveyor, supplier 

2 D ^j*. w»W (< tfJ***) pu*>l ic > governmental, 
government-, state- (in compounds); 
fiscal; ^jdi the government, the fisc, 
the exchequer | ^jJii JU government 
taxes; <£jZS ii^Ul government land 

tfVljru mlraldy (formerly, Eg., Svdan) 
brigadier general (mil.) 

,\Jj* mirliwd'' (formerly, Ir., Jord.) 
major general (mil.) 

3 jw (Fr. maire) mer pi. jL»l amyar (magr.) 
mayor 



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1096 



Ojjy mairun chrism (Chr,) 

( jrw) JL. maza i {maiz) to separate, keep apart 
((jo two things); to distinguish, honor, 
favor (o s.o.) II to confer distinction 
(» upon s.o.), distinguish, commend, 
honor, favor (o s.o., ^ above s.o. else, 
also Jp); to distinguish, set aside, cause 
to stand out (a, t, s.o., s.th., ^ from); to 
prefer (jc a or » s.o. or s.th. to); to 
separate, segregate, set apart, single 
out, select, choose, pick (a, » s.o., s.th.); 
to grant a special right or privilege (« 
to s.o.), privilege (» s.o.); to distinguish, 
differentiate, discriminate (jp a, » s.o., 
s.th. from, also j-.; ,^j between two 
things, one thing from another) IV to 
distinguish, mark (a s.th.); to prefer 
(a s.th.) V to be set apart, be separated 
or separate, be distinct, be distinguished, 
be differentiated; to distinguish o.s., be 
distinguished, be marked, stand out; to 
be marked out with distinction, be 
honored, be favored; to be preferred; to 
discern, distinguish (a s.th.); to regard 
(a s.th., e.g., a picture) | Ik* >x (gaizan) 
to burst with anger VI to distinguish o.s. 
(j in); to differ VIII to distinguish o.s. 
(v Dv > J m s.th., jp or Jp above s.o. or 
s.th., j* as compared with s.o. or s.th.); to 
be distinguished, be marked ( v by) ; to be 
characterized, be signalized (^ by); to 
excel, surpass, outdo, outshine (jp or 
Jp s.o. or s.th.); to have the advantage, 
take preference (Jp over), be preferred 
\J* to); to differ (j-. or Jp from s.o., j 
or «-» in, in that . . .) 

>* maiz distinction; favoring, pre- 
ferment 

3>* mxza pi. -at peculiarity, distin- 
guishing feature, distinctive mark, charac- 
teristic; advantage; prerogative, priority 
right 

>.! amyaz 2 preferable (Jp to) 



Jrj-x tamyiz distinction; preference; 
preferment, favoring, favoritism, pref- 
erential treatment; privileging; par- 
tiality; separation, segregation, sifting, 
singling out; specification {gram,); dif- 
ferentiation; discrimination; judgment, 
discretion, common sense; realization, 
discernment, conscious perception; de- 
liberate intention | jwdl ^ sinn at-U 
age of discretion (yttr.)j >^' *& 
mahkamat at-t. court of cassation {Syr.) ; 
j%/ Jf u- unwittingly, unintentionally, 
with no definite purpose in mind; 4>- j>-\ 
>«*xJI lj\* jc (akrajahu) to deprive s.o. 
of his clear judgment, rob s.o. of his 
senses; ^oJl >--Jl {dint) religious dis- 
crimination; ^ jr ^jJI >u^l {'unfurl) ra- 
cial discrimination 

jLul irrdiyaz pi. -at distinction, 
(mark of) honor; advantage, benefit, 
merit; difference, distinction, differen- 
tiation, discrimination; special right, 
privilege; concession, patent, permit, 
license, franchise; (oil) concession; pre- 
rogative, priority right | oljUuVI 
t-^-Vi {ajnablya) the capitulations 
(of Western powers in the Orient); 
^L^LoJI oljLuVI diplomatic privi- 
leges; iJLL c> \ jU.f {tabaqiya) class priv- 
ileges; jLuVI (--—L* holder of the con- 
cession, concessionaire, responsible pub- 
lisher of a newspaper; jLul ^b medical 
assistant, intern (employed in a hospital) ; 
jU^.1 4xLl. mirUaqat i. concession area 
(oil industry) 

>* mumayyiz distinguishing, dis- 
tinctive; characteristic, peculiar, proper; 
discriminating, discerning, reasonable, 
rational {1st. Law); critical, judicious 
(person) 

ay* mumayyiza pi. -at distinguish- 
ing feature, distinctive mark, character- 
istic trait, peculiarity; distinction, (mark 
of) honor; advantage, merit 



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1097 



tL. 



yj mumayyaz distinguished, preferred, 
favored, privileged; distinct, separate, 
special 

>*x* mutamayyiz distinguished, dis- 
tingue; marked, notable, prominent, 
outstanding, characterized by distinctive 
traits, characteristic 

jlif mumtaz distinguished, differen- 
tiated; exquisite, select, choice, rare; 
outstanding, superior, first-rate, first- 
class, top-notch, exceptional, excellent; 
privileged; special, extra; (as an exami- 
nation grade) passed with distinction, 
excellent; first class (in compounds), of a 
special class | SjLir l>-j* (daraja) special 
class; Sjbf J_jji (duyun) privileged 
debts, preferred debts; jbuf ^Jip ( c adad) 
special issue (of a periodical) 

jul>.4 (It. mezzanine) mezdnin mezzanine 

^J.j'j? mezobotamiya Mesopotamia 

^trt*) u*'-* mdsa i (metis, oL*^* mayasdn) 
to move to and fro, swing from side to 
side; to walk with a proud, swinging 
gait V to walk with a proud, swinging gait 

mKm mats proud gait; proud bearing 

j-ju mis pi. ^L*' amyds (eg.) target 

^L* may yds walking with a lofty, 
proud gait, strutting 

^ (Engl, mess), J>L.<iH ( _ r x* m. ad-dubbdt 
officers mess 

(k.) i»U mdta i (mait, Oik., mayatan) to 
remove, pull away, draw back (* s.th.) 
IV do. | (jt *lilll 1»LI to disclose, un- 
cover, reveal s.th., bring s.th. to light 

(ge) H» ma' a i (mat) to flow; to spread; 
to melt, dissolve; to become liquid; to be 
or become soft; to be easy-going, be too 



soft (with s.o.), be indulgent II to soften, 
attenuate, dilute, liquefy (a s.th.) IV to 
melt, liquefy (a s.th.) V and VII to be 
melted, melt, dissolve 

^, rnxxi flowing, flow; liquidity, fluidity 

«*-* mai'a storax, a kind of incense 
obtained from the storax tree, resin of 
the storax tree (Styrax officinalis) ; prime, 
bloom (of youth) ; indulgence, compliance; 
unstableness, unsteadiness 

4£^~. muyu'a liquid state ; unstableness, 
unsteadiness; softness; flabbiness, flac- 
cidity; effeminacy; spoiledness (child) 

*yj: tamyV liquefaction 

S*U imifa melting, liquefaction 

pj tamayyu r liquescence, liquefaction 

*?U ma? i melting, liquid, fluid; liques- 
cent, semiliquid; vague (expression); un- 
decided, pending, in flux (situation); 
flabby, flaccid; coddled, spoiled (child); 
pi. £j'_>* mawd'i Ti fluids 

ISL. (Engl.) mica 

a>L£L« mlkanizm mechanism 

JlSw mikdnl mechanical, mechanized 

iLlS^r* mlkdnlk, mekdnik mechanics | ^iijlSL. 
oljLJl m. as-sayydrdt auto mechanics 

LSlJLSL. mikdnika mechanics | ISCjlSL. 
iJLAi (fadd'iya) space flight technology 

JljlSL* mikaniH mechanical, auto- 
matic, mechanized, mechanic; motorized; 
a mechanic | <SLj l£«. Iji (quiwm) 
motorized armed force 

ILSCJ LSC-- mikanlkiga mechanics | 
c^ljLJl iiwlSL. m. assay yarat auto 
mechanics 

<->jj£Lt milrob pi. -at microbe 



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1098 



^Uj^SL. mikrobas, also ^bjjSw, pi. -d( 
minibus 

WrjlfcriJj^r* mikrobiyolojiya microbiology 

^^5C*-j^SL* mikroskob pi. «o$ microscope 

UjijjSC.. milcrofon pi. -a* microphone 

Lij^SL. mlkrofllm pi. -a£ microfilm 

IcSL. maikaim mechanization, motorization 

1 (J C w*) JL ma/a i (mai7, j*>L« mayalan) to 
bend, bend down (Jf to; J* over); to 
bow down, lean over, tarn (Jp to s.o.); 
to incline, slope, slant, tilt, tip, be 
inclined, slanting, oblique; to incline, 
tend, be favorably disposed (Jl to), 
have a predilection, a liking, an in- 
clination, a propensity (Jl for), feel 
sympathy (Jl for), sympathize (Jl with), 
favor (Jf s.o.); to take sides, to side (** 
with), be partial, biased, prejudiced; 
to lean (Jp against); to revolt, rebel 
(Jp against), be hostile (Jp to s.o.); to 
be disinclined, be averse (jp to s.th.); 
to have an antipathy, a distaste, a dis- 
like (j& for); to deviate, digress, turn 
away, depart (jp from); Jl <u JL to 
drag or take s.o, or s.th. along to ..,; — 
(4>r* iwu>yv>l) to prepare to set (sun); to 
decline, draw to its end (day, night) ; — 
J** mayila a (mayal) to be bent, bowed, 
tilted, averted, turned aside | J I JL. 
>»UJ1 Jj Jai\ ('amm) to turn into the main 
street; j^ JL (bi-basarihl) to let one's 
eyes wander sideways, turn one's glance; 
(♦^1) <i JL* to cause the decline of 
s.th., the downfall of s.o.; ^j^\ £• JL* 
(haiva) to follow one's impulses, give in 
to every sudden whim II and IV to 
incline, tip, tilt, bend, bow (a s.th.); 
to make (a s.o.) inclined, sympathetic 
or favorably disposed (j£- or J I to 
s.o., to s.th.), incline, dispose (« s.o.'s 



mind y£ or Jl to), fill (a s.o.) with, 
sympathy (Jl for); to make (* s.o.) dis- 
inclined or averse (j* to), turn s.o.'s 
mind («) away from (jp), alienate (je ( j 
s.o. from) V and VI to reel, totter, 
stagger; to waver (tone); to sway, swing 
X to cause to incline, incline, tip, tilt (* 
s.th., Jf to or toward); to win ( 8 s.o., also 
cjjliJI the hearts), attract, win over, 
bring to one's side (« s.o.), gain favor (» 
with s.o.), win s.o.'s («) affection 

J~* mail pi. Jj~« muyul, JL*I amyal 
inclination, tilt; bend, turn, deflection; 
obliqueness, obliquity, slant; slope, in- 
cline, declivity; deviation, divergence, 
declination (astron.); affection (J( for), 
attachment (Jl to); predilection, liking, 
sympathy ( Ji for) ; propensity, disposition, 
bent, leaning, inclination, taste, desire, 
wish, longing; tendency, trend, drift 
(Jl to, toward) 

JL. mayyal inclined, favorably dis- 
posed (Jl to), leaning (Jl toward); in 
favor ( Jl of), biased ( Jl toward or for) 

J-*! amyal 2 more inclined, strongly 
inclined ( Jl to), more in favor ( Jl of) 

*JLl imala pronunciation of a shaded 
toward e {gram.) 

JjLc tamayul reel(ing), swaying, totter- 
ing, stagger(ing), waver(ing); vibration 

JjU mail inclining (Jl to or toward); 
bending down, bowing down, leaning 
over; bent, tilted; sloping, declivitous 
(terrain); inclined, oblique; slanting (e.g., 
handwriting) | JjU «k«. {sath) inclined 
plane (math.) 

2 J;-. mil pi. JL.! amyal mile (= 4000 f-lji); 
milestone | ^^ J^. (bahri) nautical 
mile, knot 

^■^L. mildnd Milan (city in Italy) 



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1099 



Ulji^L. milodrama melodrama 

^.Ij^JL. mtlodrdmi melodramatic 

l»tj>»JL* see Aj^Jx* 

jwJL* see ^rwJL* 

((^.) uL. mdna i (main) to lie, tell a lie 

jv main pi. Oj-* muyun lie, falsehood, 
untruth 

OL. may y an and JU ma »n liar 

l L« mind and »U~* mind* glaze, glazing; 
enamel (of the teeth; as a coating of 



metal, glass, or pottery); (pi. *<j1_^ 
mawani 2 ) dial (of a watch or clock) | 
L-lb Jk. (mafliy) enamel-coated, enam- 
eled 

Wx^ mind f. and m. (also '<£~* minu) pi. o\ja 
mawdnin, J\* miyan port, harbor, anch- 
orage | ,jj*- ♦U-* [jawwi) and *ij>- »^ 
airport 

*L* see »L* under »j* 

**Jj~* miyunik Munich 

tj^ may y oh see j^jL. (alphabetically) 



j-JjU ndbulus* Nablus (town in W Jordan) 

JjU ndbuli or J^jlJ ndbull Napoli, Naples 
(seaport in S Italy) 

jj'li ndto NATO 

Jrt-jli ndrajil, narjil coconut (s) | "*j**Z 
JsrjUJl $ajarat an-n. coconut palm (6oi.) 

iU-jt> n&Tajila, narjila (n. un.) coconut ; 
(pi. -at) water pipe, narghile 

jpjlj naraam nard, spikenard 
f jli ndranj bitter orange 

(ijli nazi Nazi 

5j jU ndzi^a Nazism 

j-li nds (coll.) men, people, folk 

Oj*0 wa$«( human nature; mankind 

VU fta'ama i a to sound, resound, ring out ; 
to groan, moan 

i»u na'ma noise, sound, tone 



v> 



na «m see 



r>' 



^j-lj ndmus pi, jj-^JjJ natyamw 2 law (also 
of nature); moral law; honor, honor - 
ableneas, good name, reputation; see 
also ^ 

^li nad a (na'y) to be far, far away, distant, 
remote (^ from), keep away, stay away, 
keep at a distance, remain aloof, go 
away, move away, depart, absent o.s. 
(jp from), leave (^ s.th., s.o.) Ill to 
keep far away, keep at a distance (^ * 
or » s.o. or s.th. from), keep a wide 
distance (a, o between s.o. or s.th., ^ 
and) IV to remove, move away, take 
away, place at a distance (jp * s.o. from) 
VI to move away, move apart, draw away 
from one another; to be away from one 
another, be at a distance, be separated, 
be apart; to keep away, stand aloof, be 
away, be at a distance (je from) VIII to 
be away, be at a distance (^ from); to 
go away, move away, draw away, depart, 
absent o.s. (je from), leave (^ s.th., 
s.o.) 



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1100 



,_£U na'y remoteness 

^U na'y and ,jjl nua pi. »l3l ana', 
»Ui an' a* ditch 

t^ljl em'a farther away, remoter, more 
distant 

JL* man' an distant place | JLl otT 
^f. to keep away from, remain aloof 
from, keep out of, not get involved in, 
refuse to have anything to do with 

»Lj tana in great distance, remoteness 

*U ncCin far, far away, distant, remote; 
outlying, out-of-the-way, secluded 

2 ^U nay pi. -at nay, a flute without mouth- 
piece, made of bamboo, rarely of wood, 
in different sizes, which, when blown, is 
held in a slanting forward position; O 
(Europ.) transverse flute, German flute 

cjjjl unbub and *j^J1 unbuba pi. ^Ul 
anabib 2 joint (of a knotted stem), part 
between two nodes; pipe; conduit, con- 
duit pipe, main duct; tube (also e/., 
teckn., etc.); cylinder, bottle (e.g., for 
butane gas) ; jet, nozzle (techn.) ; light bulb | 
*jj\ v^r*' u - w~T ! ?a> windpipe, trachea 
(anat. ) ; JU j^LJl ^jJ 1 torpedo tube ; ^jJ I 
£yju (miifarrag) vacuum tube (radio); 
jL^I o^jl test tube (chem.); jUJl <-*>Jl 
/oU!l exhaust pipe (auto); <_~ot»V1 ia^ 
kattal-a. pipeline; ^L^Vi a!a^ tiflat al-a. 
test-tube baby 

(j^Jl unbubi tubular, tube-shaped, fis- 
tulous; pipe- (in compounds) 

LJ naba'a a (#«_*! nab\ »^J nubu') to be 
high, raised, elevated, protruding, pro- 
jecting, prominent; to overcome, over- 
power, overwhelm (J* s.o.); to turn 
away, withdraw, shrink (^p from); to 
be repelled, repulsed, sickened, dis- 
gusted, shocked {,y by) II to inform, 
notify, tell, advise (j* or ^ *> s.o. of 



s.th.), let (o s.o.) know (^ or u> about), 
make known, announce, impart, com- 
municate (j^ or ^ » to s.o. s.th.) ; to be 
evidence (^ of), show, indicate, manifest, 
bespeak, reveal, disclose (y> s.th.) IT to 
inform, notify, tell, advise {^ » s.o. 
of), let (« s.o.) know (^ about), make 
known, announce, impart, communicate 
(t-* o to s.o. s.th.) V to predict, foretell, 
forecast, prognosticate, presage, proph- 
esy (^ s.th.); to claim to be a prophet, 
pose as a prophet X to ask for news, for 
information (« s.o.); to inquire (a after), 
ask (a about) 

Li naba* pi. »Lj1 anbd* news, tidings, 
information, intelligence; announcement; 
report, news item, dispatch [ *UVI SJS^ 
watcalatal-a. or (obs.) »UVI v^ »M»fcla6 
al-a. news agency 

SuJ ito6*a faint noise, low sound 

«jj nvhua pi. -<$£ prophecy; prognosis 

»Lil inba pi. -a< notification, infor- 
mation, communication 

JJu tanabbu 9 pi. -af prediction, forecast, 
prognostication; prophecy; prognosis 

^Jjj ianabbu'i prognostic, predictive 

c-aj ?iaoato « («a6() to grow (esp., of plants, 
also, e.g., of teeth); to sprout, germinate; 
to produce plants, bring forth vegetation 
(soil) II to plant, sow, seed (a s.th.) IV to 
germinate, cause to sprout (a a seed); 
to make (a s.th.) grow; to grow, plant, 
cultivate (a s.th ) X to plant, cultivate, 
grow, raise (a plants) ; to breed (a plants), 
culture (a e.g., bacteria) 

C-jJ nabt germination, sprouting; 
growth; vegetable growth, vegetation, 
plants; herbage, herbs, grass; sprout, 
plant | C-cJi IJ* quwwat an-n. germina- 
bility, germinative faculty 

oi nabta plant ; sprout, shoot, seedling 



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1101 



JU 



C*Lj iwhat (coll.) plants, vegetation; 
— (pi. -at) plant, vegetable organism; 
herb | tpUaal CjLJ (iqtisddl) economic 
plant; ojJl oU n. az-zlna ornamental 
plant; Jo olJ {tibbi) medicinal plant; 
oLJi JpT herbivorous animal; t^LJi J>L* 
sukkar an-n. rock candy; oUJI ie f t7m 
an-n. and olJLJI i* botany 

jU notoi vegetable, vegetal, plant- 
tin compounds); botanical; botanist; 
vegetarian (adj. and n.) 

joLi nabdtin and ^j-JL-Jl jr* »amn an-n. 
margarine, vegetable butter 

»-»jJ nabbut pi. C-wLj nababit 2 (eg.) 
quarterstaff, cudgel, bludgeon, club, 
truncheon, night stick 

c^» man£a£, manbit pi. c^bu wina* 1 
W plantation, plant nursery, arboretum; 
hotbed; birthplace, fountainhead, head- 
Bpring; origin (of a person); pi. CjU* (with 
foil, genit.) the places where s.th. origi- 
nated, began to flower, home (of s.th,) | 
j*Zi\ c-£* m. as-Sa'r spot covered with 
short hairs; ^*il( CjL. stubbly beard, 
stubble 

CjJu tanbit planting, cultivation, seed- 
bed planting 

oUx-l istinbdt planting, cultivation* 
growing 

olj nabita generation 

C,.fr..,« mustanbat cultivated, grown, 
raised, bred; plantation, nursery, cul- 
ture | O l-Jj^y «L-Jfr-.,» bacterial culture 

by* nebtun Neptune (planet) 

*J VIII to swell up 

AJj\ intibaj swelling 

jJ nabaha a (nabh, *-L* nvbdh, nibah, ^-J 
nablh) to bark ( Jp at s.o.), bay (Jp s.o.) 



VI to bark at each other; to bark si- 
multaneously, answer each other's barks 
(dogs, e.g., at night) 

«»J nabh, w\J nubah, nibah and ^J 
na&i& barking, bark, baying, yelp(ing) 

~Lj nabbah barker, yelper 

nabada i (nabd) to hurl, fling, throw, or 
toss, away (a s.th.); to reject, discard, 
spurn (a s.th.); to cast out, cast off, 
ostracize, erpel, banish, disown, repu- 
diate, remove, eliminate, dismiss, aban- 
don, forsake, give up, renounce (a, « 
s.o., s.th.); to withdraw, turn away (a 
from), relinquish, forswear (a s.th.); to 
break, violate, infringe (* a contract, a 
treaty), default (Jl against s.o.) | »aJ 
«i_^Ji JLJ (nabda n-nawah) to reject or 
dismiss s.th. or s.o. with disdain, spurn 
or scorn s.th. or s.o. II = I; to press 
(a grapes) III to separate, secede, with- 
draw (* from s.o.), oppose, resist (» 
s.o.) | t-^J-l •-UU (harba) to declare 
war on s.o. IV to press (a grapes) VI to 
be feuding VIII to withdraw, retire, 
retreat | 3L»-li XJj\ (nahiyatan) to step 
aside, withdraw to one side; to retreat 
into a corner 

JLJ nabd throwing away, discarding; 
rejection, repudiation, disavowal; re- 
nunciation, resignation; surrender, relin- 
quishment, abandonment; (pi. iLll 
anbad) small amount, a little, a trifle, 
bagatelle | apIWI JLi insubordination 

SJU nubda pi. JLJ nubad small piece, 
part, portion, fragment, fraction, section; 
(newspaper) article, story; tract, pam- 
phlet, leaflet; small advertisement ) 

JLy nabid cast-off, discarded, re- 
jected, disowned, repudiated, dismissed; 
(pi. SjlJI anbida) wine | -LxJI *yj ruh 
an-n. spirits of wine, alcohol; ^^J •*-« 



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1102 



(abyatf) white wine; j*~\ JuJ [ahmar) red 
wine 

X>\j nabid centrifugal | SJLU l^k* 
(midakka) centrifugal pump; SJbbJi lj2l\ 
{quwwa) centrifugal force 

j^jl. manbud cast-off, discarded; cast- 
out, ostracized, banished, expelled, dis- 
owned, repudiated; abandoned; found- 
ling, waif; neglected, disregarded; 

Oj^j-JlI the untouchables (in India), 
the pariahs 

jy nabara i {nabr) to raise, elevate; to 
go up with the voice, sing in a high- 
pitched voice; to stress, emphasize, accen- 
tuate; to shout, yell, scream (» at s.o.); 
to cry out Till to swell, become swollen 

jy nabr accentuation, emphasis; O ac- 
cent, stress (pkon.) 

ju nibr and jUI anbdr pi. j-Ul and* 
bir 2 , jruUI andbir 2 barn, shed, granary, 
storeroom, storehouse, warehouse 

tju nabra pi. nabarat swelling, in- 
tumescence, protuberance; accentuation; 
raising of the voice; accent, stress 
(pkon.); pi. c>\ju inflection of the voice, 
intonation, cadence 

>l. minbar pi. ^L. mandbir 2 mimbar; 
pulpit; rostrum, platform, dais 

jU-. minbar pi. ^L. mandbir* gut, 
intestine [ ^t^- jLl* (mahSiy) sausage 

,j"\jy nibras pi. ^-JjLj nabdrls 2 lamp, light, 
lantern | Ll^' <c* J£l (ittakada) to take 
s.o. for an example, model o.s. after s.o. 

>j nabaza i (nabz) to give a derisive or 
insulting name (» to s.o.) II do. 

>j nabaz pi. jlJl anbdz nickname, 
sobriquet 



.m nabasa i (nabs, 2LJ nubsa) to utter, 
say, speak II do. | SJ& ^ U [bi- 
kalima) he did not say a word 

J^j naba$a u (nabS) to unearth, exhume, 
disinter (* a corpse); to excavate, dig up, 
dig out of the ground (a s.th.); to recall, 
dig out of the past (old tales, etc.); to 
uncover, bring to light, disclose (a a 
secret) II to search, rummage, burrow 
(J in s.th.), ransack, rifle (J s.th.) 

(_£>> nab§ excavation, unearthing, 
digging up; examination, search, ex- 
ploration; uncovering, disclosure, rev- 
elation | j^JUl Jlu desecration of 
graves, body snatching 

^U nabbdS pi. .'fin excavator (of a 
corpse, of a treasure, etc.); grave robber 

JLjS nabU dug up, excavated 

J>j^\ unb%$ and aJ^JI unbvM pi. 
j^iwUi andbU 2 excavation, excavated 
object 

Jl>1 nabada i (nabd t uLiJ nabaddn) to 
beat, throb, pulsate, palpitate (heart, 
pulse); — u (^^-j nubud) to flow off, 
run off, drain (water) 

< y^ nabd, nabad pi. ^LJ 1 anbad 
throbbing, throb, pulsation, palpitation; 
pulse 

i^iJ nabda (n. vie.) pi, nabadat pulsation, 
pulse beat 

(j-ajll nabid pulsating, pulsative, beat- 
ing, throbbing, palpitating; spring, main- 
spring, coil spring, spiral spring | ^U 
• LA-U (bi-l-hayah) vibrant with life 

(jrfLi* manbid spot where the pulse or 
heartbeat is felt 

O <u«~L. minbada sphygmograph (appa- 
ratus for measuring the pulse) 



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1103 



Je 



IzJ nabata u i (nabt, S?jJ nubut) to well 
out, gush out, spout, issue, stream 
forth (water) II {eg.) to find fault (J* 
with s.o.), carp, scoff, gibe, sneer (J* 
at s.o.) IV to cause (a s.th.) to gush out 
or well forth, bring (a s.th.) to the sur- 
face; to find, discover (a water, oil, etc.), 
come upon (a), open up, tap (a a source, 
a well, etc.) X to find, discover (a water, 
oil, etc.), come upon (a), open up, tap 
(a a source, a well, etc.); to invent, dis- 
cover, think up, devise, design, contrive, 
find out (a s.th.); to derive, extract, 
draw, take (<y» a s.th. from); to deduce, 
infer (j* a s.th. from) 

JaJ nabat depth, deep, profundity; 
the innermost, inmost part, core, heart 

Ja-JI an-nabat pi. -ULJ'V I al-anbdt the 
Nabateans 

JaJ noJbatl Nabatean {adj. and n.); 
4J2-JI the Nabatean language 

J*LiiJ istiribat discovery, invention; 
deduction; inference; coining of a new 
word from an old Arabic root according 
to an Arabic pattern (lex.) 

mustanbit discoverer, inventor 

mu&tanbatat discoveries, in- 



*J naba'a u i a (nab r , fjJ nubif, oUJ naba* 
r dn) to well, well up, gush forth, flow, 
issue (j- from); to rise, spring, originate 
(river); to emanate (j* from s.o., s.th., 
e.g., an odor); to emerge, spring, stem 
(j« from) IV to cause (a s.th.) to gush 
forth or flow out 



P 



nab r a tree whose wood was used 



in arrow-making; spring, source | fji 
*JU £jjl {nab r a) approx.: to cross 
swords with the opponent 

*JU manba f pi. *jL. manabi' 2 spring, 
well; fountainhead, springhead, source, 



origin j £*± J *J-. 
oil well 



<n. zait or Jjj^ ^* 



9jJj yanbu r pi. £jb yanabV 2 spring, 
source, well 

iJ nabaxja a u i (nabg, j^-J nubug) to arise, 
emerge (j* from), come to the fore, come 
in sight, appear, show; to spread, 
diffuse, be diffused; to have superior or 
extraordinary qualities, stand out, dis- 
tinguish o.s., be distinguished, be 
marked ; to excel, be outstanding (,j in) ; 
to be an outstanding, exceptional man, 
be a genius 

fj-j nubug eminence, distinction; 
superior or extraordinary qualities, ex- 
ceptional faculties, giftedness, talent, 
genius; outstanding greatness, brilliancy, 
genius (of an artistic achievement) 

ij! anbag 2 more eminent; pre-eminent; 
more ingenious; superior 

i>Lj nabig outstanding, distinguished; 
gifted, talented; man of genius, brilliant 
person 

4njU nabiga pi. ijl_J nawabig 2 a dis- 
tinguished, famous, or outstanding man, 
a poetic genius; ingenious artist | ^oli 
IJUu^Vl n. al-idhak master of comedy, 
comic genius 

JJ nabq, nibq> nabaq, nabiq (coll.; n. un. 2) 
nabk, a Christ's -thorn (Zizyphus spina- 
chrisfci; bot.); lotus fruit; lotus blossom 

J-jJi anbiq, inblq pi. Jjilil andbiq 2 
alembic, distilling flask 

SSCj nabha, nabaha hill, hillock 

Jj nabala u (nabl) to shoot arrows (« at 
s.o.); — nabula u (<JLj nabala) to be 
noble, noble-minded, generous, magnani- 
mous, highborn, patrician; to be above 



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1104 



s.th. (j^.), be too high-minded to stoop 
to {&) 

JJ nabl (coll.; n. un. I) pi. JLj nibdl, 
JUI anbal arrows 

Jj nubl and SJ LJ nabdla nobility, 
nobleness, exalted rank or station, emi- 
nence; noble-mindedness, high-minded - 
ness, magnanimity, generosity 

JJ nubl and J-w nabil pi. JLj ntftdZ, 
■ }Lj nubala 2 noble; lofty, exalted, 
sublime, august; aristocratic, highborn, 
highbred, patrician, distinguished; noble- 
minded, high-minded, generous, magnan- 
imous; excellent, outstanding, superior; 
magnificent, splendid, glorious; J*uJl 
pi. »^LJt (formerly:) title of members of 
the Egyptian royal family 

JLJ nabbdl pi. SJ Lj riabbala and JjU 
nabil pi. JJ nvbbal archer, bowman 

Jjl anbal 2 nobler, more noble-minded, 
more generous | ^lill Jjl the noblest 
feelings 

J nabaka u, nabiha a and nabuka u (aa\J 
rabdha) to be well-known, noted, re- 
nowned, famous; — nabiha a (nabah) to 
heed, mind, note, observe (J s.th.), pay 
attention (J to), take notice (J of); to 
wake up, awaken II to call s.o.'s at- 
tention (») to (Jl or J*), point out, 
show, indicate (Jl or J* » to s.o. s.th.); 
to inform, tell, apprise, notify ( Jl or J* * 
s.o, of); to remind (Jl « s.o. of); to 
inform, instruct, brief (Jp c s.o. about); 
to warn, caution (» s.o.); to wake, awak- 
en, rouse (p^JI <y « s.o. from sleep); to 
arouse, alert, stir up, excite (* s.o.); to 
stimulate, irritate (a, » s.o., s.th.; also 
biol., physiol.) IV to awaken, rouse (o s.o., 
a s.th.) V to perceive, notice, note, realize 
(J or Jl s.th.), become aware, become 
conscious (J or Jl of); to be alerted, have 
one's attention drawn (J or Jl, J* to), 



take notice (J or Jl, Jp of), pay attention 
(J or Jl, J* to), be mindful, heedful 
(J or Jl, J* of); to wake up, awaken; 
to come to, regain consciousness (with 
<u. iJ li-nafsihl) VIII to be on one's 
guard, be wary, cautious, careful; to be 
awake, alert, wakeful; to awaken, wake 
up; to perceive, notice, note, observe 
(Jl or J s.th.); to understand, realize, 
grasp, comprehend (Jl or J s.th.); to be 
aware, be conscious ( Jl or J of s.th.) ; to 
pay attention (Jl or J to); to come to, 
regain consciousness (with 4..i-J li-naf* 
sihl) 

o nubh insight, discernment, per- 
ception, acumen, sagacity; understand- 
ing, attention; vigilance, alertness 

<J nabtk and <loJ naMh pi. #l^J nu* 
bahd' 2 noble, highborn, patrician; out- 
standing, eminent, distinguished, ex- 
cellent; famous, renowned, celebrated; 
understanding, sensible, discerning, ju- 
dicious, perspicacious 

aaLJ Tiabdha fame, renown, celebrity; 
exalted rank or station, eminence, 
nobility; vigilance, alertness; intelligence 

ifjX* manbaha a call to draw s.o.'s at- 
tention to s.th. (Jp), rousing call, incite- 
ment, impetus, incentive (J* to) 

4-J3 tanbih rousing, awakening ; ex- 
citation, stimulation, incitement, arous- 
ing; warning, cautioning, alerting; no- 
tification, notice, information; — (pi. 
-at) impulse; stimulus, irritation (also 
biol., phyaiol.); admonition, exhortation, 
advice, counsel, briefing, instruction, di- 
rection; nota bene, note, remark, anno- 
tation (in books) | <uJ&l yT horn (of an 
automobile, etc.); JaXh *^\ jl^. (ja* 
Mz, Jcatar) alarm device 

<Jj tanabbuh awakening, wakeful- 
ness, alertness 



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»Lul intibah attention, attentiveness ; 
vigilance, watchfulness, alertness; fore- 
sight, circumspection, prudence, care, 
carefulness; caution; heed, notice, ob- 
servance; {command; mil.) attention! | 
•LmU attentively, carefully 

<uli ndbih noble, highborn, patrician; 
eminent; well-known, renowned, distin- 
guished; famous, important 

<ul» munabbih awakening, rousing; 
warning, cautioning, alerting; excitant, 
stimulant; — (pi. -at) alarm clock; horn 
(of a car); stimulative agent, stimulant, 
excitant; stimulus (also bid., physiol.) | 
iS ^ «ju (hissi) sensory stimulus 

<uL» mutanabbih awake, wakeful; alert, 
vigilant, watchful 

4JL. muntabih awake, wakeful; alert, 
vigilant, watchful; attentive, heedful; 
careful, prudent, cautious, wary, guarded 

[yj) Li naba u (jJ nabw, nubuw) to be 
far off, distant, remote; to move away, 
withdraw in the distance; to miss (arrow, 
jjc the target); to bounce off, rebound, 
bounce, bound (Jl ^ from — to; ball); 
to disagree (jc with); to be contra- 
dictory (^ to), to conflict, be in conflict, 
be inconsistent (^ with) ; to be offensive, 
repugnant (jp to s.o.); to dislike, find 
repugnant (^ s.th.); «j LJ to irk, offend, 
repel, displease s.o. (of s.th.) | (jJUJL I *> LJ 
[majlisu) he couldn't bear sitting on the 
chair any longer; £***&! I l*- lJ {madja'u) 
she couldn't stand staying in bed any 
longer; ul£ll <u LJ (makdnu) he felt 
unable to remain in the place, he became 
stir-crazy 



^J nably pi. 
prophet | •Lu'^l <_* 



tin, »Lu I anbiyd' 2 
guaiacum wood 



tj^J nabawi prophetic, of or pertain- 
ing to a prophet or specifically to the 
Prophet Mohammed 



SjJ nubuwa prophethood, prophecy 

i^U nabin repugnant, distasteful, im- 
proper, ugly 

Lj nataa a (»cJ nal\ *j& nutu) to swell; 
to bulge, bulge out; to protrude, project, 
jut out, stand out, be prominent, pro- 
tuberant, embossed, in relief 

»tiS nafa hill, hillock, elevation 

ojkJ nutu* swelling, intumescence; 
growth, tumor; outgrowth, excrescence; 
protrusion, projection, protuberance, 
prominence, bulge; hill, hillock, eleva- 
tion | h~H *J^ n ' a l-J a bh a salient, bulge 
in the front line (mil.) 

*jli ndti pi. *<j\y nawaii' 2 swelling, 
swollen; protruding, projecting, jutting 
out, salient, protuberant, bulging; bulge, 
hump, protuberance | ^^5" *JU (ku r * 
burl) wristbone 

4ij'J natia pi. ij\jj nawaW 2 pro- 
jection, protrusion, jut, prominence; 
outgrowth, excrescence, protuberance; 
hump, elevation 

«ij nataja i (r-lxi nitdj) to bear, bring 
forth, throw (a a young one) ; to be gener- 
ated (je from; chern., phys.); to proceed, 
derive, arise, follow, ensue, result (^y* or 
jjt from), be the result of (j* or jt) IV to 
bear, throw (a a young one); to produce 
(a s.th.); to bring forth, yield, generate, 
originate, cause, provoke, bring about, 
occasion (a s.th.), give rise (a to) X to 
conclude, gather, infer, deduce, derive, 
trace (/,* a s.th. from), draw a conclusion 
(<> from) 

r-lxJ nitdj (act or process of) bearing, 
throwing, littering (of animals); brood, 
litter, offspring, young ones, young ani- 
mals; production | JJ-'l ^bJ n. cU-kail 
foal(s) 



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i^Jj natija pi. 4bj nata'ip result, 
upshot, issue, outcome, consequence; 
product, effect, immediate result, fruits, 
yield, proceeds, gain, profit; (teckn.) out- 
put; conclusion, inference, deduction; 
almanac, calendar; naMjata (prep.) be- 
cause of, as a result of, due to, owing to | 
a^*JlJU consequently, hence, therefore; 
o-~U !U»Ju n. al-jaib pocket calendar; 
Ja;LU h*J& wall calendar 

^bJi intaj generation; production; pro- 
ductivity; creating, creation, creative 
activity; output (of a machine, in min- 
ing); result | tf>Vl ^UJVi (adabi) literary 
production; ^Uj^-VI ^b'VI gross na- 
tional product, GNP (of a country; 
p-j rasm al-i. excise tax 



econ.); ^bV 



^>-bJl m(a;i production (in com- 
pounds); productive 

*-*-b1 intajiya productivity 

^UixJ istintaj pi. -a£ inference, con- 
clusion; deduction 

£U »a^" resultant, resulting, follow- 
ing, ensuing, proceeding, deriving, aris- 
ing (^e from) ; result | ^>j%\ ~jUI (gawni) 
gross national product, GNP (of a 
country; econ.) 

£jZ~m mantuj pi. -at product, creation, 
work, production 

gzi* muntij bearing, giving birth, pro- 
ducing; fruitful, productive; fertile, fe- 
cund, prolific; conclusive (evidence) ; mak- 
er, manufacturer, producer ; film producer 

oUsi* muntajat proceeds, returns, 
yields, products | 4-cljj oU*ix* (zird r iya) 
agricultural products, farming products, 
produce 

mustantij maker, manufacturer, 



producer 



«sj nataha a i (nath, ^j nutuh) to ooze from 
the pores (sweat) ; to exude (e.g., moisture 
from a wall, resin from a tree) 

4*tj mxtha exudation 

l jj natara u (natr) to grab, grasp, wrest 
away, take away by force (* s.th.) 

2 olj£ nitrat nitrate 

CpjrjJj nitrojen nitrogen 

J& natasa i (nati) to pull out, extract 
(a s.th.) ; to pluck out, tear out (* s.th.) ; 
to snatch away; to beat, strike, hit 

^Lu* mintdh tweezers, pincette 

^J nata'a u i (^yj nutW) to well up, 
bubble up, trickle out, ooze out, dribble, 
trickle; — (eg.) to lift up, carry away 
(e s.o.) 

<J<cj naiafa i (natf) to pluck out, pull out, 
tear out (* hair, and the like) II do. 

li£ nutfa pi. cJc; nutaf tuft of 
hair; a small amount, a little of s.th. 

»JuIJ natlf pulled out, torn out; 
plucked 

(jG natana i, natina a (natn) and natuna u 
(*jLJ natana, ijyj nutuna) to have an 
offensive smell, be malodorous, stink; to 
decompose, rot, decay, become putrid 
II to render putrid, putrefy (a s.th.); to 
cause to decay or rot, decompose (* 
s.th.) IV = I 

^j rwin and <ub natana stench, e- 
vil smell, malodor; rotting, putrescence, 
putrefaction, decomposition; decay 

sju natin stinking, evil-smelling, mal- 
odorous; rotten, putrid, putrescent, pu- 
trefied, decayed, decomposed ; (eg.) miser- 
ly, closefisted, stingy, niggardly 



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<jC;u munattan putrefied, putrescent, 
rotten, decayed, decomposed 

,jti. muntin stinking, evil-smelling, 
malodorous; rotting, putrescent, putrid, 
decayed 

Jj natara u i {natr, jUi nitdr) to scatter, 
disperse, strew, sprinkle (Jp a s.th. over 
or on); to write in prose (a s.th.) II to 
scatter, disperse, strew about (a s.th.) 
VI and VIII to be scattered about, be 
strewn about, be dispersed; to scatter, 
disperse; to fall off, fall out 

J3 natr scattering, dispersal, dispersion ; 
prose 

«Ju natra pi. nalarat tiny piece, bit, 
particle; pi. oI^n spangles (on a dress), 
paillettes 

tfjj natri prose, prosaic, in prose; 
small, little, insignificant, trifling, petty; 
C*\jj\j sundries, miscellany |*j^.j tJujLo* 
incidental expenses; petty expenses 

j& ntUdr scattered fragments; float- 
ing particles (dust); tiny pieces; O con- 
fetti 

^ natir scattered, dispersed 

yljj tandtur dispersion (e.g., of a ma- 
chine gun) 

jUwl intitdr dispersal 

j U natir prose writer, prosaist 



jjSit mantur scattered, 
strewn about; prosaic, prose; wall- 
flower, gillyflower (Cheiranthus cheiri; 

toM I Jj^ j^ i^ T ) P rose P<» tr y» free 
verse; see also »L* haba' 

j biA muiandtir scattered 

ujf najuba u (iiid najaba) to be of noble 
birth, be highborn, aristocratic, patrician, 
noble, distinguished, excellent, high- 



minded, generous, magnanimous IV do.; 
to give birth (« to a child), bear (a a 
child); to beget, sire («. s.o.) | l$i* c-jfl 
he had children by her VIII and X to 
choose, select, pick out (* s.th.) 

wjjt najb and XJ- nujaba noble, high- 
minded, generous, magnanimous 

4jU£ najaba nobility, nobleness, noble 
descent, exalted rank or station, emi- 
nence; excellence, superiority, perfection 

w-j£ najlb pi. «_-< nujub, »Lf nuja? 
ba 2 , v^' an j®b °f noble breed; high- 
born, highbred, of noble descent, noble, 
distinguished, aristocratic, patrician; ex- 
cellent, superior, outstanding 

^\J- najjab dromedary rider, courier 

<_jU*xJ1 intijab choice; selection 

~J- najaha a {najh, nujh, ^Uf najdh) to 
turn out well, come off well, succeed; to 
progress well, develop satisfactorily; to 
succeed, have success (j in), be success- 
ful; to pass (oUm^Vl J the examination) 
II and IV to give (0 s.o.) success, let 
(*, 6 s.o., s.th.) succeed, render successful 
(a, s.o., s.th.), make (* s.th.) a success 

^c nujh favorable, successful out- 
come, happy ending; success; satis- 
factory development, good progress 

*>\d najdh favorable, successful out- 
come, happy ending; — (pi. -at) success; 
satisfactory development, good progress; 
passing (of an examination) | L-Ui JJ 
(laqiya) to have success, be successful, 
succeed, meet with success 

^J. najih sound, good (advice, opinion) 

^•bf \ injdh success 

•wj-U najih successful; passing, having 
passed (examination) 

JL^i najada u (najd) to help, aid, assist, 



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1108 



support (o s.o.), stand by s.o. (»); — 
najida a {najad) to sweat, perspire II to 
furnish (a s.th.); to upholster (a s.th.); 
to comb, card, tease (J^i\ al-qutna 
cotton) III — najada IV — najada; to 
travel in the highland (of Arabia) X to 
ask for help (» s.o.), appeal for help 
(b to s.o.), seek aid (a or <_* from s.o.); to 
take liberties, make bold (Jp with s.o.) 

jj- najd pi. jbf nijad highland, up- 
land, tableland, plateau; the Arabian 
highland, Nejd 

^JLf najdi Nejd, Nejdi, native of 
Nejd 

IjJ- najda pi. najaddt help, aid, succor, 
assistance, support; emergency, crisis, 
trouble, difficulty, distress, calamity; 
courage, bravery, intrepidity, undaunt- 
edness; pi. auxiliaries, reinforcements | 
UjuJI !S-uJI help! help! Sju^I ^j, 
approx. : riot squad {Eg.) 

2>\£ nijad sword belt | ^UtJl Jj^ tall, 
of tall stature 

jUi najjdd upholsterer; (pi. oLf) a 
kind of boy scout (Syr,) 

&>U£ najada bravery, steadfastness (in 
battle) 

obi nijada upholsterer's trade, up- 
holstery 

JU^J tanjld upholstering, upholstery 
work 

jj- najada i {najd) to importune (• s.o.) 
JU-L. manajid 2 moles (zool.) 

i»-LJ najid pi. JLsj-ljj nawajid? molar j 
aJb*-l^j ^ ^jjl (abda) to show one's 
teeth, display a hostile, threatening at- 
titude (lS toward s.o.); JU-l_jJL ^^p 
('adaa) to grit one's teeth; oJU-LJ Jp ^yu* 
(ndjidaihi) to have reached the age of 



manhood; Jp -V^JIj kJ *£> to cling stub- 
bornly to ... , stick doggedly to . . . 

j£- najara u {najr) to hew, carve, plane (* 
wood) 

jsi najr heat, hot time of the day 

jUi najjdr pi. -un carpenter, cabinet- 
maker, joiner 

jUi nuj&r origin, descent, stock, root 

Ij\jC. nujara wood shavings 

*jlf nijara woodworking, cabinet- 
work, joinery, carpentry 

j»^a minjar pi. j*~t* manajir 2 plane 
(tool) 

jj>^» manjur pulley; sheave; water- 
wheel; woodwork, paneling, wainscoting 

j£- najaza u (najz) to carry out, execute, 
implement, realize, accomplish, fulfill, 
complete (a s.th.) ; — najiza a (najaz) to 
be carried out, be executed, be imple- 
mented, be realized, be accomplished, be 
completed, be achieved II to carry out, 
execute, implement, realize, effect(uate), 
accomplish (a s.th.); to fulfill, grant, 
answer (a a wish, and the like) III to 
fight, battle, struggle (* against s.o.) IV to 
carry out, execute, implement, realize, 
effect(uate), accomplish, complete, con- 
summate (a s.th.); to do (a work, a job); 
to perform (a an action, an operation); 
to fulfill (a a promise), discharge (a a 
duty); to finish (Jp s.o.) off, deal (Jp 
s.o.) the deathblow X to ask for the 
fulfillment (a of a promise) 

j£ najz and jbf najaz execution, 
implementation, realization, effectuation, 
completion, consummation, accomplish- 
ment, achievement, fulfillment, discharge 

y>jj tanjiz — jUil inj&z 

jtfl inj&z execution, implementation, 



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1109 



r^ 



realization, effectuation; accomplishment, 
achievement, completion, consummation ; 
performance; fulfillment, discharge; pi. 
oljUil accomplishments, successes; a- 
chievements, attainments 

S/»-ll* munajaza and j*-\£ tanajuz 
fight, struggle, contention, strife 

j>-\j najiz completed; full, total, whole, 
entire, complete, consummate 

olj^i* munjazai accomplishments, suc- 
cesses; achievements, attainments 

ijS- najusa u (l^isf. najdsa) and najisa a 
(najas) to be impure, unclean, soiled, 
dirty, sullied, stained, tainted II and 
IV to soil, sully, dirty, pollute, contami- 
nate, defile, stain, taint {a s.th.) V to be or 
become impure, unclean, soiled, sullied, 
polluted, contaminated, defiled, stained, 
tainted; to sully o.s., contaminate o.s., 
defile o.s. 

u »$ najas and 4-b£ najdsa impurity, un- 
cleanness, uncleanliness, dirt, filth, squalor 

jj-jf najis pi. ^Uil anjas impure, 
unclean, defiled, polluted, contaminated, 
soiled, sullied, dirty, filthy, squalid 

fj.4 najis and | _ r ju£ najis incurable, 
fatal (disease) 

j-jj^jj tanjls soiling, sullying, defile- 
ment, contamination, pollution 

jSU naja§i, nijdsl Negus (title of the former 
emperors of Ethiopia) 

j#Ul injas look up alphabetically 

£f naja'a a {naj\ fj4 nuju r ) to be useful, 
beneficial, salutary, have a wholesome 
effect II and IV do. VIII to take refuge 
(t with s.o.), resort, have recourse (* to) ; 
to seek (a rest, and the like) X to seek 
{* pasture, rest, relaxation) 



*£- naj r pi. 9j£* nujvf hamlet, small 
village 

W nuj r a search for food 

leXj- naja'a usefulness; wholesomeness 

*-jf naji useful, beneficial; wholesome, 
healthful, salubrious, salutary; — blood 

»s£ l anja ez more useful ; more wholesome 

«*"'J naji" useful, beneficial; wholesome, 
healthful, salubrious, salutary 

*^x* muntaja' refuge, retreat; recrea- 
tion center; health resort, rest center, 
convalescent home, sanatorium 

^JaJ- najaf pi. Jslf nijdf (sand) hill, dune; 
dam, dike, levee; «_i*Jl an-najaf An 
Najaf (town in central Iraq) 

Si^ najaf a pi. -at chandelier, luster 

1 Jjf najala u (naji) to beget, sire, father 
(a a son) 

Jj£ naji pi. JU:I anjal scion, son; 
progeny, issue 

J*^ najil couch grass, orchard grass 
(Dactylis; bot.); quitch (bot.) 

Jjf 1 anjal 2 , f. t^ najld" 2 large-eyed; 
large, big, wide (eye); gaping (wound) | 
* *&£■ c*J* {ta'na) a blow causing a gaping 
wound; heavy blow or thrust 

J>u* minjal pi. J»-U* manajil 2 scythe, 
sickle 

J^v. minjall sickle -shaped, falciform 

IL>*l* manjala vise 

2 J^I look up alphabetically 

jfi najama u Uyd nujum) to appear, come 
in sight, rise (star), begin, commence, 
set in; to result, follow, ensue, arise, 
proceed, derive, originate, spring (jp or 



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r** 



1110 



j* from) | <CJ J- {qarnuhu) to begin 
to show II to observe the stars; to 
predict the future from the stars, practice 
astrology; to pay in installments V to 
observe the stars, predict the future 
from the stars 

g. najm pi. *j£ nujum installment, 
partial payment; U^c nujuman in 
installments 

J- najm pi. +j£ nujum, jf-\ anjum 
celestial body; star; lucky star; con- 
stellation, asterism; (coll.) herbs, herbage, 
grass | ^Ji ji A (du danab) comet; 
IjouJl *j£ film stars, movie stars 

~a+3~ najma pi. najamat star; asterisk 
{typ.) | vici- ***? mm st&T, movie star; 
^txj 1*4- n. raqs ballet star; X**J\ ^j* 
marad an-n. a disease afflicting horses 

i yj£ najmi star-shaped, stelliform, 
starlike, stellate, stellular, stellar, astral; 
— in installments, installment- (in 
compounds) 

*+-£■ nujaima small star, starlet 

fUi najjdm and ^ munajjim pi. 
-un astrologer 

f*^* man jam pi. »-L. mandjim 2 
source, origin; mine; pit 

{ j^^ manjaml mining (in compounds) 

***£ tanjlm astrology 

fjsy* tnanjum starred; marked with a 
star or asterisk 

{j4 ) ^4 na ?^ u {najw, *\J- najd\ »U£ na* 
jah) to save o.s., be saved, be rescued, 
make for safety, get away (j* from), 
escape (j- s.th.), be delivered (^ from) | 
4-^j {£■ (bi-nafsihi) or **~jj Lf {bi- 
ruhihi) to save o.s. (j* from); «uL^ [d 
(bi-hayatihi) to save one's life, save 
one's skin; — {najw, <jji£ najwari) to 
entrust a secret (* to s.o.) II and IV to 



deliver, save, rescue, bring to safety (o 
s.o., j- from) III to whisper {*_->» to s.o. 
s.th.), entrust (i_j » to s.o. s.th. secret), 
take into one's confidence (» s.o.), confide 
(e in s.o.) j 4~JiJ j^ij (nafsahu) to solilo- 
quize, talk to o.s., say to o.s. VI to 
whisper to each other, carry on a whisper- 
ed conversation, converse intimately, 
confidentially, exchange secrets, ex- 
change ideas VIII to whisper into each 
other's ear (* s.th.) X to save o.s. (^ 
from), escape (^ s.th.); to be delivered 
(<> from) 

\jf najan deliverance, release, rescue 

Sl^f najah escape, flight; deliverance, 
rescue; salvation, redemption; safety 

jd najw excrement 

ly~ najwa pi. #Ui nija elevation, 
rising ground, upland | ^ lyi J free 
from, far from, a long way from 

tSj4 najwa pi. ^jlJ- najdwd con- 
fidential talk, secret conversation; solil- 
oquy 

j£ najiy pi. ^jfl anjiya secret; (pi. 
»Ltl anjiya* 2 ) confidant, intimate friend, 
bosom friend 



manjan safety, security 



from) 



SUw, man jah pi. ^-L. viand jin safe 
place, haven, refuge; safeguard, pro- 
tection; rescue, salvation | j* SU*u oS* 
to be safe from, be secure from, be safe- 
guarded against 

\fyS tanjiya rescue, salvation, de- 
liverance 

*U-L# munajdh secret conversation; 
confidential talk; dialogue with God, 
fervent prayer (esp. in mysticism) | 
r}jj^ SU-U* spiritism, spiritualism 

p~* munajjin rescuer, savior, deliverer 



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Lr »u 



1^4- nahaba i a (nahb, <_^ nahib) and VIII 
to sob, weep, cry, wail, lament 

x^£- nahb weeping, crying, sobbing, 
sighing, moaning, wail(ing), lamenta- 
tion; time, period, term, span, inter- 
val; death | <^- ^^1 qadd nakhahu to 
fulfill one's vow, redeem one's pledge; to 
pass away, die, expire 

^^ nahib loud weeping, wail(ing), 
lamentation 

£*£■ nahata i u (naht) to hew, dress (a stone 
or wood), plane, smooth, face; to carve, 
cut out, hew out, chisel, sculpture; to 
engrave (a s.th,, J* on stone); to form, 
shape (a s.th.) 

£*£■ naht wood or stone dressing, 
woodwork, stonework; sculpturing, sculp- 
ture; fusing two words into one port- 
manteau word with reduced components 
{lex,) | c^S\ ^Jlj beautifully sculptured, 
splendidly shaped (body) 

oUi nahhdt stonemason, stonecutter, 
stone dresser; sculptor 

<i\^ nuhdta shavings, parings, chips, 
splinters, slivers 



minhat pi. 



mandhit 2 



chisel 

*Sj**x» manhuta pi. -at relief (sculpture) | 
hj& %j>^* (hajarlya) stone relief 

j£ nahara u (nahr) to cut the throat (a 
of an animal), slaughter, butcher, kill 
(a an animal) VI to fight; to kill each 
other, hack each other to pieces, engage 
in internecine fighting VIII to commit 
suicide; O to be scuttled (ship) | ^^ol 
\JcJ> (sanqan) to hang o.s., commit sui- 
cide by hanging 

j£- nahr killing, slaughter(ing), butch- 
ering | jjhjl +ji yaum an-n. Day of 
Immolation (on the 10th of Zu'lhijja) 



ji. nahr pi. jj£- nuhur upper portion 
of the chest, juncture of chest and neck, 
throat 

jd nihr and j j£ nihrir pi. jjj. 
nahdrlr 2 skilled, adept, proficient, versed, 
experienced (j in) 

j^- nahlr and jj>^* manhur killed, 
slaughtered, butchered 

j**L* manhar throat, neck 

jU^jl intihdr suicide; O scuttling 

j3*z* muntahir suicide (person) 

ly& nahiza nature, natural disposition [ 
«>j*J! «_~i» tayyib an-n. good-natured, 
good-humored; «>>^JI sjf high-minded, 
noble-minded, of generous disposition 

iJ ^- nahasa a (nahs) to make (« s.o.) un- 
happy, bring (• s.o.) bad luck; — nahusa 
u (i*j4. nuhusa, Uj- nahasa) and 
nahisa a (ndhas) to be unlucky, ominous, 
ill-fated, calamitous, ill-boding, portend 
evil II to cover, coat, or sheathe with 
copper, to copper (a s.th.) 

( _ r *£ nahs pi. tfj*- nuhus misfortune, 
calamity, disaster 

K j~£- nahs, nahis unlucky, luckless, 
ominous, calamitous, disastrous, ill- 
fated, ill-starred, sinister, ill-omened, ill- 
boding 

^Ui nahhds coppersmith 

^-U: nuhas copper; (tun.) a small 
coin | j}l^\ ^{^ (as far 2 ) brass 

^\d nuhasi made of copper; made of 
brass | *~JJ- il>V T brass-wind instruments 
(mm.) 

^f-^-L* mandhis 2 ominous events 

u^j P ^* manhus luckless, ill-fated, star- 
crossed 



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1112 



<Ja£> nahufa u (i»L£ nahafa) to be thin, 
slim, slender, lean, skinny; to become 
thin, lose weight IT to make thin, 
weaken, debilitate, enervate, emaciate 

4*Ui nahafa leanness, thinness, slen- 
derness, slimness; enervation, emacia- 
tion, wasting away 

ijA~£ nahif pi. J>[^. nihaf, *\JsJ- 
nuhafa' 2 thin, slim, slender, slight; 
delicate, of fragile build; lean, gaunt, 
enervated, debilitated, emaciated; weak, 
thin (voice, sound) 

ij^*i. manhaf dieting resort, weight- 
reducing resort 

«J*j*C manhuf thin, .slim, slender, 
slight; lean, gaunt, enervated, debilitated, 
emaciated 

J*i nahala u a, nahula u and nahila a (J^ 
nuhul) to be emaciated; to waste away, 
lose weight, grow thin; — nahala a 
to make a donation, make a present 
(ft to s.o.); (nahl) to ascribe, attribute, 
impute {wrongly, unduly) (a « to s.o. 
s.th.) IV to make thin, enervate, emaciate 
{» s.o.); to weaken (a s.th.) V and esp. 
VIII to ascribe to o.s., claim for o.s. 
(4 — iJ), assume unduly, presume, ar- 
rogate to o.s. (a s.th.); to embrace (a a 
religion); to borrow, adopt, take over 
(a foreign words); to take Tip (a s.th.) | 
f^UVI J**sJl to profess Islam; <u* I J*^ji 
(ismahu) to assume s.o.'s name; J^ol 
5jI^VI (a'rablya) to claim to be a Bed- 
ouin; jl-uV J^' (a'dar) to think up ex- 
cuses, make excuses, use pretexts or sub- 
terfuges; a"$3 L^ 1 J>o! (saksiyata) to 
pass o.s. off as s.o., purport to be..., 
impersonate s.o. 

J>i nahl false attribution (esp. of an- 
cient Arabic verse to a poet) ; (coll. ; n. un. 
5) bees, bee 

iisi nahla bee; (eg,) top (children's toy) 



'<&£ nihla pi. J*: nihal present, gift, 
donation; creed, faith, sect 

<JL^ nahhdl pi. -un plagiarist; trans- 
mitter (esp. of ancient Arabic poetry) 
who wrongly attributes a poet's verses to 
another; beekeeper, apiarist, apiculturist 

4} \d nihdla beekeeping, apiculture 

J^ nuhul leanness, skinniness, thin- 
ness, slimness, slenderness; enervation, 
emaciation, wasting away 

J^ nahll and J^U ndhil pi. J* 
nahla, J*: nuhhal thin, slim, slender, 
lean, skinny; enervated, emaciated, 
gaunt; leptosome (type); narrow (street); 
weak, thin (voice) 

J**i» manhal pi. J*-Lu manahil 2 beehive; 
apiary, apicultural station 

JU^Jl intiJial undue assumption, ar- 
rogation; literary theft, plagiarism 

J^jm manhul attributed to the wrong 
author; not genuine, spurious ; apocryphal 

J»^i* muntahil pi. -un plagiarist 

J*«xi* muntahal taken on falsely; pla- 
giarized J J>-r-4 **.! (ism) assumed name, 
alias, pseudonym, nom de guerre 

^ nahama i (nahm, *J~ nahim, d\f- nahamdn) 
to clear one's throat; to wheeze, pant, 
gasp 

A£ nuhdm flamingo 

^ nahnu we 

£jj£ nahnaha and II tanahnaha to clear 
one's throat, to hem, say "ahem" 

<m^ nahnaha hem, hawk, little cough 

(j^) U 1 naha a u (nahw) to wend one's 
way <«, a to), go, walk, move, turn (», a 
to, toward), take the road (a to), go in 



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1113 



y*> 



the direction (a of) | *j£- U (nahioahu) 
to follow s.o., follow s.o.'s example, be 
guided by s.o. or s.th.; to imitate s.o.; 
to be of the same nature, of the same 
kind, on the same line as . . . , be like . . . ; 
t_jUI jd Ui to walk toward the door; 
i_jLJ1 j£ At U£ to show s.o. to the door 
II to put aside, push away, brush aside 
(a s.th.); to remove, take away (jp a 
s.th. from); to eliminate, shelve (o s.o.), 
remove (^p « s.o. from a position) IV to 
turn away, avert (^p Ojuu ba$arahu f an 
one's eyes from) ; to turn (J* against s.o.), 
assail, overcome (t-» Jp s.o. with) ; to heap 
(l-» J* upon s.o. reproach, or the like), 
shower (c-» Jp s.o. with); to turn, apply 
o.s., attend (Jp to s.th.) V to step aside, go 
away, withdraw, move away, fall back 
(a p or <j* from) ; to turn away ; to forgo, 
renounce, waive {&■ s.th.); to abandon, 
give up, surrender, yield, relinquish (^p 
s.th.); to retreat, retire (a to a place) 
VIII to go, walk, move («, a to, toward), 
head for (o, a); to turn (a to, toward); to 
lean (J on); to turn away, retire, with- 
draw (a to) | v-U i f£2\ (ndhiyatan) and 
LjU- (^^1 to turn aside; to withdraw; 
to keep apart, keep off; <b5"j) aj j\j f j*ti\ 
{zawiyatan, ruknan) to withdraw to a 
corner; to be sitting or standing in a 
corner 

yi nahw pi. *\J-\ anha direction; 
aide; section, part; way, course, method, 
manner, mode, fashion; (with foil, genit.) 
corresponding to, analogous to, similar 
to, like, somewhat like; {gram.) gram- 
mar; syntax | L jd Jp {nahwi) in 
the manner of, as; I* j£- Jp (nahwin) 
rather, pretty much; j^i\ I.U Jp in 
this manner, this way; in this respect; 
_pjl li» Jp, and so forth, and so on; 
loUl 4cUl j& j at about the seventh 
hour, at about 7 o'clock, around seven; 
i$j£ ,y» as far as I am concerned, as for 
me, for my part, I for one; j- \y£ 



(nahwan) approximately, roughly, about, 
circa (with foil, figure); ^jVI »l^l j 
(a, il-ard) all over the earth; *L^I JSj 
(ajj^J.) or) iUJl {'dlam) all over the world; 
jjUil _^*Ji (muqdrin) comparative gram- 



yd nahwa (prep.) in the direction of, 
toward, to; according to, in analogy 
with, similar to, like, as, as for instance; 
approximately, roughly, about, around, 



,jj£ nahwi syntactical; grammatical; 
grammarian; philologist 

^^ manhan pi. ^L. manahin aim, 
goal, object, end, purpose; manner of 
acting, mode of conduct, behavior; di- 
rection; (rhetorical, literary) form; field, 
domain, realm, province, bailiwick, sphere 
(fig.) | SLJ-I ij*-^* tn. l-hayah walks of life 

2u*jj tanhiya removal, elimination [ 
oIaJI "L^cj self-elimination, self-effacement 
{psych.) 

r\j ndhin pi. »U^ nuhah grammarian; 
philologist 

ij-li nahiya pi. *-\y nawahin side; 
direction; viewpoint, standpoint, aspect; 
region, area, section; sphere, domain, 
field; district, canton; (TV.) subdivision 
of a #La5 qada', roughly corresponding 
to a county; off side, secluded part, 
corner (e.g., of a room); nahiyata in the 
direction of, toward, to | <L»-Ij <> with 
regard to, in respect to, as to, as for, 
concerning, regarding, on the part of; 



i £ J +\ i~-t> j* {ukrd) on the other hand; 
('askariya) from a 
/- de 



-Ul 



military standpoint; <^j : ^ 



jure; 4-**lj V"U ^ {wdqilya) de facto; 
^-IjJI JU sound in body; ^(jiil .»■*<£* 
mutaaddid an-n. many-sided; *~> ^y 
jjfljjJl in every respect; 4*»-U j* . . . V 
in no way, absolutely not; 4jjUii-i V~^' 



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1114 



(hadarhja) the cultural aspect (of s.th.); 
ijjSliJI j>-!>Jt (fikriya) intellectual trends 

f- nakk pi. p-U^l ankdk mat; rug, carpet 

oJe; nakaba u (nakb) and VIII to select, pick, 
choose (a s.th.); to choose, make one's 
choice; to vote, go to the polls; to elect 
(. s.o.) 

i^Jtf nakb selection, choice; a drink to 
s.o.'s health | *j£ V^ {sariba) to drink 
to s.o.'s health, toast s.o. 

SJc nukba pi. «_J^ nukab selected 
piece, selected item, selected passage; 
the pick, cream, elite, flower 

<_jU*xJ! intikdb pi. -at election {pol.); 
choice; selection | ^yu-UI «-jU*^V! natural 
selection (biol.) 

tjsU^jl intikabi of or pertaining to an 
election or elections, election (used attrib- 
utively); elective; electoral; selective | 
4jjU^JV1 XZ\X>\ selective subjectivism 
(philos.); ^jUcjI tfjAA (ma'raka) elec- 
tion campaign 

»_*>*t> nakib and t-*i-xi* muntakib pi. 
-un elector (esp., poL), voter, constituent 

<~>j**^* mankub lean, emaciated 

i^J*^* muntakab chosen, elected, se- 
lected, hand-picked; elected candidate; 
(pi. -at) select team, representative team 
(in sports); pi. oLi^L* selected pieces, 
selected items, selected passages; an- 
thology 

j&- nakara u i (nakr y j^- nakir) to snort; 
to snore; to gnaw (j on s.th.), bore, 
burrow, eat (j into s.th.; worm); to 
eat away (a at s.th.) ; to enervate, sap, 
ruin, decay (a s.th.); — nakira a (nakar) 
to be eaten away, worm-eaten, rotten, 
decayed, full of holes; to spoil, rot, 



decay; to decompose, disintegrate, crum- 
ble 

j£ nakr snorting, snort; snoring, 
snore; — nakar decay, rot, rottenness; 
tooth decay, caries (med.) 

J£ nakir and _^U nakir worm-eaten; 
rotting, decaying; carious (tooth; med.) 

j^- nakir snort(ing), snoring, snore; 
grunt(s) 

J^L» minkar pi. j^L* mandkir* nostril; 
(sing, and du.) nose 

jU»i» minkar pi. ^^L* mandkir 2 nos- 
tril; nose 

i~>j£ nakraba to eat holes into s.th. (*), 
eat away (a at); to hollow out (a s.th.) 

<~>jj£ nukrub pi. ^j^ nakarib* 
hole; cavity, hollow; cell; honeycomb 

Jz nakaza a (nakz) to bore into or through 
s.th. (a; worm) 

^jJt- nakasa a u (naks) to prick, goad, prod, 
urge on, drive on (a an animal) 

^lifi nakkds drover; cattle dealer; 
slave trader; white slaver 

<*\jd nikasa cattle trade; slave trade; 
white -slave traffic 

jjJnI* minkas pi. j-aJ-bu mandkis 2 spur, 
goad, prod (for driving cattle) 

^U*^. minkas pi. ( _ r ^-\^» mandkis 2 spur, 
goad, prod (for driving cattle) 

Jij^ naksu§ pi. ^i^- nakdsis 2 gill, 
branchia (respiratory organ of fish) 

Jei V to clear one's throat, hawk, spit out, 
expectorate 

9 \jfi- nuka% nikd" pi. «*& nuku r spinal 
marrow, spinal cord; bone marrow, 



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1115 



eJJb 



medulla; brain | O J-j^--U pj*" 1 " (musta* 
til) brain stem, medulla oblongata (anat.) 

<clii nuka'a phlegm, mucus, sputum, 
expectoration 

Ja£ nakala u (nakl) to sift, bolt, sieve out 
(a s.th.); to strain (a s.th.) V and VIII do. 

Jit naK (coll.; n.un. S) palms, date 
palms 

JJi nahll palms, date palms 

iJUi nukala residue left in a sieve; 
bran; waste, refuse | <uil »J- gji-l ^ 
iJLki la yusdwl mil" a udnihl nukdlatan 
he isn't worth a bent nickel 

Ji*^ munkal, munkul pi. J^li* main^ 
HZ 2 sieve 

ji naJcima a (nakam) and V to clear one's 
throat, hawk, spit out; to expectorate, 
clear out mucus 

4*\J£ nukdma phlegm, mucus, sputum, 
expectoration 

JL.lii *j£ gudda nukamiya hypophysis, 
pituitary body {anat.) 

(_>£) & nakd u {IJ£ nakiva) to be proud, 
haughty, supercilious (J* toward s.o.) 
II and IV to inflame, incite, excite, 
stimulate, arouse, awaken (a s.th.) 

lj£ nakwa haughtiness, arrogance; 
pride, dignity, sense of honor, self- 
respect; high-mindedness, generosity 

A! nadda % (nadd, iJtf nadad, s\Xi niddd f ijAJ 
nududy JUJlJ nadtd) to run away, flee; to 
slip away; to slip out, escape (<j* from 
s.o. , exclamation, sigh, gasp) ; to break out 
spontaneously (laughter); to escape (j« 
b.o.) II to expose, show up, compromise 
(<-» s.o.); to criticize (y s.o. or s.th.), 
find fault (<~> with) 



Ju nadd high hill; — nadd, nidd incense 
(of aloeswood, with ambergris, musk and 

frankincense) 

^ nidd pi. j I Ail anddd equal, (a)like, 
same; an equal, a peer; partner; antag- 
onist, rival 

Jb-ij rmdld pi. *l jJJ nudadd" 2 equal; 
rival 

OjJLj tandld pi. -at criticism; revile- 
ment, abuse, disparagement, defamation 

ujjG nadaba u (nudb) to mourn, lament, 
bewail (« the deceased); to appoint, 
assign (J » s.o. to an office), detail (J » 
s.o. for a job, for a task); to send as a 
representative or delegate, to delegate, 
depute, deputize (* s.o.); to commission, 
charge, entrust (c s.o., <_> with); — nadiba 
a (nadab) to scar over, cicatrize, heal 
IV — nadiba VIII to appoint, assign 
(J « s.o. to an office), detail (J o s.o. for a 
job, for a task); to commission, charge, 
empower, authorize (J o s.o. to do 
s.th., ^ with), order (J « s.o. to do s.th.); 
to entrust (J • to s.o. a task); {mil.) to 
detach, detail, transfer (j * s.o. to); 
(with <~J6 najsdhu) to apply o.s., de- 
vote o.s., dedicate o.s. (J to s.th.); to 
give (a a country) the mandate (J* over); 
to comply readily (J with an order or 
instruction), be willing, be prepared, 
stand ready (J to); to present o.s. (J( 
to s.o.), turn (Jl toward, to) 

<^J3 nadh weeping, wailing, lamenta- 
tion; lament, dirge, elegy; assignment, 
commissioning, delegation, deputation ; 
appointment, authorization, mandation 

^Aj nadab pi. .yl-Ul anddb, <->jJj 
nudub scar, cicatrice 

4jJLJ nadba pi. .-jIjGI anddb, ^j^ 
nudub scar, cicatrice; scabby wound 



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1116 



4jAj wudba lamentation for the dead; 
elegy; dirge, funeral song 

4j!aj nadddba pi. -at hired female 
mourner 

u-jJU* mandab pi. *_oL. manddib 2 wail, 
lamentation | i^JLil ^L Bab el Mandeb 
(strait between SW Arabia and Africa; 
ffec^r.) 

t^lArii irUidab deputation, appoint- 
ment; commissioning, charging, authori- 
zation; detailing, detachment, assign- 
ment, mission; (pi. -at) mandate (over a 
territory); mandatory rule | ^IxJVi *Jj^ 
daulat al-int. mandatory power; SU- 
CjLIj&V' lajnat al-int. Mandate Com- 
mission (of the League of Nations) 

cjlJcii intidabl mandatory | *Lj1axj1 SjU 
(iddra) mandatory administration 

loiU nadiba pi. -a£, v-*!^ nawadib 2 
hired female mourner 

*->jAL* mandub bewailed, bemoaned, 
mourned, lamented; regrettable, deplor- 
able, lamentable; — (pi. -un) deputy, 
delegate, agent, functionary, commission- 
er; representative; representative of the 
press, correspondent, reporter (of a 
newspaper) ; plenipotentiary, authorized 
agent; {J si. Law) recommended | <->j-U* 
^IxJl insurance agent; ^j^4 v^"^* (**?&") 
commercial representative, agent of a 
firm {com,); ^U- <~>j-&* (kass) special 
envoy; fU «_jj4u (samin) High Com- 
missioner; oUI 3j* VJ"^ ambassador 
extraordinary; ^ji* <->j.C« (mufawwad) 
plenipotentiary, authorized agent; (difl,) 

envoy; ^J** jJjj * i ^' <3>* V-***"** 
ambassador extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary (official title of ambassa- 
dors) 

ijjJll* mandubiya delegation; High 
Commission 

<_-> JiiL. muntadab deputized, delegated; 



commissioned, charged; entrusted; ap- 
pointed; assigned, detailed | hJc^ <Jji 
(dattla) mandatory power 

£-jJ nadaha a (nadk) to extend, expand, 
enlarge (a s.th.) 

i*—U nadha, nudha wide, open space; 
freedom (of action) | 4ic *»-JU V (nadAafo) 
it is indispensable, unavoidable, inevi- 
table; jp i*-Jo J j^| V (ajidu, nadhatan) 
I feel compelled to . . . 

S»-j.u* manduha pi. ^-j>L. wwmadiA 2 and 
*-4r- muntadah alternative, choice; free- 
dom of action | ^ <i As-jJix. "^ {man* 
duhaia) it is indispensable, absolutely 
necessary, mandatory, imperative for 
him; (*-.Ux» or) 4*-jX* ^ till it is up to 
you, it is optional for you; j- 4a-jXUy i 
(lam yara mandukatan) to feel obligated, 
feel compelled to ... ; a*-jX* cJJ\ j (vxtqt) 
there is ample time for it 

\)J3 nadara u (nadr t jj JL> nudur) to be rare; 
to be uncommon, unusual; — nadura u 
(Sjloj nadara) to be strange, odd, queer, 
unusual, extraordinary V to make fun 
(o* or Jc of); to joke, jest VI to tell each 
other stories and jokes 

jAj nadr rare; strange, odd 

♦j4J nadra, nudra and »jj JL> nudum 
rarity, rareness; nadratan rarely, seldom | 
SjoJI j rarely, seldom 

jjjl andar pi. jjUI anadir 2 (tun,) 
threshing floor 

j-Ul andar 2 rarer 

SjJu* mandara pL j^L* tnanddir 2 (tun.) 
threshing floor; see also below 

oljiU- munddardt causeries on amus- 
ing, witty topics 

jXJ tanaddur amusement, fmvmaking, 
joking 



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jX, 



jj>bj tanddur gay chat 

jiU nadir rare; infrequent; strange, 
odd, unusual, uncommon; excellent, pre- 
cious, priceless; an eccentric, a crank, an 
odd fellow; Ij^U nddiran rarely, seldom | 
jjUJI j rarely, seldom; JliM jiL* unpar- 
alleled, singular, unique; Sj^U U^ ('umla) 
specie, hard money 

*j*\j nddira pi. ji\jj naioddir 2 rarity, 
rare thing, rare phenomenon; rare, un- 
common word; phenomenon, prodigy, 
extraordinary person; funny, droll story, 
anecdote, joke; accident, incident 

2 G Sj-u.. mandara (for IJ&L*, esp. eg.) pi. 
jjU.* manddir 2 reception parlor for male 
visitors; jjL. (= ^JLf ) parties 

(j-oj nadasa u to throw down, bring to the 
ground (<► s.o.); to revile, defame, dis- 
credit (* s.o.) 

JsAJ nadafa i (nadf) to tease, comb, or card 
cotton 

JsJj nadf teasing, combing, carding 
(of cotton) j «_jjcJI Jl$>- /aA-az an-n. card, 
carding machine 

iiAj nudfa pi. (JsAj nudaf flock {of 
wool); flake | «IiJI **JLj n. at-talj snow- 
flake 

JbJj mad*/ and «J»j-LL4 manduf carded, 
teased (cotton) 

J»IjG naddaf cotton carder, cotton 
teaser 

(JsOi* mirvdaf pi. o^l^* manadip teasing 
bow (for carding cotton) 

: JjU nadala u (nadl) to snatch away (a 
s.th.) 

Q J^j nadl = <J Jj 
iJl^u minddla rammer 



J^U Ttarfii pi. Joj nudul waiter; servant 
who waits on table 

2 Jo^ mandal, J-uil ^>jj> darb al-m. look up 
alphabetically 

8 Jj Ax. look up alphabetically 

>Jlj nadima a (nadam, SuIjJ nadama) to 
repent (J* of), rue, regret (J* s.th.) 
Ill to drink, carouse (* with s.o.) V = I 
VI to drink together, carouse together 

^JLj nadam, Aa\jS nadama remorse, re- 
pentance, regret 

fjj nadim pi. >LjJ nudama 2 , *lJLJ 
nidmn drinking companion; friend, in- 
timate, confidant 

oLju rt adman 2 pi. ij\jj nadama re- 
penting, repentant, rueful, remorseful, 
regretful 

l»-Cw* mandam remorse, repentance, re- 
gret 

ioL. munddama drinking companion- 
ship, intimate friendship 

*Xj tanaddum remorse, repentance, 
regret 

|oU nadim pi. *Iaj nudddm repenting, 
repentant, rueful, remorseful, regretful 

,oL* munddim drinking companion, 
boon companion, intimate 

*aj^u mutanaddim repenting, repent- 
ant, rueful, remorseful, regretful 

*-U nadaha a (nadh) to drive, urge, spur on 
(o s.o.); to drive away (o s.o.) 

(jJ6) IjJ wa^a w (nadw) to call (o s,o.); to 
invite ; to call together, convoke, convene, 
summon (* a meeting); to get together, 
meet, convene, assemble, gather; — ^-U 
nadiya a (<^JJ nadan> Sjloj nadawa, SjJJ 



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nuduwa) to be moist, damp, dewy, wet | 
^*i-i 4 ,j£j ^ an embarrassing or 
shocking thing, a disgraceful thing II to 
moisten, wet, bedew (a s.th.) Ill to shout, 
call out, cry out, exclaim; to call (<~> or » 
s.o. or for s.o., also J*), summon (* s.o., 
also Jp); to call out, shout (o to s.o.); to 
call for s.th. (<_->), invite to s.th. (^); to 
proclaim, announce (*_> s.th.) ; to em- 
phasize (v s.th.); O to announce, act as 
announcer {radio); to cry one's wares, 
hawk ( J* s.th. to be sold) | Uajj <> ^jj 
(nudiya) to be proclaimed president 
IV = II; to be noble, generous, magnani- 
mous V to be moistened, be bedewed; to 
show o.s. generous, liberal, openhanded 
VI to call out to each other, shout back 
and forth; to undertake together (J a 
task), join forces, work together (J for a 
purpose or cause) VI and VIII to get to- 
gether, meet, convene, gather, assemble, 
form a club 

SjAJ nadwa council; debating group, 
study group ; seminar, session ; conference ; 
club j ^Low* SjJiJ (sukufiya) press con- 
ference; ljXS\ jb (historically) town hall; 
parliament 

ojjj nuduwa and Zj\j3 naddtva moist- 
ness, moisture, dampness 

fjJa nadan pi. *\X>\ andd\ aj-OI andiya 
moistness, moisture, dampness, wetness; 
dew; generosity, liberality, magnanimity 

Jo nadin and oL-U nadydn 2 moist, 
damp | ,Ji$3l ^Xt n. al-kaff generous, 
liberal, openhanded 

^X nadiy moist, damp; tender, deli- 
cate | <Ja&\ tjXi n. al-fcaff generous, lib- 
eral, openhanded 

»Ijl> nicta* pi. -at shout; call; exclama- 
tion; summons; public announcement; 
proclamation, appeal; address; vocative 
(gram.) | ^Ui-Vi *\X call for help, 
distress signal; *IjJI J»_^>- harf an~n. 



interjection {gram.); J *\X jX*\ (asdara) 
to issue a proclamation to 

SliL. mundd&h calling, shouting; call; 
vocative; roll call; calling (upon s.o.); 
appeal (to s.o., for s.th.); public notice, 
announcement; proclamation | Sbbll «j> 
bai f al-m. public sale, auction 

ilj nadin pi. \X\ andiya y s\jt nawa* 
din club; circle; association; clubhouse | 



Lj ^U (riyddi) athletic club; ^jUI jU 



clubhouse; J»LviJI ^li n. d-$ubbd$ offi- 
cers' club 

^Ai4 munaddan wet, damp; bedewed, 
dewy; refreshing 

jlx* munadin caller; herald; town 
crier; auctioneer 

<ji\x* munddan noun in the vocative 
{gram.) 

4j-U* mundiya pi. -at disgraceful, evil 
deed; insult, abuse, affront 

(_$J£L. muntadan pi. oUul. munta* 
daydt gathering place, assembly room; 
club 

jXi nadara u i (nadr, j/X> nudur) to dedicate, 
consecrate (ajj a s.th. to God); to vow, 
make a vow [ ol -ui CjjX> I vow to God 
that . . . , I swear by God that . . . ; 
a a~Ju J* jlj to vow to o.s., make the 
solemn pledge to ...; — nadira a (nadar) 
to have been warned, be on one's guard 
(»_j against) IV to warn (c-» 6 s.o. of or 
against), caution (u-» « s.o. against), ad- 
monish (* s.o.) ; to announce (*~> » to 
s.o. s.th.), give notice or warning (u~> « 
to s.o. of), notify in advance (* s.o., <_j 
of); to herald (<~> s.th. ominous), be an 
alarming indication (i_> of coming events) | 
4y* JLL BjJLil (bi-taslimi manzilihi) he 
gave him notice to vacate the premises 



jjj nadr pi. jjXt 



, Cj\jjJ3 nu* 



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1119 



C> 



durdt vow, solemn pledge; votive offer- 
ing, ex-voto 

^JL* nadir pi. j-U nudur consecrated 
to God; vowed, solemnly pledged; warn- 
er; herald, harbinger, forerunner; warn- 
ing; alarm system; alarm; alarming indi- 
cation (of imminent danger) | O J*^\ J& 
n. al-kajar air-raid warning 

jlJUl inddr pi. -at warning; announce- 
ment, notice; admonition; air-raid warn- 
ing, alarm | O \yr £*U^ £Ah -J^ 1 
(bi-vmqu r gdrdt jawwiya) or jlk^t^ jU»1 
iji-l (li-l-aktdr) air-raid warning; j\&\ 
JL$J {nihd'i) ultimatum; O jl-kVl *jLi^» 
saffdrat al-i. warning siren 

jibJ tanddur syndrome {med.) 

jjU nadir one who has made a 
vow 

jjX^ mandur solemnly pledged, vow- 
ed, consecrated to God 

jJL. mundir warner, cautioner 

Sj-L. mundira alarm signal; warning 
sign (<_-» against) 

SjiUii aUmanddira the Mundhirites (an- 
cient Arab rulers of al-Hira, named after 
al-Mundir b. an-Nu f man) 

JjL) nadula u (aJIIj nadala, aJjIj* nudula) 
to be low, base, mean, vile, despicable, 
debased, depraved 

(3 JL» nadl pi. Jljjl anddly JjJJ nudul 
low, base, mean, vile, despicable, de- 
based, depraved; coward 

JjJlJ nadll pi. »VaJ nudaM 2 , JIJJ mdaZ 
low, base, mean, vile, despicable, debased, 
depraved; coward 

II 1i naddla depravity 

fcij mrbij pi. ^Aj nardblj 2 mouthpiece 
of a narghile 



^xij narbls pi. j^^J nardbls 2 mouthpiece 
of a narghile 



>.) 



f _ r j r J narjis, nirjis narcissus (bot.) 
\~»>-j narjislya narcissism 

J^y narjll see J^j^J (alphabetically) 

iL>-j-' narjila pi. -a(, J~rl/ nar&fil 2 
water pipe, narghile 

ij-' nardl backgammon, tricktrack 

^jy nardln nard, spikenard 

jiy narfaza to make nervous (» s.o.) 
ijkj narfaza nervousness 

ji^U munarfaz (pal.-syr.) nervous 

£j naranj bitter orange 

xijjA\ an-nurmj t an-nurweg, also ^jj naruj 
and £jj^l Norway 

,j^jj nurimji,nurwegi,a>lso t j r jj' narujl 
Norwegian 

'j nazza i {nazz, >„>* ncms) to seep, trickle, 
ooze, or leak, through; to exude moisture, 
let water seep through; to vibrate (string) 

'j nazz, nizz, Sjl>" nuzdza pi. jj'J nuzuz 
seepage, leakage water 

>* nazz swift, nimble, agile, lively, 
sprightly; changeable, inconstant, un- 
steady, fickle 

I j nazza, nizza (sensuous) passion, 
lust 

' Jm j nazlz unsteady, inconstant, un- 
stable; sensuous, passionate 

~'j nazaha a i {nazh, rjj nuzuh) to be 
far off, be distant; to leave (j- s.th.), 
depart, emigrate (je from); to immigrate 



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1120 



(Jl to); to wander, migrate, rove, roam, 
range; O to march off, pull out (troops); 
pass. «u r'J nuziha bihi to emigrate, 
be away from home, live abroad; -— 
(nazh) and IV to scoop out, bail out, 
empty (a s.th.); to drain, dry out (a a 
well, a ditch, a latrine, and the like) 
VIII to emigrate 

**j nazh scooping out, emptying; 
draining, drainage 

*->' nazdh pi. -^\'j\ anzah muddy 
water 

£j_> nuzuh emigration; migration (esp. 
from rural areas) 



XL JJ 



nazilh and 



&■> 



nazih far-off, 



faraway, distant, remote 



^yU nazih far-off, faraway, distant, 
remote; going away from home, moving 
to other lands, leaving for distant shores, 
emigrating; emigrant; one who scoops 
out, bails out or empties, a latrine cleaner 

j j nazr and j/j nazir little; insignificant, 
trivial, petty; trifle, small amount, insig- 
nificant number, negligible portion | j'J 
d-j^i-l taciturn, of few words; JJ5 jj' 
tiny amount 

9 j naza'a i (naz r ) to pull out, extract (a 
s.th.); to tear out, take out, remove 
(a s.th.); to strip off (a e.g., leaves from 
a branch), strip, pull or tear off (a a 
covering, etc.); to take away, strike, 
cross off (jp a s.th. from); to cause to go 
away or to disappear (« s.o.); to take off, 
shed (a a garment); to strip, divest, 
deprive, rob (* ^ or ^ s.o. of s.th.); to 
wrest, take away {a j* from s.o. s.th., 
possession, right, reputation, etc.); to 
remove {» s.o. from a position), depose, 
dismiss, fire, cashier (» s.o.); — (fjj 
nuzu) to desire (J! s.th.), wish, long, yearn, 
pine ( J I for) ; to incline, tend, have an incli- 



nation or a tendency ( J I to) ; to move, pro- 
ceed, go, betake o.s., repair ( Jl to) ; to emi- 
grate (Jl to); to take on, take over, adopt 
( J( s.th.), resort ( Jl to, e.g., to a method); 
to absent o.s., depart ( je from) ; to desist, 
abstain, refrain (j* from), keep clear (^ 
of), give up, avoid, eschew (^ s.th.); 
(naz v ) to be in the throes of death | 
Jl f-jU <cl* 9j (nazi*un) he felt a desire 
for . . ., discovered his inclination to . . .; 
<oLj £> (Uydbahu) to undress; to take 
s.o.'s clothes off, undress s.o.; j!j}\ 9} 
(qiSra) to peel (^ s.th.); ► t5 iJi iSL 9) 
(milklyata $-§.) to expropriate s.th. II to 
remove, take away (a s.th.) Ill to 
fight, struggle, contend, dispute (• with 
s.o.), combat (a s.th.); to contest, chal- 
lenge ( <j s.th.); to attempt to wrest (a « 
from s.o. s.th.), contest (a » s.o.'s right 
to s.th.); to be in the throes of death; 
to urge, drive (Jl » s.o. to do s.th.; esp. of 
the heart) VI to contend with one another; 
to rival (a for s.th.), contest each other's 
right (a to), carry on a dispute, be at 



variance (a 



over) | 



aJf 4£jlj 



{dahk, gadab) he was torn between laughter 
and anger VIII to pull out, extract, pluck 
out, tear out (a s.th., j^from); to snatch, 
wrest (a ^ from s.o. s.th.), tear away, 
pull off (<y a s.th. from) ; to wring, elicit 
(a e.g., admiration, ^ from s.o.); to take, 
draw, borrow (a s.th.); to derive, gain 
(^ a s.th. from) ; to be removed, be taken 
away 

fj naz f removal; withdrawal, elimir 
nation; deposition, removal from office; 
death struggle, agony of death | fy 
£*>UI disarming, disarmament; yj. 
*^KJ\ ?j mu'tamar n. ass. disarmament 
conference; aSM\ *>" n. al-milklya ex- 
propriation 

*c- j naz'a pi. naza'dt inclination, tend- 
ency, leaning; trend, drift 

9j'J nuzu* striving, endeavor, longing, 



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1121 



0> 



wish, desire (Jl for); drive, instinct | £j>J( 
>UJ1 Jl (baqa) drive for self-preservation 

tf-jj nuzu'i drive (in compounds) j 
O tf-j'j^ ^r^J' J* (*ilm an-nafs) instinc- 
tual, or motivational, psychology 

f\'J nazzd r tending, having an in- 
clination ( Jl to), leaning (Jl toward) 

mj nazV pi. f\j nuzzab stranger 

9yU manza' pi. fjh* manazi' 2 intent, 
intention, purpose; aim, end, objective, 
goal ; tendency ; trend, drift ; way, method, 
manner (of acting) 

9ji» minza' arrow 

f\j nizd* fight, struggle, strife, con- 
test, controversy; dispute; death strug- 
gle, agony of death | ^\'j *>b (bi-la) in- 
disputably, incontestibly, incontrovert- 
ibly, indubitably, undeniably; ^\j 4_i* 
disputed, contested, debatable; gjjr V 
4J (nizd' a) undisputed, uncontested, un- 
questioned 

ScjL* mundza'a pi. -at fight, struggle, 
strife, contention, controversy, quarrel, 
dissension, discord; dispute; matter in 
controversy, case at issue (before a court 
of justice) 

f-jUj tandzu* fight, struggle, strife, 
contention, controversy | *UJ1 pjbJ t. 
al-baqd' struggle for existence 

f-i^l intizd* removal, withdrawal, elim- 
ination; dispossession, expropriation 

4ejU nazi' a pi. fj\y nawazi'* tend- 
ency, inclination, leaning 

fj's* manzu' removed, taken away | 
rt)U1 Uj jU iuku (mintaqa) demiUtarized 
zone 

fjbjt munazV struggling with death, 
being in the throes of death; contending, 
fighting, militant, litigious, renitent j 
j p jU* ^ y-jJ no one will deny that . . . 



<uU pjli* mundza" 
disputed, debatable 



'alaihi contested, 



fjUs* mutanazi* conflicting, clashing 

aJ^ f-jbx- (mMfcrndza*) and aJ jylis» 
contested, disputed, debatable; litigated 
matter, matter in controversy, case at 
issue 

f j^» muntaza* taken, drawn (j* from) 

*fj nazg and l&'j nazga pi. nazagat in- 
citement to evil I jlkjAJI fj n. a§- 
saitan insinuations of the devil, satanic 
inspiration 

«j>* nazafa i (nazf) and IV to drain, let, 
draw off (* blood); to exhaust, dry up 
(a a well) | «co J»>* nuzifa damuhu to 
lose much blood, bleed profusely, bleed 
(to death) X to drain, aspirate (a s.th,, 
e.g., the lungs), clean out (* a wound); 
to draw off, draw out ( j- * a liquid from) ; 
to exhaust, weaken (« s.o., esp. through 
loss of blood, * s.o.'s powers or strength); 
to devour, swallow up, consume, use up 
(* s.o.'s means, resources, reserves); to 
exhaust, make thorough use of, utilize 
thoroughly (* s.th., e.g., sources) 

J*_> nazf exhaustion, draining, empty- 
ing; hemorrhage (med.); loss of blood; 
exhaustion, weakening (by loss of blood, 
etc.) j Jz «J»> (mukhl) cerebral hemor- 
rhage (med.) 

as_>' nuzfa small quantity, modicum 
(of a liquid) 

*Ju>" nazlf weakened by loss of blood; 
bleeding, effusion of blood; hemorrhage, 
hemorrhea (med,) \ *o)l Cmj n. ad-dam 



bloodshed ; 



(dirndgi) and 



j£ J^j (muhkl) cerebral hemorrhage 

(med.) 

iS>\}c^\ istinzaf drainage; exhaustion; 
attrition (of powers, material), wear 



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^»> 



1122 



and tear | <Jsl>s-t ^>j>- harb i. war of 
attrition 

Jsj jU manzuf exhausted through loss 
of blood 

3 j nazaqa i (nazq) and naziqa a (nazaq, 
3jj nuzuq) to storm ahead, rush for- 
ward; to be hasty, rash, precipitate, 
impetuous, lightheaded, frivolous, reck- 
less, ruthless II to spur on, urge on (a 
a horse) 

<3y nazaq haste; rashness, precipitate- 
ness, impetuosity; lightheadedness, reck- 
lessness, thoughtlessness, frivolity 

J 'j naziq hasty; rash, precipitate, im- 
petuous; thoughtless, heedless, careless, 
inattentive, lightheaded, frivolous, flighty, 
superficial 

i}y nazaka u (nazk) to stab, pierce (e s.o.) 

£j>J naizak pi. iljLJ nayazik 2 short 
lance; shooting star, meteor 

Jy nazala i (<Jj>* nuzul) to dismount, 
alight; to descend, go down, come down, 
move down, get down, step down, climb 
down; to get off (j-, e.g., a train), get 
out, step out (,>, e.g., of a car), debark, 
disembark (j* from a vessel); to put 
down, land (airplane); to fall (rain); to 
descend from heaven, be revealed (esp., 
the Koran); to fall, sink, sag (prices), 
drop (water level); to subside, abate, 
let up, decrease; to stop, or halt, for a 
rest, to camp; to stop, stop over, put 
up, take up quarters, take lodgings, lodge, 
room, stay to live ( Jp or ^ at s.o.'s home, 
also -Up), live, dwell (a in a place), inhabit 
(a a place) ; to step into the arena, take 
the field, meet an opposing team (sports) ; 
to give in, yield (Jp e.g., to s.o.'s pleas); 
to give up, renounce, resign (J jp s.th. 
in s.o.'s favor), cede, waive, relinquish, 
abandon (jp s.th.); to resign (jp from); 



to refrain (jp from), forgo (jp s.th.); to 
descend, come (uj upon s.o.; misfortune, 
punishment, etc.), befall, hit, afflict 
(u-> s.o.; misfortune), happen, occur (o 
to s.o.); to fall (Jp upon s.o.), attack, 
assail, assault (Jp s.o.); to enter, embark 
( Jp upon s.th.), set out ( Jp to do s.th.), 
tackle, attack (Jp s.th.), pounce (J* on 
s.th.); (with <->:) to take, bring, lead, 
etc., s.o. or s.th. down (Jl to); — nazila 
a (<!_>* nazla) to have a cold | J! J_>" 
jS\ (barr) to disembark, go ashore, land; 
olJLli Jl J>* (maidan) to take the 
field; Az}ji> Ojj J>* (manzilatihl) to 
sink below one's level; Je Lw J>' 
(duifan) to avail o.s. of s.o.'s hospitality, 
stay as a guest with s.o.; *5Cs- Jp J>* 
(huhmihi) to defer, give in, yield, submit 
to s.o.; to comply with the standard of 
s.th.; oslji JLp J>* (iradatihi) to defer to 
s.o.'s will, do s.o.'s bidding; x& J_>" 
(a-JLl» or) <cupj (ragbatihi, talabihi) to 
comply with, or fulfill, s.o.'s wish or 
demand; Vjv« <J>" (rnanzilan) to occupy 
a place or position, get to a place or into 
a position; jJtAJI *Jj** Jy (manzilahu) 
to occupy one's due place; <I>1* J_/ 
o*^ (manzilata /.) to hold the position 
of, serve as II to cause to come down ; to 
make (a s.o.) descend, dismount, or step 
down; to lower, let down (a s.th., e.g., a 
bucket, a curtain, etc.); to send down 
( Jp a a revelation to a prophet), reveal 
(a s.th.); to take down, put down (a 
s.th.) ; to lower, decrease, diminish, lessen, 
minimize, curtail, reduce (a or j* s.th.); 
to dip, tilt (a s.th.); to lower, strike 
(a a flag); to relieve, divest, discharge 
(jp o s.o. of), depose, dethrone (jp » 
^jJI s.o.); to unload (a s.th.); to grant 
hospitality (o to s.o.), receive hospitably, 
take in, put up, lodge, accommodate (* 
s.o.) ; to deduct, subtract ( j* a s.th. from) ; 
to insert, inlay { j a s.th. in, e.g., ivory in 
wood); {Tun.) to cede (a s.th.) on the 
basis of inzal (q.v.) | <^-j^ J_>* (da* 



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1123 



J> 



rajatahu) to demote s.o., reduce s.o. in 
rank; <cuJ j* 6j (qlmaUhi) to lower the 
value of s.th., devaluate s.th. (esp. a cur- 
rency) HI to get into a fight, join issue, 
clash (♦ with s.o.) IV to bring down, take 
down; to cause to descend, dismount, 
or step down; to send down, reveal ( Jp a 
s.th. to s.o.; of God); to bestow, grant, 
give (a s.th.; of God); to make (» s.o.) 
alight, stop, halt, camp, put up, take up 
quarters, live, stay, abide (a in a place); 
to put down (» s.o., J* at a place); 
to unload (a s.th.); to take ashore (Jt a 
jJI ila l-barr s.th. from a vessel); to 
land, put ashore, disembark, debark (a 
troops); to lower, strike (a a flag); to 
abase, degrade; to lower, decrease, 
diminish, reduce (Jf a number, price, 
etc., to); to cause (*uto s.o. loss), in- 
flict (a v upon s.o. a loss); to compel, 
force, coerce (J* » s.o. to) | *i *»l JjM L 
oU*L ,y {sultan) (lit.: God has given it 
no power, i.e.) futile, vain, fruitless, 
unavailing, unfounded, absurd, pre- 
posterous, completely arbitrary, random; 
j>J\ Jl J>'l (bakr) to launch (a a ship); 
^JU \ij~J A>J>'1 {duyufan) they took 
them in as guests; 4>oU SjL~^ «*j Jj-* 
{kusdratan fddikatan) to inflict a heavy 
loss on s.o.; lijAt- *j J>' to inflict a 
penalty on s.o,; d*& il >* *J >l (manzilata 
/.) he had him occupy the same position 
as, gave him the same status as, made 
him equal in rank with V to lower o.s., 
stoop, condescend (J( to s.th.); to abase 
o.s., humble o.s., demean o.s., eat crow; 
to give up, renounce, resign, waive, forgo 
(^ s.th.), refrain (j* from) VI to give 
up, renounce, resign, waive, forgo (<J je- 
s.th. in favor of), refrain (^ from), 
yield, surrender, abandon, relinquish 
( jc s.th.) ; to cede (J jt s.th. to) ; to 
leave, assign, transfer, make over (J l je- 
s.th. to); to lower o.s., stoop, condescend; 
to deign; to dismount, or line up, for 
battle | J J-yR a* (W* or ) ^^ ('<***) 



to abdicate in favor of; <_~^» ^ Jjbj 
(mansib) to lay down an office, resign 
from office X to ask (« s.o.) to step down; 
to call down, invoke (a s.th.); to make 
(» s.o.) descend; to call upon s.o. {*) to 
waive or forgo (jp s.th.); to force (* the 
beleaguered) to surrender; to deduct, 
subtract (j- a s.th. from) 

Jj* nazl pi. Jj>* nuzul, Jjr nuzul 
quarters, lodging; living quarters, lodg- 
ings; — (pi. J>" nuzul) hotel; inn; — (pi. 
Jj>' nuzul) small tribal unit (of Bedouins) ; 
camp, camp site (of nomads, gypsies) 

Sj nuzl pi. (Ji>*l anzal food served to 
a guest 

a] j nazla putting up, stopping, stop, 
stay, arrival | gi-l *)_>* n. al-hajj {eg.) 
festival of the return of the mahmal 
from Mecca (celebrated in the months of 
Safar or Rabia I) 

SJ>" nazla pi. nazaldt cold; catarrh | 
lu~*-i aJ>* {su'abiya) bronchial catarrh; 
ajjJU* SJ_>' {sadrlya) bronchitis; S-Ulj ~dj 
influenza (med.) 

aJ 1 j nizala settlement, colony 

Jj>" nuzul descending, descent; dis- 
mounting, alighting; getting off or out 
(of a vehicle), disembarkation, debarka- 
tion; landing (of an airplane); arrival; 
putting up, stopping, stop, stopover, 
stay; cession, surrender, relinquishment, 
renunciation, resignation; falling, fall, 
drop; sinking; decline in prices, price 
slump | J* Hjj according to, in accord- 
ance with, in deference to; <*ej -Up *ijj 
{ragbatihi) in compliance with his wish, 
in deference to his wish, at his request; 
<ulL x& Vj>* {talabihl) in compliance 
with his demand, in accordance with his 
request; Jail Jj> n. al-matar rainfall; 
Su^i Jj> revelation of a Koranic verse 



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Jj>* nuzuli relative to decline (in prices 
and stocks), recessive, falling, sinking 

Jj>* nazll pi. #V>* nuzala 2 guest; 
stranger; lodger, boarder; inmate; oc- 
cupant, tenant | ( _jJLJL-i! #\> n. al- 
mustaSfa hospitalized patients 

JjrU manzil pi. J J lit manazil 2 stopping 
place, way station, camp site; apartment, 
flat; dwelling; house; domicile, home, 
residence; lunar mansion; see also under 
verb I | 4*-lj\^l J>U resthouse; JjL. 
._*«iJlj j^l\ m. al-lahw wa-l-la'b amuse- 
ment centers; Jjili JaI ahl al-m. house- 
hold, family; J>il w*-L* landlord; 
JjUil LiL talahat al-m, (eg.) correspond- 
ence-course students 

J>.« manzill domestic, house (adj.); 
private; household (adj.) | «U>* <*\j$ 
(eg.) study program by correspondence 
courses 

4} >. manzila pi. JjLl* manazil 1 
degree, grade, rank; position, status, 
standing; dignity; see also under verb I 
and IV I iul> iJ>. (hisdblya) place (of 
units, tens, etc., in the decimal system; 
arith,) 

Jj>Ij tanzll sending down, bringing 
down; revelation, inspiration; reduction, 
diminution, lowering, lessening, decrease ; 
— (pi. -at) reduction (of prices); sub- 
traction (arithm.); deduction, discount; 
inlaying, inlay work | <jj\ Jj j-u t. ar- 
Tutba or AaL\ JjJ^j t. al-maqdm de- 
motion, reduction in rank; ^-li! Jj_)o 
(naqdl) currency devaluation 

Jljr mzaZ and SJjL^* munazala Uning 
up for battle; encounter, battle, fight 

Jljr'i inzal bringing down, lowering; 
landing, debarkation, disembarkation; 
ejaculation of sperm; (pi. -at) lease 
contract for life over a habous estate 
(Tun.) J j>J>\ J! Ji>*l (bahr) launching 



(of a ship); J^Jl Jl Jlj-'l (amal) com- 
missioning (of a ship) 

JjbJ tanazul condescension; yielding, 
relenting; relinquishment, surrender, 
waiver; renunciation (jt of s.th.); trans- 
fer, assignment, cession; resignation, ab- 
dication; lining up for battle; struggle, 
fight, battle | JjLjJI *j& 'adarn at-t, 
relentlessness, intransigence; Jjbdl J& 
*aqd at-t> deed of cession; c^JUal JjLdl 
bowing to s.o.'s interests 

JjUj tanazuli in descending order | 
Jjl^ Op ('add) countdown 

(Jlj^-I istinzdl deduction, discount 

JjU ndzil living, resident 

4JJU ndzila pi. Jjl_jJ 7iau'a2?7 2 occur- 
rence, event; mishap, accident, calam- 
ity, reverse, blow of fate; (tun.) (judicial) 
case, legal action | 4JJU <JjU (mada* 
niya; tun.) civil action; Sjjli Jljjl (fam.) 
records of a lawsuit; JjS_^Jl <«i #ism 
an-n. (tun.) division for contentious 
matters (of a court of justice) ; i! jbj >U 
(tam.) to take legal action, commence a 
lawsuit 

djj* manzul (eg.) a kind of narcotic 

Sjj^ manzuli (eg.) narcotics addict, 
dope addict 

JjU munazzal inlaid (with ivory or a 
precious metal) 

Jjli. mundzil adversary, opponent (in 
a fight) 

Jjfl. munzal sent down (from heaven), 
revealed 

JjLr. mutandzil abdicating, resigning; 
one who waives, cedes or assigns a right, 
assignor 

J 3c— . mustanzil lessee on the basis of 
inzal (Tun.; see above) 



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'} 'J naznaza to rock, dandle (a baby) 

a y' nazulux u (a»\j nazdha) to be far (^ 
from), be untouched, unblemished (jc 
by), be free (j* from); to steer clear 
(jc of), keep away, refrain {^ from, esp., 
from a base or dishonorable action); — 
naziha a to be respectable, honorable, 
decent II to deem or declare (o s.o.) 
above s.th. (jc) V = nazuha; to be 
(far) above s.th. {^); to go for a walk, 
take a walk, promenade, stroll about; to 
go out; to amuse o.s., enjoy o.s., have a 
good time 

a j nazih and <oj>' nazih pi. »U_>" ww* 
zaha 2 , o\y nizah pure, chaste, blameless, 
above reproach, of unblemished record, 
decent, honorable, respectable; honest, 
upright, righteous; scrupulous, correct; 
impartial 

»Jr nazak and <*\j nazdha purity, 
blamelessness, honesty; uprightness, 
righteousness, probity, integrity, respect- 
ability; h>\ y impartiality, neutral, im- 
personal attitude 

h>*J nuzka pi. o>* nuzah, -at walk, 
stroll, promenade; pleasure ride; outing, 
excursion, pleasure trip; recreation; 
amusement, entertainment, diversion, 
fun; excursion spot, picnic ground, sight- 
seeing spot, tourist attraction 

H»jU rmnzaha pi. *jli* mandzih 2 rec- 
reation ground; park; garden 

*ip tanzth elimination of anthro- 
pomorphic elements from the con- 
ception of deity, deanthropomorphism 
{theol) 

#jy tanazzuh pi. -at walk, stroll, prom- 
enade 

»jU munazzah infallible; free (^ from), 
(far) above s.th. (^) 



«^x* mutanazzih pi. -un walker, stroller, 
promenader; excursionist 

«_/.x* mutanazzah promenade, walk, 
stroll; park 

6jL» muntazah pi. -at promenade, walk, 
stroll; recreation ground; park 

1 (jj) '.) nazd u (j'j nazw, nuzuw y o\jj 
nazaivdn) to spring, jump, leap, bound; 
— {i>\jj nazawan) to escape (jc s.th.) | 
J! aJS <u \'j (qalbuhu) to long, yearn 
for V to spring, jump, leap, bound; to 
be in a state of great commotion, be 
violently agitated; to heave, tremble 
(breast) 

jlj>' nazawan sally, sortie; outburst, 
outbreak, eruption 

I j 'j nazwa pi. nazawdt (n. vie.) jump, 
leap, bound; sally, sortie; outburst, out- 
break, eruption; surge, flare, flare-up; 
impetuosity, violence, vehemence; fit, 
attack, paroxysm ; sudden mood, caprice, 
whim, capriole | £j\j'J /*, f. olj> oli 
capricious 

2 t^jU and ajJU look up alphabetically 

1 L~J nasaa a (^^J new') to put off, postpone, 
delay, defer, procrastinate (* s.th.); — 
(»Li nasd") to allow (« s.o.) time to pay, 
grant (« s.o.) credit IV — I 

»UJ nasd* long life, longevity 

iLuJ nasVa credit, delay of payment; 
nasiaian on credit 

SUi. minsa'a stick, staff 

2 »LJ nisd*, ijLJ, LJLJ see under j-J 

t-^J nasaba u i {nasab, lyJ niaba) to relate, 
refer (J I * s.th. to), link, correlate, bring 
into relation (Jf a s.th. with); to trace 
(Jl * s.th. to s.o. as the originator, Jl « 



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s.o.'s ancestry to); to ascribe, attribute, 
impute, lay (J or J! a. s.th. to s.o.), 
charge (J or Jl a with s.th. s.o.), accuse 
(J or Jl * of s.th. s.o.) Ill to stand in the 
same relationship (o to s.o.); to cor- 
respond (a, o to s.o., to s.th.), tally 
(a with s.th.); to suit, fit (a, * s.o., s.th.), 
go (a, * with), become, befit, behoove 
(* s.o.); to harmonize, agree, be in keep- 
ing, be compatible, consistent (a with); 
to be similar (a, * to s.o., to s.th.), re- 
semble (a, « s.o., s.th.), be like s.o. or 
s.th. (a, *); to be in agreement, in con- 
formity, in accordance, to tally, check 
(a with), be conformable (* to); to be of 
the same family (o as), be or become 
related by marriage (« to) VI to be 
related to one another, be relatives; to be 
alike, be akin, be mutually corresponding, 
be interrelated, be in agreement or 
conformity, be in the right proportion, 
be proportionate, match, fit together, 
go together; to be in agreement, in 
conformity, in accordance, to tally, 
check (~ with), be conformable (^. to) 
VIII to be related (Jl to s.o.); to derive 
one's origin (Jl from), trace one's an- 
cestry {Jl to); to derive one's name (Jl 
from), be named (Jl after); to belong, 
pertain, be relative (Jl to); to be as- 
sociated (Jl with), belong (Jl to a clan, 
a party, a faction, etc.); to attach o.s. 
(Jl to), associate, affiliate (Jf with); to 
join (Jf e.g., a political party); to be 
admitted (Jl to a community), be af- 
filiated (Jl with, esp., as an extra- 
ordinary, not a full, member) X to trace 
back the ancestry (• of s.o.); to deem 
proper (a s.th.), approve (a> of), sanction, 
condone (a s.th.) 

l t *-J nasab pi. ujLjI an&ab lineage, 
descent; origin, parentage; genealogy; 
noble descent; kinship, relationship, af- 
finity; relationship by marriage | *UL- 
t_„. m l\\ silsilat an-n. family tree, pedigree, 



ancestral line, genealogy; ^LJ^I »^l* 
'ulama' at -a. genealogists; JC ^jjl 
*_— J see t^jj IV 

^u-J nisba ascription, attribution, impu- 
tation; kinship, relationship, affinity, re- 
lationship by marriage; connection, link; 
agreement, conformity, affinity; — (pi. 
,_^J nisab) relation, reference, bearing; 
ratio (also math.) ; rate ; proportion 
(math.); percentage (of s.th. in a total); 
adjective denoting descent or origin, 
ending in ^- {gram.); (syr.) last name, 
surname, family name | J I <~~j (nisbatan) 
and (J or) J) 5 ; ...>IIj in respect to, with 
regard to, regarding, concerning, as to: 
as compared with, in comparison with 
in relation to, with reference to; for, to 
4--J Jp in proportion to, in keeping 
with, in accordance with, according to, 
corresponding to, commensurate with; 
£>jl\ i-J n. al-maut death rate; 4~J 
<ij^ (mi*attnya) percentage; *-wJI i-~J 
n. at-tanmiya growth rate; »lTili 4~J n. 
ad-daka" intelligence quotient, I.Q.; <-**J 
aJU high percentages; gjll <-~J ratios 
of a mixture; mjj^\ «-r~^ distribution 
ratios 



( j r 3 nisbz relative, comparative; per- 
centual, percentile ; proportional ; LuJ nis* 
blyan relatively | O <j~J <JJj (hwzm-) spe- 
cific gravity 

<LwJ nisblya relativity 

<_jLJ nassab genealogist 

wjuJ nasib amatory poetry of the 
Arabs in praise of a woman; erotic part 
in the introduction of the ancient Arabic 
kasida; — (pi. »L-Jl ansiba 2 ) relative, 
kinsman (by marriage), brother-in-law, 
son-in-law, father-in-law ; descending from 
a distinguished family, patrician, high- 
born, noble 

»_-Jl anmb 2 more adequate, more 



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1127 



9b*uJ 



appropriate, more suitable, better qual- 
ified, fitter 

3L*-L» munasaba suitability, suitable- 
ness, appropriateness, aptness, adequacy; 
fitness; correlation, analogy, correspond- 
ence; kinship, relationship, affinity; — 
(pL -at) relation, reference, bearing, 
relevancy, pertinence; link; connection; 
occasion, opportunity | 4--L. j or 4-— hi 
or Subtle on the occasion of; 4-— bJLl eJ^j 
in this connection; 1L-LLI oJL^J due to 
these circumstances, for this reason, 
therefore, consequently, hence; J$ J 
3L-.li* whenever an opportunity arises, at 
every suitable occasion; i^Lib a propos; 
ij-li* Dji without a proper motivation, 
inappropriately; oL— Li I j»£ 8%'r al-m. 
poetry for special occasions, occasional 
poetry 

^Uj tanasub proportional relation, 
proportionality; proportionateness, bal- 
ance, evenness; uniformity; regularity, 
symmetry; harmony; O proportion, 
mathematical equation; reciprocal re- 
lationship, interrelation; link, connec- 
tion J i^LiJl p-L& f adam at-t. dispropor- 
tion 

i-jL&i intisdb relation, connection; 
extraordinary membership; affiliation | 
yUuVLj lJIU student by affiliation 

*_jj L. mansub related, brought into 

relation; attributed, ascribed, imputed 
(Jl to s.o.); belonging, pertaining (Jl to); 
relative (to), concerning, regarding (s.o. 
or s.th.); — (pi. c-o-li* mandsib 2 ) level, 
altitude; water level | j>*J\ ^j—jL m- &1- 
bahr sea level; LJU wj^-Iu (aliya) high 
water levels, high waters 

0J-JL4 mansublya nepotism 

i^Jx* mundsib suitable, fitting, ap- 
propriate, proper, adequate; correspond- 
ing, commensurate; correspondent, con- 



gruous, analogous, conformable; propor- 
tional (math.) 

^^■cjla mutandsib proportionate, prop- 
erly proportioned; proportional; mutual- 
ly corresponding, analogous j c— * lis* 
*lj>-Vi even, regular, symmetrical 

■_....?■.* muntasib affiliated | ,_— Ii. ^U* 
student by affiliation; ^^-JL. j*** { T udw) 
associate member (e.g., of an academy) 

Cjj-*U see ^Ij (alphabetically) 

£»J nasaja u i (nasj) to weave (* s.th.); 
to knit j Jl^x. Jp p-J (minwdlihi) to 
imitate s.o., follow in s.o.'s tracks, walk 
in s.o.'s footsteps, act or proceed like 
s.o.; 4>«J 5*-J (nasjahu) do. VIII to 
be woven 

~~J nasj weaving; fabric, texture | 
JLJ-'I T*-J n. al-kayal fabling, flight of 
fancy 

r-LJ nassdj weaver 

i»-LJ nisaja art of weaving; weaver's 
trade, textile industry 

P«J naslj pi. g~J nusuj, ^*Ji ansija, 
^Lii a?isa; texture, web, tissue (also 
anal.); woven fabric, textile | ^^ji^- ^r-*J 
(kalawl) cellular tissue (anat.); ^-J 
o*-5ojJ1 n. al-'anlcabut spider's web, cob- 
web; ftJb-j £~J n. wahdihi unique in 
his (its) kind, singular, unparalleled; 
»^a* ^J n. r asrihi unique in his (its) 
time; £~-JJI V-A4 ma$na r an-n. weaving 
mill, textile mill 

-r^JkA mansaj, mansij pi. £-*L* mand* 
sij 2 weaver's shop, weaving mill 

P~l* minsaj loom 

rj~** mansuj woven; woven fabric, 
textile; texture, tissue, web; pi. oU->-JL. 
woven goods, dry goods, textiles 



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1128 



««j nasaka a (nask) to delete (a s.th.); to 
abolish (a s.th.); to abrogate, invalidate 
(a s.th.); to repeal, revoke, withdraw (a 
s.th.); to cancel (a a contract); to replace 
(<_; a s.th. by), substitute (<-» a for s.th. 
s.th. else); to transcribe, copy (a s.th.) 
Ill to supersede, supplant, replace (a s.th.), 
take the place (a of s.th.) V to be deleted, 
abolished, abrogated, invalidated VI to 
succeed each other, follow successively; 
to pass from one body into another, 
transmigrate (soul) VII 1 to abolish, 
cancel, abrogate, invalidate {a s.th.); to 
transcribe, copy (a s.th.) X to demand 
the abolition (a of s.th.); to transcribe, 
copy (a s.th.) 



c-* 



nask abolition, abolishment, abro- 



gation, cancellation, invalidation; copy- 
ing, transcription | £~Jdl ji qalam an-n, 
Neskhi ductus (see below); ^-JLlI aJI 
duplicating machine, mimeograph; copy- 
ing press 

i J*~J naski Neskhi, the ordinary cursive 
Arabic script, the common calligraphic 

style 

4i«J nuska pi. ^J> nusak transcript; 
copy (also, e.g., of a book, of a news- 
paper, etc.) | J** VI jJ» ^—i (tibqa l-asl) 
true copy; facsimile 

i-LJ nassajc pi. *>-LJ nassdka copyist, 
transcriber; scribe, scrivener, clerk 

«*-Lj tandsuk succession; transmigra- 
tion of souls, metempsychosis 

I istinsak copying, transcription 



~-lJ ndsik pi. ^Lj nussdk abrogative, 
abolishing; copyist, transcriber | \&\j 4jT 
Koranic verse which abrogates and 
supersedes another verse 

£-j-JL» mansuk abrogated (Koranic 



y-J V to get torn ; to break, snap X to be- 
come eagle -like 

jJi nasr pi. jj*J nusur, Sjj-J nusura 
eagle; vulture 

Ij^i nasra small piece, chip, splint 

4j jUJ nusdriya eagle 

jj-U ndsur pi. j^\jj nawasir 2 fistula, 
tumor 

^j~j nisrln jonquil (Narcissus jon- 
quilla; hot.) 

j~Sa mansar pi. jJ\u mandsir 2 band, 
gang (of robbers, etc.); troop; clique 

j~x* minsar pi. ^L* mandsir* beak (of 
predatory birds) 

jJ±~S nuspiir* Neatorius (founder of Nesto- 
rian Christianity) 

^jjk*J nusturi pi. IJhLJ nae&fira 
Nestorian, adherent of the Nestorian 
church (Chr.) 

i~j nusg sap (of a plant) 

.Jt-J nasafa i (nasf) to pulverize, atomize, 
spray (a s.th.); to carry away and scatter 
(wind — the dust) ; to blow up, blast (a 
s.th.); O to torpedo (a a ship); to break 
up (a a meeting or congress) IV to 
scatter (esp., wind — the dust) VIII to 
raze (a s.th.) ; to to blow up, blast (a s.th.) 

,JuJ nasf blowing up, blasting; destruc- 
tion, demolition 

«J»Li nussdf pi. tJi^-Li nasdsif 2 a vari- 
ety of swallow; rhinoceros hornbill (zool.) 

iiUJ nusdfa chaff 

A* LJ nassdfa pi. -at torpedo boat 



minsaf and Uul* minsafa pi. 
-L. mandsif 2 winnow 

uJt-U ndsif and iLAj nasi fa explosive, 



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1129 



J*J 



dynamite; uJu-U exploding, explosive 
(adj.) | 4Am«U iJUj (risala) explosive letter; 
3a- Li iff- Cubittm) explosive charge 

j-J nasaqa u (nasq) and II to string (a 
pearls); to put in proper order, arrange 
nicely, range, array, order, marshal, 
dispose (a s.th.); to set up, line up (a s.th.) 
II to make compatible, match up, har- 
monize (a different things) ; to coordinate 
(a s.th.) V to be well-ordered, be in proper 
order, be nicely arranged; to be arranged, 
arrayed, disposed; to be or become co- 
ordinated VI to be balanced, well pro- 
portioned, symmetrical ; to be in harmony ; 
to be geared to each other, be well-coor- 
dinated VIII = V 

j*J nasq ordering, successive arrange- 
ment, lining up, alignment | J-ill J»jv*- 
(also k, an-nasaq) connecting particles, 
connectives {gram.) 

j-J nasaq order, array, layout, ar- 
rangement, disposition; connection, suc- 
cession, sequence; manner, mode, sys- 
tem, method; symmetry; LLJ nasaqan 
in regular order, in rows | J-J Jp in 
the manner of; Jb-lj J-J Jp in the 
same manner, equally, evenly, uniformly ; 
j-JLli <J>jj*- see nasq 

Jjj-J naslq well-ordered, well -arranged, 
regular, even, uniform 

jyJJ tanslq ordering, arraying; setting 
up, drawing up; distribution, disposition; 
arrangement; systematic arrangement; 
planned economy; harmonization, unifi- 
cation, matching (with one another); 
coordination | J>-'-3 Jr~" (d&kili) har- 
monious interior decoration; <*-IjaJ1 J^--*! 
t. ad-dirdm unified study planning; 
j,„.hll uj^SC maktab at-t, coordination 
bureau; (Eg.) studies planning office, 
admissions office (university) 



j-Ju tanaasvq coordinated, matched 
state; uniformity 

j^U: tanasuq order; symmetry; har- 
mony 

j,.,u munassaq well-ordered, well- 
arranged; staggered (troop formation); 
harmonious; coordinated; symmetrical 

Jp-Ljl, mutanasiq well-ordered, well- 
arranged, regular; symmetrical 

dLJ> nasaka u and nasuka u (^fLJ nasdka) 
to lead a devout life; to live the life of 
an ascetic V do.; to be pious, devout, 
otherworldly 

di-J nask t nusk, nusuk piety, devout- 
ness; asceticism; reclusion 

j^LJ nusuki ascetic (adj.) 

di-J nusuk sacrifice; ceremonies (of 
the pilgrimage) 

tiiJj ndsik pi. ilLJ nussdk hermit, 
recluse, penitent; ascetic; pious man, 
devotee 

di—J^ mansik pi. ^£JU-b_» mandsiW her- 
mitage, cell of an ascetic; place of sac- 
rifice; ceremony, ritual, esp., during the 
pilgrimage 

J-J nasala u (nasi) to beget, procreate, sire, 
father (<> children); — u to pluck out (a 
s.th.); to pluck (a s.th.); to ravel out, 
unravel, untwist, fray (a s.th.); to molt; 
(J_j*J nusul) to fall out (hair, feathers) 
II to separate into fibers, to shred, ravel 
(a rags); to unravel, undo (a a woven or 
knitted fabric) IV to beget, procreate, 
sire, father (» children); to molt; to fall 
out (hair, feathers) VI to propagate, breed, 
reproduce, multiply; to beget offspring; 
to descend, be descended (^ from) 

J-J nasi pi. JLJ1 ansdl progeny, off- 
spring, issue, descendants | J-aJl JJUj 



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and J— III *&£ family planning, birth 
control; J~JUlj i^A-l (hart) the civiliza- 
tion of mankind; J-JJl is- "Urn an-n. 
genetics 

UUJ nusdla fibrous waste, thrums; 
ravelings; lint 

O aJL«J nassala raveling machine, 
willow 

4J^-J nasula brood animal 

O SJL i naslla offprint, reprint 

J Lit m$dZ procreation, generation 

J^-U tandmd sexual propagation, pro- 
creation, generation, reproduction j »Ua^l 
J--LJ! sexual organs, genitals; J--LJI ^Ja*~J> 
du r f at-t. sexual impotence 

J-Lj tandsuli procreative, propaga- 
tive; genital, sexual | J-Lj ^j* (marad) 
venereal disease; 4JULJ »L*p ! sexual or- 
gans, genitals {anaL) 

oL-UUj tandsullyat sexual organs 

^J nasama i (nasm, o^ nasamdn) to 
blow gently II to commence, start, begin 
(j s.th.) V to blow; to breathe; to 
inhale (a s.th.); to exhale (^ a fragrant 
smell), smell pleasantly, be redolent 
(<_,> of), be fragrant (<^> with) | j£\ -Jtf 
(kabara) to nose around for news, sniff 
out the news 



^ nasam 
breath of life 



pi. fLJi ansam breath; 



a**J nasama pi. -d7 breath; whiff, 
waft; breeze; O aura; breathing, living 
creature; person, soul {e.g., in a census, 
as a numerative in statistics) 

™j naslm pi. pLJ nisam, s\ J no* 

scCim 2 breath of air, fresh air; wind, 
breeze | ~JJ! ~i samm an-n. Egyptian 
popular holiday celebrated on the Mon- 
day following Greek -Coptic Easter 



-JL. mansim pi. ^,b* manasim 2 foot 
sole, padded foot (of animals) 

~Jo mutanassam (with foil, genit.) 
place where s.th, blows, is exhaled, 
emanates, or exudes 

^b-J nasnas, nisnds pi. ^LJ nasanis 2 a 
fabulous creature of the woods, having 
one leg and one arm; [eg.) monkey 

«^*J niswa, Olj-J niswdn and *LJ nisd* 
women (pi. of sl^l) 

l^^-J niswl and <jl > nisai female, 

feminine, womanly, women's; uL'Li 
women's affairs, things belonging to a 
woman's world | o'LJji *£'J»\ (haraka) 
feminist movement, feminism 

ULJ nisa'iya feminist movement 

^'i nasiya a [nasy, oL-J nisydn) to forget 
(a s.th.) I ^vJl V ,jJl U ma ansa Zd ansa 
(lit.: whatever I may forget, I shall not 
forget, i.e.) I shall never forget; some- 
times also: iS J\ V ^r-i! U (ansa) and 
^gjl ">'i ^jJi ul (in) I shall never forget 
I A 7 to make (» s.o.) forget (* s.th.) VI to 
pretend to have forgotten {* s.th.); 
to forget, neglect, omit (a s.th.), become 
oblivious (a of) 

^J nasy oblivion, forgetfulness; s.th. 
one has forgotten | LJL. L-J ru r *\ asbaha 
nasyan mansiyan to be completely for- 
gotten, fall into utter oblivion 

^ nasiy, »U nassd? and uL-J nasyan 2 
forgetful, oblivious 

OLJ nisydn oblivion, forgetfulness 

( _ ? JL* tnansiy forgotten; pi. oU-Ju (as 
opposed to oliiji*) things once memo- 
rized and now forgotten 



cr* 



^JiJ naJis') to sizzle, 



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Uj 



simmer, bubble, boil up; to hiss; — to 
drive away flies 

^UJ 3jj waraq nassas blotting paper 

XZX* minassa fly whisk 

lij nasa'a a and J_±J nasvba u (-^ nets', 
*yL> niisw*, sLii nasa) to rise, rise aloft, 
emerge, appear, loom up; to come into 
being, come into existence, originate, 
form, arise, come about, crop up; to 
proceed, spring (,y or ^ from), grow 
out (j-. or ^p of); to follow, ensue, result, 
derive (j- or jc from); to grow, grow up; 
to develop, evolve | LJli \*j£j tii 
{daily an) to start by itself, arise spon- 
taneously, come about automatically 
II to cause to grow; to bring up, raise (« 
a child) IV to cause (a s.th.) to rise; to 
create, bring into being (a s.th., of 
God); to bring forth, produce, generate, 
engender (a s.th.), give rise (a to s.th.); 
to build, construct (a s.th.); to call into 
existence, originate, start, found, estab- 
lish, organize, institute (a s.th.); to set 
up, erect (a s.th.); to install (a s.th.); to 
compose, draw up (a a piece of writing), 
write (a a book); to bring up, raise, 
rear (« a child) ; to begin, start, commence, 
initiate (a s.th.) V to grow, develop, 
spread, gain ground X to search, ask, 
look (a for news) 

*J£ nas' youth; new generation | 
AjAi-l *JX)\ the young generation 

• Lli nafa growing up, upgrowth, 
growth; early life, youth; rise, birth, 
formation, genesis; origin; youth, young 
generation; culture, refinement; up- 
bringing, background (of a person) | slij 
ii>L~. (musta'nafa) rebirth, renaissance 

ijJU nuSu' growing, growth, develop- 
ment, evolution | O Sj^j »>£*J' «-j»a* 
madkab an-n. wa-t-taraqqi theory of 
evolution, evolutionism 



O j^-jj-Ull an-nusulyun the evolution- 
ists 

uJu mansa' place of origin or up- 
growth; birth place, home town, home; 
fatherland, homeland, native country; 
origin, rise, birth, formation, genesis; 
source, springhead, fountainhead ; be- 
ginning, start, onset 

» t5 iJJ tansi upbringing, education 

*LLJ3 tansi' a upbringing, education 

ALj\ insd' creation; origination; bring- 
ing about; setting up, establishment, 
institution; formation; erection; — (pi. 
-at) building, construction; founding, 
foundation; installation; — composition, 
compilation, writing ; letter writing ; style, 
art of composition; essaj^ treatise | 
4jj$Lȣ- cAliLi! ( r a$kariya) military in- 
stallations; CjUoU »Llj! i, 'aldqat establish- 
ment of relations (pol.); >liJVl SoUl i'ddat 
al-i. reconstruction; *LtJ->U JjjJl iLJI 
jy^}\j (duwali) International Bank for 
Reconstruction and Development; j'^ 
»LuV' mawddd al-i. construction mate- 
rials ; Cj UUi \ ^X^a muhandis i. con- 
struction engineer 

jLli! insal construction (in com- 
pounds); constructive; relating to com- 
position or style; stylistic; editing, edito- 
rial J jLiJl fXjj (barndmaj) construc- 
tion program; jLU! fjj£+ construction 
project; yiiJl i*L* W°) exercise in 
composition; jllSi PjJ>j* theme, essay 
topic; composition 

'^u nasi growing, growing up; aris- 
ing, originating, proceeding, emanating, 
springing, resulting (<yp from) ; — {pi. -un) 
beginner; (in sports) junior; youngster, 
youth | ^ili J 46 i^adda) junior-league 
runner (sport) 

iLilj nail a youth, rising generation 

^tx* munSi' creating; creative; — (pi. 



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-un) creator, originator; builder, con- 
structor; founder, establishes author, 
writer 

•Lti. mtmSa'a pi. C»UJU foundation; 
establishment, firm; industrial plant; 
pi. oUJu installations, (technical, military) 
facilities 

-JtJ nasiba a {na§b y "LlS nuSba, «— >-^ 
nusub) to be fixed, be attached, cling, 
stick, adhere (j to); to attend (<_j s.th.), 
be incident (v to); to get involved (j 
in), meddle ( j with) ; to break out (war) | 
^JtJ U or e-JLJu J not to hesitate II and 
IV to stick on, paste on, attach, fix, insert 
(a s.th.) 

^Jij naSab property, possession 

<-^-Si nusub clinging, adherence (j 
to); outbreak 

i^liJ naSsdb arrow maker; archer, bow- 



ujLiJ nusBab (coll.; n. un. S) pi. 
naiaMb 2 arrows 



jiiUj 



4**1'-* munta$ib fierce, violent (battle) 

2 4-jj-H. look up alphabetically 

p-ii nasaja i (r*J!o naMj) to sob 

•tij naSada u (na#d, Sjl£j na£da, jlJLti mi* 
dan) to seek (a s.th.), look, search (a for); 
to adjure, implore (a « s.o. by, e.g., *»! 
a&zAa by God) III to adjure, implore 
(J^ij oi « or * » s.o. to do s.th., » » s.o. 
by, e.g., 4)1 atasAa by God) IV to seek 
(* s.th.), look, search (a for); to sing (a 
s.th.); to recite (a » to s.o. verses) VI to 
recite verses to each other X to ask (« 
s.o.) to recite verses 

jlJLj naSld and SaytJl unMda pi. 
alLli naia'irf 2 , jLiil an$dd, X-iU! a«a&d 2 
song; hymn, anthem | JUiUVi xJtj or 



illLJ^I OJij the Song of Solomon, the 
Song of Songs; ^Vl oJLiiJI (umami) the 
International; ^^ .Lij (hamdsi) rally- 
ing song; tfjSL**- JUij (*as&an) soldier's 
song, marching song; military march; 
dry XJLi {qauml) or J»j ju*J (viapint) 
national anthem; JJ jl^j (Mi) sere- 
nade; jJU JLJLi (maZaikt) royal anthem 

S-CL. mundSada urgent request, ear- 
nest appeal, adjuration 

ilSJl *n*gd recitation, recital; decla- 
mation 

$j£L> manSud sought, aspired, desired, 
pursued (aim, objective) 

JJUL* munHd pi. -tin singer, choral singer 

*J-SJu munSida pi. -a£ singer (fern.), 
chorister (fern.) 

jilJLS nuiddir and j-ilijJ nuMdir ammonia 

^ii naiara « (na£r) to spread out (a s.th.) ; 
to unfold, open (a s.th.); to unroll (a 
s.th.) ; to hoist (a a flag) ; — u % to spread, 
diffuse, emit (* e.g., a scent); to announce 
publicly, publicize (a s.th.); to publish 
(a a book, an advertisement, etc.); to 
propagate, spread (a s.th.); — u (no&y 
jj^j nuSur) to resurrect from the dead 
(* s.o.); — to saw apart (a s.th.) II to 
spread out, unfold (a s.th.) IV to res- 
urrect from the dead (» s.o.) V to be 
spread out, be unfolded; to spread VIII to 
be spread out, be unfolded; to spread 
(news, a disease, etc.); to spread out, 
extend, expand; to be propagated, be 
conveyed (waves); to be diffused; to be 
scattered, be dispersed; to stand around; 
to lie about in disorder; O to fan out, 
extend {mil.) 

j& nair unfolding; spreading, diffu- 
sion; propagation; promulgation; pub- 
lication; notification, announcement; res- 
urrection | Ijpj}\ ^Jj n. ad-da' wa propa- 



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ganda; _ r iDI >»^j yaum an-n. Day of Res- 
urrection; jlii\ jta publishing house 

lj±j naSra pi. naJsarat (public) notice, 
proclamation; publication; report, ae 
count ; announcement ; advertisement 
circular; leaflet, pamphlet, handbill 
periodical; order, ordinance, decree, 
edict | jU^-^l S^-iJ or SjjL>-1 *j^j 
{ikbarlya) newscast, news (radio); »j5. 
4jj^3 {daurlya) periodical publication 
\*j~*\ lj£> {usbu'iya) weekly pub 
lication, weekly paper; newsreel; IjX 
\pr (jawwiya) weather report (radio) 
jU-VIj «Utfl>- S^pti (kdssa) prospectus, 
price list; a^j %j£> (rasmiya) official 
publication, bulletin; 4j^$-£ OjJ^I ($ah* 
rlya) monthly publication 

jlii nas'Sar sawyer 

Sjlij niSdra (activity of) sawing 

Sjlij nuSara sawdust 

jj^J nusur resurrection | j^iJdl aj± 
yaum an-n. Day of Resurrection 

jUit minsdr pi. _^li* manasir 2 saw 

jLiJul intiSdr spreading, spread, dif- 
fusion, diffusiveness 

^U ndmr publisher 

jjX* mansur spread abroad, propagat- 
ed, made public, published; spread out, 
unfolded, etc.; outstretched; sweeping 
(gestures) ; sawn (apart) ; — ■ (pi. -a£, _>£L« 
mandSir 2 ) leaflet, pamphlet, handbill; 
circular; prospectus ; proclamation; order, 
ordinance, decree, edict ; prism {math.) ; 
pi. £t\jjtx* publications 

tSjjX* look up alphabetically 

jJJL. muntasir spreading, spread out; 
widespread, current, rife; prevailing, 
prevalent, predominant 



jii na$aza u % (nasz) to be elevated, be 



located high above; to rise; — (jj-£J 
nusuz) to be recalcitrant, disobedient 
{Jp, ^y, ^ toward her husband; said of 
a woman); to treat (a wife) brutally 
(said of a man) IV to restore to life, 
revive, reanimate (a s.th.) 

jJlj naSaz pi. jllil ansdz elevated 
place, high ground 

jUtJ na$dz dissonance, discord, cacoph- 
ony; jarring, discordant (melody) 

j_j-1j nusuz animosity, hostility; antip- 
athy; dissonance, discord; (Isl. Law) 
violation of marital duties on the part of 
either husband or wife, specif., recal- 
citrance of the woman toward her hus- 
band, and brutal treatment of the wife 
by the husband 

jJU ndSiz protruding, elevated, rais- 
ed; jarring, dissonant, discordant; recal- 
citrant 

citrant woman, shrew, termagant 

ti nasita a (J*Uj nasdt) to be lively, 
animated, brisk, sprightly, vivacious, 
spirited, active, eager, keen, zealous, 
brave, cheerful, gay; to display vim and 
energy ( j in some work), be energetic 
and active, work energetically and 
actively (Jl for, toward); to be in the 
mood (J for), feel like doing s.th. (J); to 
be glad, enthusiastic (J about); to apply 
o.s. eagerly, attend actively (6 to some 
activity), embark briskly (J upon s.th.) | 
Jlifr ^ Ja-13 (Hqdlihi) to be freed from 
one's shackles, be unfettered, be un- 
shackled; — ■ naSata u (na£t) to tie a knot 
(a in a rope), knot (a a rope) II and IV 
to incite, spur on, enliven, stimulate, 
activate, excite (a, © s.o., s.th.); to 
strengthen, invigorate, animate, inspirit, 
energize (e s.o.), impart vim and energy 
(« to s.o.), encourage, embolden (« s.o., 



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1134 



Jl to do a.th.); to knot, tie up (a s.th.) 
V to be lively, animated, brisk, sprightly, 
vivacious, spirited, active, eager, keen, 
zealous, brave, cheerful, gay; to display 
vim and energy (J in some work), be 
energetic and active, work energetically 
and actively (J! for, toward); to be 
in the mood (J for), feel like doing s.th. (J) 

ixiJ nasit lively, animated, spirited, 
brisk, sprightly, vivacious, agile, nimble; 
stirring, bustling, busy, enterprising, 
energetic, active 



SitiJ nasta energy ; 
zeal 



eagerness, ardor, 



_ULii nasat briskness, sprightliness, 
liveliness, animation, vivacity; agility, 
alacrity, eagerness, ardor, zeal, energy, 
vim; — (pi. -at, ikiJl ansita) activity, 
action, operation; strength, power (phys- 
ical and mental); vigor, vital energy, 
vitality | ^j^ _ULii (jaxvwt) aerial activ- 
ity; ^l*il J*lii {is'a'i) radioactivity; ji 
^•Uil Js>UJ radioactive; J?liJ oli s\j* 
^Uil {mawddd?) radioactive substances, 
radioactive matter; i*UJ t^L* active; 
J»Lii!l fOc. inactive, dull, listless (stock 
market) 

iau tS nasit pi. i»LU nisdt brisk, lively, 
spirited, animated, cheerful, gay ; stirring, 
bustling, busy, active, energetic; glad, 
happy, enthusiastic (j about), actively 
devoted (j to) | Ja-tUI ^JM {jins) the 
stronger sex 

&jJLJi unsuta pi. Ja-iUl andsit 2 knot, 
slipknot, bow, noose 

.Lli. mansat pleasant thing 

.kj-US tansit encouragement, incite- 
ment; stimulation; enlivening, animation, 
activation 

Ja^U nasit brisk, lively, spirited, ani- 
mated, cheerful, gay; stirring, bustling, 
busy, active, energetic 



munaSSit activating; inciting, en- 
livening, stimulating; (pi. -at) psycho- 
active drug (med.); (pi. -tin) activist 
(Alg., Tun.) 

JaJU* munsit spur, incentive, impetus, 
stimulus 

*JLS nasa'a a {na& r ) to tear out, tear off (a 
s.th.) VIII do. 

-JLi nas* leakage water, seepage 

*-iJL* munasscf sodden, soggy, soaked, 
drenched, soaking wet 

,jA±Ji nasafa u (nasf) to suck up, absorb (* 
s.th.) ; — nasifa a to dry, dry up, dry out, 
become dry II to dry, make dry (a s.th.); 
to wipe (dry), rub dry (a s.th.) [ .JlU 
*juj (riqahu) to exert o.s., toil hard; to 
pester, molest s.o. V — Tiasifa; to wipe 
o.s. dry; to be wiped dry, be dried 

«Jl£J nasaf desiccation, dryness 

JsLiJ nassdf blotting paper 

Silij ?iassafa sheet of blotting paper, 
blotting pad; blotter; towel 

4jL£ju minsafa pi. ,JiiL* manasif 2 
towel; cleaning rag; napkin 

iJu-iJj tansif drying 

JaMS ndsif desiccated, dried up; dry; 
hard, stiff, tough 

jjJLi nasiqa a (nasq and nasaq) to smell, 
sniff, inhale (a s.th.); to snuff up the 
nostrils (a s.th.) II and IV to give (a e 
s.o. s.th.) to smell, make (* s.o.) inhale 
(a s.th.) V and VIII to inhale, breathe in; 
to snuff up the nostrils (a s.th.) J jJtJjl 
*\j^\ (hawd'a) to get some fresh air 
X = VIII; to nose around (a for), sniff 
out (a s.th.) 

J^J nasq, jAJu tanassuq and jLiia*! 
istinsdq inhaling, inhalation 



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JiytJ nasuq, nusuq snuff 
L33 tansiqa pinch of snuff 



J±j nasala u {nasi) to take away, snatch 
away, steal, pilfer (a s.th.); to extricate 
(from dangers, difficulties, etc.), liberate, 
deliver, save (» s.o.) VIII to snatch 
(a s.th.); to pick up (a s.th.); to take out 
(j* a s.th. from one's pocket); to pull 
s.o. (») out (<> of), extricate (• s.o. j* 
from dangers, difficulties); to gather up, 
pick up (shipwrecked persons, etc.), save, 
rescue (* s.o.) 

J±j nasi pickpocketing, pickpocketry 

JUU nassdl pi. -un pickpocket 

jij II (eg.) to aim (Jp at; in shooting) 

jlij ni§an and jLixJ nisdn pi. d^U 
nayd§ln 2 sign; mark; aim, goal; target; 
decoration, medal, order; {eg.) bridal 
attire 

j-^J^ nasangl (eg.) and ^Lii niSanji 
marksman, good shot, sharpshooter 

jJLJu Umsln (eg.) target shooting 1 
<>^JI o*J Q ur $ a( "*- ( roun< i) target; 
j^LkJI <JT optical sight, gun sight 

Jiiij nasnasa to be nimble, swift, brisk, 
adroit, dexterous, agile, active; to boil 
up, sizzle, simmer, bubble II tanasnasa 
to be nimble and dexterous; to revive, 
recover, pick up 

(yti and ^ii) ^ nasiya a (lj£j naswa, 
nukoa, niswa) to be or become intoxi- 
cated, be or become drunk II to starch (a 
clothes, linen) VIII to be or become 
intoxicated; to be starched X to smell 
(a a scent); to inhale, sniff (a an odor, a 
breeze); to be or become intoxicated 

iJii naswa intoxication, drunkenness ; 



elated or cheerful mood, elation | S^li 
>_jJaJI n. at-tarab rapture, transport of 
delight, ecstasy 

^j-Li naswi intoxicating 

UJ nasan scent, perfume; starch, 
cornstarch 

♦LiJ nasa starch, cornstarch, farina 

<jyj> nasawl starchy; pi. ^Ijj^J 
starchy foodstuffs 

jijJJ naswan 2 , f. <£jZJ> naswa, pi. 
iSjltS nasawa intoxicated, drunk; en- 
raptured, elated, exultant, flushed 

*Ltu! intisa intoxication 

^ nassa u (nass) to fix, lay down, appoint, 
stipulate (J* s.th.), provide (Jp for), 
specify, determine (Jp or ^ s.th,), 
define (Jp s.th.); to fix or determine the 
text (a of s.th.), draw up, compose (a a 
letter) ; to arrange, stack, pile up in lay- 
ers (a s.th.); to set up, line up (a s.th.) 

u ^}, nass pi. fj&j+ci nusus text; word- 
ing, literal text; version, lection (of a 
text); passage, citation, quotation (esp. 
from the Koran); formulation (of a 
text); diction, style; definition (of a 
concept or meaning); stipulation, pro- 
vision | <u^ verbatim, 4*aij <*£j bi-n. 
vja-fassihi in the very words, ipsissimis 
verbis, literally, precisely; \*-jjj LaJ nas* 
san wa-ruhan in letter and spirit 

4^u nussa pi. t _ r rt,.,rf'» nusas forelock 

ju^-o minassa pi. -at> ^^ mandss 2 
raised platform, dais, tribune, podium; 
bridal throne; easel | S^i-I ^Uai* m. al- 
kukm position of power; SjlUi^l \^£-» 
rostrum; hj£- <~e^» (bahriya) and <*ai* 
yi*- m, hafr marine drilling platform (oil 
exploration) 

^ T/ ^S tansis quotation | ^^.^jJI £jIv>U 
r alamat at-t. quotation marks 



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1136 



«uU ^j^c* mansus "alaihi fixed, ap- 
pointed, stipulated, provided for, spec- 
ified; determined; laid down in writing 

*a> nasaba u (nasb) to raise, rear, erect, 
set up, put up (a s.th.); to prepare, get 
ready, fit up (a s.th.); to pitch (a a tent) ; 
to plant, raise (a a standard, a flagstaff), 
hoist (a a flag); to plant (a a tree); O to 
level, aim (a a cannon); to install (« » s.o. 
as), appoint (# * s.o. to an office); to 
show, manifest, display (J toward s.o., 
a evil, enmity); to direct, aim (a s.th., 
e.g., criticism, J* against or at s.o.); 
{eg.) to cheat, swindle, dupe, gull, de- 
ceive (J* s.o.); (gram.) to pronounce (a 
final consonant) with the vowel a; to 
put (a noun) in the accusative, put (a 
verb) in the subjunctive ! v>^"' ^ y**' 
(harba) to declare war on s.o. ; tT^JS <I u^+oj 
(sarakan) or U*» 4J <^~**j (fakkan) to set 
a trap for s.o.; \xS <J i_~^i (kamlnan) 
to prepare an ambush for s.o.; lx£L> w^ 
(makldatan) to devise a clever plan, hatch 
a plot; — nasaba u (nasb) to distress, 
trouble, fatigue, wear out, exhaust 
(disease or sorrow; a s.o.); to jade (* 
s.o.) I J ^f~ij! l^wai (anfusahum) they 
made every effort in order to ... , they 
struggled hard to . . .; — nasiba a (nasab) 
to be tired, fatigued, jaded, worn out, 
exhausted; to exert o.s. to the utmost 
(j in) II to set up, set upright, rear, 
raise, lift up (a s.th,); to install (0 t> s.o. 
as), appoint {» *s.o. to an office) |«uil c—^aj 
(udnaihi) to prick up one's ears HI to be 
hostile (a to s.o.), fight, combat, oppose (» 
s.o.), display enmity | t~>j£~\ <w.lj (harba) 
to declare war on s.o.; ^JJl «w»U (sarra) to 
show o.s. openly hostile to s.o., open 
hostilities against s.o.; »!.uil ^u^li ( r adaa) 
to declare o.s. the enemy of s.o. IV to 
tire, fatigue, wear out, exhaust (« s.o.); 
to fix a share or allotment (» for s.o.) 
VIII to rise up, straighten up, draw o.s. 
up; to plant o.s.; to rise; to get up, 



stand up, get on one's feet; to stand 
upright, be in a vertical position; to be 
set up, be raised; to be appointed (J to 
an office), hold an office (J); (gram.) to 
be pronounced with a (final consonant), 
be in nasb (accusative or subjunctive) | 
O^ ^^-^j! (li-l-hukm) to sit in judgment 

t_~-«a nasb setting up, putting up, 
placing; erection; planting, raising (e.g., 
of a flagstaff) ; appointment, installation, 
investiture; pronunciation of a final 
consonant with a ; the putting a noun in 
the accusative, or a verb in the subjunc- 
tive (gram.); disease, illness; (eg.) swindle, 
trickery, skulduggery, deception, [jut.) 
fraud 



i nasb pi, i_>LoJl ansab s.th. planted 
in the ground, set up, or erected; plants 
(coll.) 

cj-^j nusb, nusub pi. ^Uail ansab 
statue; idol, graven image; monument | 
t^jlTJtf t^ai (tadkdri) monument, ceno- 
taph, memorial; JxiJI «^-«aJ n. al-qatla war 
memorial 

t-wai nusba (prep.) in front of, opposite, 
facing J ^ ^^aj ( e ainayya) before my 
eyes; <J^ t-^aj a (f^v) J*^ {'ainaihi) 
to direct one's attention to..., have... 
in view 

t-*^i nasab exertion, strain, hardship, 
fatigue; (pi. u-^Uajl ansab) flag planted 
in the ground 

l^aj nasba pi. -at plant 

4-^aJ nusba post; pale, stake, pier, 
buttress, pillar; signpost, guidepost 

t_jLai nisab origin, beginning ; (Isl. Law) 
minimum amount of property liable to 
payment of the zakdh tax; minimum 
number or amount; quorum; (pi. -at, 
t^+03 nusub) sword hilt, knife handle, 
saber guard [ <jLaJ j in its proper place, 
in good order, perfectly all right; c>JJcd 



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1137 



L^Uaj J jj-^f {istaqarrat) things were 
straightened out, returned to normal; 
•uLoi J jJ-l f«*j {haqqa) to restore 
justice; «oUl> Jl 1^1 (^Ul) ij or ^j 
(radda, cfdda amran) to straighten s.th. 
out, set a matter right; 4jLiJ Jl #j-l$Jl ^U 
(Att^« s «) peace has been restored; Llc"l 
*_-»UiJ (itmdman) so as to complete the 
number, in order to round off the amount 

(^>Lai nassab fraud, cheat, sharper, 
swindler, impostor; deceitful, fraudulent 

vi .,rt) na?ib pi. <_~*sJ numb, *lwaji aim* 
6a' 2 , 4y^i3l ansiba share, participation 
( j in) ; share of profits, dividend ; luck, 
chance; fate, lot | *~i~aJ <>• olT to fall to 
s.o.'s share or lot; o\ a-a<^j ^ olT to be 
so fortunate as to ... , have the good 
fortune to ...; cSLU-VI *ii!i <>• *-*-«* ^6"* 
(ikfaqu) to have bad luck in s.th., draw a 
blank; j- J\j ^-J Jp y* (wafirin) to 
have an ample share in ... ; i-juaJ <J ^hJ 
^lj~# j* (^awa6) he has no sense at all, 
is totally unreasonable 

(^j^fljU ya-na$%b lottery | t-^jlj **jj 
waraqat y. lottery ticket 

t>-ju<*j nastbin* Nisibin, town in SE 
Turkey 

vr*»^ na$ib lottery; lottery tickets | 
u~**U a5jj waraqat n. lottery ticket 

<-~*i\ an$ab z more strenuous, more 
exerting; suffering greater hardship or 

fatigue 



. man$ib pi. i_~*»U* maTiasib 2 place 
where s.th. is planted, set up, or erected; 
office, dignity, rank, position, post | 

u-^Uil cjLjjI or ^^LJLI ^L^i high 



* minsab pi. t^^li* manapib* kitch- 
en range, cookstove 

<_Ji-AJ tanptt appointment, nomination; 
installation, induction (in an official 



position); (alg.) establishment (of insti- 
tutions), setting up (of commissions) 

w^LaxJl intisab raising, rearing, right- 
ing; setting up, putting up; erection 

,_wU ndsib tiring, wearisome, ex- 
hausting; — (pi. *-~+\ji nawasib 2 ) word 
governing the subjunctive (gram.) 

l_j^-2^* mansub erected; set-up, raised; 
planted in the ground; fixed, fastened, 
attached; installed in office; leveled, 
aimed (cannon; Jp at); (pi. -at) word in 
the accusative or subjunctive 

<„w2^. muntasib set upright, set-up, 
raised, planted in the ground; erected; 
upright, erect, straight, vertical, per- 
pendicular 

C^aj nasata i (nasi) and IV to listen, hearken, 
give ear (Jl or J to s.o., J to s.th.) V to 
try to hear; to eavesdrop, listen secretly 

C~**^J> mutanassit eavesdropper 

^wai nasaha a [nash, nush, i^Uai nasdha, 
4*w*j nasika) to give {», J s.o.) sincere 
advice, advise, counsel (*, J s.o., <-» to 
do s.th.), admonish, exhort; to appeal 
to s.o.'s (») conscience; — a (nosh, 
rj-^i nusuh) to be sincere ; to mean well 
(J with s.o.), wish s.o. (J) well, be well- 
disposed, show good will (J toward s.o.) ; 
to act in good faith (J toward s.o.) Ill to 
give (• s.o.) sincere advice; to be sincere in 
one's intentions (* toward s.o.) VI to be 
loyal and sincere toward each other VIII to 
take good advice, follow an advice X to 
ask (» s.o.) for advice, be advised (« 
by s.o.), consult (* s.o.) 

^waj nosh, nush good advice; counsel- 
ing, counsel; guidance 



7^y^-> 



naslh sincere; faithful adviser 



4>*~ai nasiha pi. fLai napd'ik 2 sincere 
advice; friendly admonition, friendly 



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1138 



reminder | 
advice 



(JJu to give a word of 



rj~ai nasuh sincere, true, faithful, 
loyal 

P-LajL"! istinsdh consultation 

j7w?U nasih pi. *-L<aJ nu§sdh t ^waj nus* 
sah sincere; good counselor, sincere 
adviser 

j^aj nasara u (nasr, jj~*j nvsur) to help, 
aid, assist (Jp « s.o. against); to render 
victorious, let triumph (Jf- t> s.o. over; 
of God); to deliver (,y o s.o. from), keep, 
protect, save II to Christianize, convert 
to Christianity (« s.o.) Ill to help, aid, 
assist, support, defend, protect (e s.o.) 
V to try to help, seek to support (J s.o.), 
stand up for s.o. (J); to become a Chris- 
tian VI to render mutual assistance, help 
each other VIII to come to s.o.'s (J) 
aid, be on s.o.'s (J) side, side with s.o. 
(J); to stand up for, maintain (J s.th., 
one's opinion); to be victorious; to gain 
a victory, triumph (Jp over); to take 
revenge (j- on) X to ask (• s.o.) for 
assistance 

j^i nasr help, aid, assistance, support, 
backing; victory; triumph 

Ij^Li nusra help, aid, assistance, 
support, backing 

Jl^^ai nasranl pi. isJ^ nasara 
Christian 

Zj\j^z3 nasrdniya Christianity 

jwaj naslr pi. *\j~ai nusara 2 helper; 
supporter, defender, protector; ally, con- 
federate; adherent, follower, partisan; 
furtherer, promoter, patron 

aj^twsuJI an-nusairlya the Ansarie, a 
gnostic sect in Syria 

jj^U nasur pi. j-*\y nawamr 2 fistula 



j^j> mansar pi. 
band of robbers 



a\u manasir 2 (eg.) 



tansir Christianization ; baptism 

;^*L» mundsara assistance, help, aid, 
support, backing, furtherance, promo- 
tion, patronage 

jLaill intiedr pi. -at victory, triumph; 
revenge 

j^\j nasir pi. -un, jL*j! ansdr, jLai 
nussar helper; protector; granting vic- 
tory | o^b JU-1 to help s.o. 

;LaJi ansar (pi.) adherents, followers, 
partisans, sponsors, patrons, friends; 
j Lai VI the Medinan followers of Moham- 
med who granted him refuge after the 
Hegira 

;^»LJl an-nasira Nazareth 

tjj~e\j nasirl of Nazareth; Nazarene; 
(pi. -un) Nasserist, adherent of Gamal 
f Abd an-Nasir, the late President of 
Egypt 

Aj^Ui an-ndsirlya Nasserism (see 

jjaL* mansur supported, aided (by 
God); victorious, triumphant; victor; 
»jj^cl\ El Mansura (city in N Egypt) 

j^>\l» munasir helper, supporter, de- 
fender, protector 

y^a^L* mutanossir converted to Chris- 
tianity, Christianized 

^a^» muntasir victorious, triumphant 



juaj nasa r a a {fj~<£ mtsu') to be clear, pure; 
to be gleaming white ; to be bright (color) ; 
to be plain, evident, obvious, manifest, 
patent; to recognize (^ s.th., esp., a 
claim or title) IV to recognize, acknowl- 
edge (»_-» s.th.) 



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pj^aj nusu' whiteness; brightness (of 
a color) 

ju*a3 nasi pure, clear; plain, evident, 
obvious, ostensible, manifest, patent 

HipLoi nasa'a purity; clearness, clarity 
(also, e.g., of argumentation, of expres- 
sion) 

>u^U nasi" pure, clear; plain, evident, 
obvious, ostensible, manifest, patent; 
white; bright, gleaming (color) | ^U 
jj^LJl n. al-bayad snow-white; *«a\j J>- 
(haqq) plain truth; w>U *U»- p-$J ap- 
prox.: they have a clean slate, their 
skirts are clean 

Ji./t'i nasafa u i (nasf) to reach its midst 
(day), become noon II to divide in the 
middle, bisect, halve (a s.th.) Ill to 
share (* with s.o.) half of s.th. (a), go 
halves (a * with s.o. in), share equally 
(* a with s.o. s.th.) IV to be just; to treat 
with justice (« s.o.), be just (* with s.o.); 
to see that justice is done {* to s.o.), see 
that s.o, (») gets his right; to treat 
without discrimination (a s.o.); to estab- 
lish s.o.'s (<>) right (j- in the face of a 
rival or oppressor); to serve {« s.o.) 
Tto submit, subordinate o.s. (» to s.o.), 
serve {» s.o.); to demand justice VIII to 
reach its midst, be in the middle, be 
midway, be half over (day, night, 
month, lifetime); to appeal for justice 
(^ to), demand justice (^ from); to do 
justice (J to s.o.); to take vengeance, 
revenge o.s. [j» on) | jl^Ji Jo^axJl (nahdr) 
it was noon, JJJ1 ijwaoi (Jail) it was 
midnight X to demand justice 

Ja-^i nisf, nusf pi. tJiLaJl ansaf half, 
moiety; middle | lj\ji\ <Ju<ai semicircle; 
t^j^ tJwaJ n. sahri semimonthly; i_jL*Jl 
^jlJUll a. al-'addrd demi-vierges ; Sj5\\ «Jw" 
n. al-qird lemur; J^\ <Ja^ n. al-qutr 
radius; JJJi Ca^aJ n. al-lail midnight; 
jljJI i_'i -. < ! .* n. an-nakdr midday, noon; 



(jjXJ\ -_>..-' JLu-ill al-qist n. as-sanawi the 
semiannual installment; J-^*V *Ju*Jl 
(a/<feZ) the better half (wife); ^JLil! j 
^Ji^aJlj at 3:30 o'clock 

^aj mw/ (uninfl.) medium, middling; 
of medium size or quality; middle-aged 

j~aj nisf I half-, semi-, hemi-, demi- | 
J^aJ J lie" (timtal) bust; J-**J JJLt (saZaZ) 
hemiplegia; J-ai ^ ( r aman) hemianopia 



nasaf and « 



i nasafa justice 



nasaf m. and f., pi. m. JsU^il 
ansaf, pi. f. cJu^J nusuf middle-aged 



«J na£»/ veil 

«Ji~*£j fanfi/ halving, bisection 

4i^>L» mundsafatan half of it (of them), 
by halves, half and half, by equal shares, 
fifty-fifty | >.j - j^ Si^L. LjJLu-- (ja* 
r alaM) he made it a fifty-fifty proposition 
between — and 

<3LaSI insaf justice, equity, fairness; 
just treatment 

^L^lJ ndsif pi. J>LaJ 
nasaf, <L^j nasafa servant 



^w*i> munassif halving, 
dividing into two equal parts 

^lvcl-. munsif a righteous, just man; 
equitable, fair, just 

uJwiiU muntasaf middle | ^k^axx* j 
Jj^i halfway, midway; *pLJI <Ju^x* 
;^oJl 9:30, half past nine; JJI <Ja^* 
m. al-lail midnight; jl^JI Ja*,*.^ m. an- 
nahclr midday, noon 

J-^ii nasala a u (J^oJ nusul) to fall out, fall 
off, fall to the ground, drop; to fade 
(color); to get rid (,y of), free o.s. (j* 
from) V to free o.s. (<> from), rid o.s. 
(^ of); to renounce, disavow, shirk 
(^ s.th.), withdraw (^ from); to wash 
one's hands of s.th. (j-), vindicate o.s., 



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1H0 



clear o.s., justify o.s. | 4*jdl ^ J^; 
(fo&i f a) or SJjJJLl ^ J*-aX7 (mas'ullya) 
to refuse to take the responsibility, evade 
or shirk the responsibility 

J^ai was? (coll.; n. un. 3) pi. J Lai m>dZ, 
j-aji an§ul y 6j*ai nusul arrowhead, spear- 
head; blade of a knife or sword; Q spread 
or surface of a leaf (hot.) 

J^U ndsil falling, dropping; faded 

<u*ai nasama icon, idol, graven image 

(>-»') VI tanasa to seize one another by the 
forelock; to unite, join (forces), associate 

4~->U nasiya pi. ^jj nawdsin forelock; 
fore part of the head; (street) corner | 
<JU- v^^ kis physiognomy, his appear- 
ance; 4~u*Ulj i>-l to seize, take by the 
forelock, tackle s.th. properly; *u**U ^iiU 
and 4Xw»U Jp U ^J to be or become 
master of s.th., have or get s.th. under 
control, master or control s.th.; vfJUbl 
•u^l^J (imialaka) do.; SL^U Jp (J- iJ 
JU- 1 to seize control of the situation, gain 
the upper hand; to have the situation 
under control; jj*^\ yii J* (J ^J to 
be in control of things, pull the strings ; 
4=juoUj '**jZ*a JL^fl JT all hopes are 
pinned on him; wUJl Jt hajar an-n. 
cornerstone, quoin 

^ nadda i {nad# t ^JtJ na4%d) to ripple, 
drip, percolate, ooze, leak, dribble, trickle 
II to move, shake (a s.th.) 

(j^J nadd cash, hard money, specie, 
coin; Uij naddan in (hard) cash 



cash, hard money, 



^U JU mat 
specie, coin 



Ju nadaba u {*~>j~ai nudub) to seep away 
in the ground, be absorbed by the 
ground; to dry up, run dry, peter out; 
to be exhausted, be depleted, become 



less, diminish, decrease; to dwindle, 
decline; to die | ^Jcj V inexhaustible, 
incessant IV to exhaust, drain, deplete, 
dry up (a s.th.) 

cjjj^ij nudub barrenness, aridity, ste- 
rility 

<^J>\j na$ib pi. ^J^ nud$ab dried up, 
dry; arid, barren, sterile 

£**j nadija a (nadj) to be or become ripe, 
ripen, mature (also fig., of an affair, 
of a personality, or the like); to be 
well- cooked, be or become well done 
(meat); to maturate (tumor) IV to bring 
to ripeness or maturity, make ripe, 
ripen (a s.th.); to let (a s.th.) ripen; to 
cook well, do well (a s.th.) 

^Jo nadj, nudj ripeness, maturity 

£>*&£ nu4uj ripeness, maturity 

gr-ii nadij ripe, mature; well-cooked, 
well done (food) 

2-^U nadij ripe, mature; well-cooked, 
well done (food) 

£**i nadaha i (natfh) to wet, moisten, 
sprinkle, spray, splash (<-» a s.th. with); 
to water (a plants); to slake, quench 
(a thirst); to defend, protect (jt s.th.); 
to justify, vindicate (j* s.th.), answer 
(u* ft> r ); — a (nadh) to exude or ooze a 
fluid (o>); to sweat, perspire; to leak; to 
flow over ( v with); to shed, spill (a 
s.th.); to effuse (a s.th.) 

O **-LaJ nadddha sprinkler 
£~iu mindkzh shower, douche 



minaaha pi. ^j\^ manddih 2 
watering can; shower, douche 

-Uii nafada i {nadd) to pile up, stack, tier* 
arrange in layers (a s.th.); to put in 



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order, array, arrange (a s.th.) II do.; 
to compose, set (a s.th.; typ.) 

.Uai nadad pi. aUii! anddd bedstead; 
pile, stack, rows, tiers (e.g., of sacks) 

JUai nv4ud tables 

jUaj nadid arranged one above the 
other, tiered, in rows, in layers; orderly, 
tidy, regular 

»X-^J nadlda pi. ^LiJ nadaid* cushion, 
pillow, mattress 

IX^aL, mindada pi. -at, X^\u manddid 2 
table ; worktable ; workbench (of a crafts- 
man); bedstead; framework, rack, stand 



JU-i^j tantfid typesetting, composition 

too 

JUii. munaddid pi. -un typesetter, 
compositor {typ.) 

JUiu munadfad forming a regular 
string, regularly set (esp., of teeth) 

jjo nadara u, nadira a and nadura u (S^-iJ 
nadra, jj~*i ntidur, ojUaJ nadara) to be 
nourishing, blooming, verdant, fresh, 
beautiful; to be bright, brilliant, lumi- 
nous, radiant II to make (a s.th.) shine; 
to make (a s.th.) bloom V to be verdant, 
blooming, in blossom 

jjti nadir nourishing, blooming, ver- 
dant, fresh, radiant, glowing 

l^ai nadra bloom, flower, freshness; 
glamor, splendor; beauty; health, vigor; 
opulence, wealth 

jUaj nuddr (pure) gold 

SjUiJ nadara bloom, flower, freshness; 
youthfulness ; gracefulness, grace; health, 
vigor 

jwaJ na$ir flourishing, blooming, ver- 
dant, fresh, radiant, glowing; gold 



j^\j nadir flourishing, blooming, ver- 
dant, fresh, radiant, glowing, beautiful 

nadaf wild marjoram 

nadif dirty, unclean 
x^Jti nafiLf dirty, unclean 



^ai nadala u (nadl) to surpass, beat, defeat 
{* s.o.) Ill to try to surpass (» s.o.), vie, 
compete, contend, dispute (o with s.o.); 
to defend (jp s.o.), stand up for s.o. 
(j*) VI to vie with one another 

JUii niddl pi. -at struggle, strife, 
dispute, controversy, fight, battle; con- 
test, competition; defense, defensive 
battle 

JUiJ nidali combative, pugnacious 

U^iL. munddala struggle, strife, dispute, 
controversy, fight, battle; contest, com- 
petition; defense, defensive battle 

J^L. munadtil pi. -un fighter, com- 
batant, defender 

^U-aj nadndd hissing viciously, flicking its 
tongue menacingly (snake) 

{jjtj) L<aj nadd u (nadw) to take off (a a 
garment, one's clothes); to undress 
(j* s.o.), <u«aj fjc- L^> to get undressed; 
(nadw, nuduw) to dwindle, wane, decline; 
to fade (esp., color) II to take off (a a 
garment), strip (^ s.o.) of a garment 
(a) IV to exhaust, jade, make lean (a a 
riding animal); to wear out, wear thin 
(a s.th.) VIII to unsheathe (a a sword) 

jja nadw pi . * Ls^j I andd' a worn , 
tattered garment 

jJl> nidw pi. *U»jl andd* lean 

Sa} natta u (napt) to spring, jump, leap; to 
skip, hop 



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1142 



Jaj natt jumping, jump j JJ-i Jaj n. 
al-habl skipping the rope (children's 
game); J^k iai (fufi) broad jump 

«kj natta (n, vie.) jump, leap 

J*Uaj nattap jumper; a variety of grass- 
hopper; restless, flighty, lightheaded 

*U natoha a (nath) to push, thrust (with the 
head or horns), butt III to bump (* on or 
against s.th.), ram (a s.th.); to touch 
(a a.th.) VI and VIII to thrust or butt one 
another; to struggle (with one another) 

~ki nath push(ing), thrust(ing), butt- 
ing; el Nath, a star in the horn of 
Aries, a Arietis {astron.) 

<>*kJ natha (n. vie.) push, thrust, butt 

£-U*J nattah given to butting, a butter 

~JaJ nailh butted 

a>J*L. munataka bullfight 

iUJUU natiha: tyUn-JI i»J?U n. as-sdhdb 
pi. «-jU»*Ji r^[v nawdtih ass. skyscraper 

Jai natara u (natr, Sjlki nitara) to watch, 
guard (a s.th.); — u (natr; eg.) to push 
away violently (a, * s.o., s/th.) 

JaJ natr watch, guard, protection | 
_^rJl 4*ij rafat an-n. (eg.) clean and jerk 
(athlet.) 

SjUai nipdra watch, guard, protection 

jU*j nuttar scarecrow 

jtU ndtir pi. jLkj nuttar, AJsj nutard* 2 , 
Ijaj natara, Je>\j> nawdtir z guard, keeper, 
warden {esp., of plantations and vine- 
yards), rural warden; lookout in a ship's 
crow's-nest 

j^UU ndtur pi. jb\ji nmvatir 2 guard, 
keeper, warden {esp., of plantations and 
vineyards), rural warden; lookout in a 
ship's crow's-nest 



IjjtAj ndtura (syr.) (woman) chaperon 

OjJm natrun natron, esp., the native product 
of Egypt which is extracted from the salt 
lakes of Wadi Natrun northwest of Cairo 

( _ r LJ V to examine thoroughly, investigate 
carefully, scrutinize (jp s.th.); to pos- 
sess or employ much skill, be proficient 
(*_j in s.th.) 

ijJai nats, natus well-informed, knowl- 
edgeable, experienced, seasoned, skilled 

^UaJ natasl, nitdsl well-informed, 
knowledgeable, experienced, seasoned, 
skilled; (pi. ^^-kj nutus) a skilled, ex- 
perienced physician 

Ja! pass, nuti'a to change color, turn pale 

V to be fastidious, meticulous, overnice 
(J in s.th.); to go into s.th. (<j) deeply; 
to explain s.th. (J) wordily, expatiate 
( j on a subject) 

*k> nat\ nit f pi. 9-lLil anta\ fjLi nutu f 
leather mat used as a tablecloth and 
gaming board, in former times also 
during executions 

«JaJ nit', nita r pi. p^Uj nutu hard 
palate 

4_*kJl J3j_^\ al-huruf an-nifiya the 
sounds o, 2 and JU (pkon.) 

<JikJ natafa u i (naif, «J»lkJ tantdf, oliLj 
natafdn, *ilk) nitdfa) to dribble, trickle 

iiki nut fa pi. iJJfij ?iw(a/ drop; sperm 

jLj nataqa u (nutq, <$Jhs nutuq, jkL* mantiq) 
to articulate; to talk, speak, utter {l-> 
s.th.); to pronounce (iy s.th.) | <j£i jkJ 
(bi-kalima) to say a word II to make (« 
s.o.) speak or pronounce; to gird, girdle 
(*> s.o.) IV to make (» s.o.) speak or talk 

V to gird o.s. ; to be girded, be surrounded 
(cj with, by) VIII to gird o.s. (<_j with) 



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& 



X to make speak, cause to speak up or 
talk (» s.o., also fig., a s.th.); to question 
(o s.o.); to interrogate, examine, cross- 
examine (• s.o.; jur.) 

jk nutq articulated speech; pronun- 
ciation; word, saying, utterance; order, 
ordinance, decree | w ^U\ jkJ' j-U* 
it was decreed by order of His Majesty 
that ...; jp-lj jk> (hukm) pronouncement 
of sentence; J-LjJI JLiU dumfounded, 



Jk nti^i phonetic (al ) ; O oLik pho- 
netics 

JILJ nitdq pi. jk Twfttg girth, girdle, 
belt; O garrison belt; circle, ring, 
enclosure; limit, boundary; range, ex- 
tent, scope, compass, sphere, domain, 
purview; cordon [ ij^>~ ^^ (jildi) 
leather belt; »U> J -J ^^ n - al-jauza 
Orion's Belt (astron.); jUzi-1 JUsj block- 
ade ring; JjlkJi ~->!j comprehensive; 
extensive, far-reaching; large-scale; &J> 
jlkJl e% (dayyiq) an-n. see J~tf; JSU** J 
(with genit.) within the compass of, with- 
in the scope of (e.g. , an event, an activity, 
an occurrence) 

jLl. mantiq (faculty of) speech; man- 
ner of speaking, diction, enunciation; 
eloquence; logic | jl jkll <> ^-J it is 
illogical to ...; jkil ic r *7m aZ-m, logic 

Jk. mantiqi logical; dialectic(al) ; — 
(pi. iiLL. manatiqa) logician; dialectician 

jku mintaq pi. jLlu manatiq 2 belt, 
girdle 

lik. mintaqa (also pronounced maw- 
fwj'a) pi. jjkL. manatiq 2 belt, girdle ; zone ; 
vicinity, range, sphere, district, area, ter- 
ritory; sector (mil.) | ita£ <ukw. (muhtalla) 
and J^>-Vl «k, occupied territory; 
!jli-l uklt (^arm) the Torrid Zone, the 
tropics; JjJJl ^2k^ m. al-bitrol oil area, 
oil fields; r-j^rJl iik* the zodiac {astron.); 



«j±.\ SjU^Jl Uk~. (hurra) free trade area ; 
*.ij J-' Suk** m. al-jauza Orion's Belt 
(astron.); Aj>- axLi* (hardm) no-man's- 
land; l&yj iikw* prohibited area; iiku 
^^J-l m. al-harb war zone; S^p- idLi* 
(hurra) free zone; O *^ ^^ (sammS) 
dead zone (of radio waves); **pL^ iiL^ 
(sinalya) industrial area; O ^/^' **J*^ 
?n. ad-darb field of fire; O «AJj*" ^^ 
(kurawlya) spherical zone ; JbJoi*! I obukli 
(mutadilatdn) the two Temperate Zones; 
r ^LJ ! ^y S-s^- 44k-. (mujarrada) demili- 
tarized zone; ^kJ\ "-^j's* «k^ do.; 
ijiJI AJaku sphere of influence 

Jk-« mintaql zonal 

, mintlq very eloquent 



JslklJ istintdq examination, interroga- 
tion, hearing 0«r.)» questioning 

^U md^*3 talking, speaking; endowed 
with the faculty of speech; eloquent; 
plain, distinct, clear; endowed with 
reason, reasonable, rational (being); 
speaker (also, e.g., in parliament); 
spokesman | iLiJLi O^Ui the Arabic- 
speaking portion of mankind (lit. : those 
who pronounce the dad) ; jUU o\j?- (^V a * 
wan) rational being; jLU JJj conclusive 
evidence; jUU kj^ sound film; SOj^ 
iiUU newsreel; 4*jSil jkU (Tim.) spokes- 
man for the government 

JJaU mantuq pronounced, uttered, 
expressed; wording; text; statement; 
formulation | J^kiU according to the 
text ; expressly, explicitly, unequivocally ; 
CU <jjk>* to. al-hukm text of a judg- 
ment, wording of a sentence (jur.) ; J^k-» 
4Jt*J1 m. ah'aqd the exact terms of the con- 
trad ; OjpliJI Jjkw. text of the law, legal 
text; aJSCJI Jjk^* m. al-kalima literal 
meaning of a word 

ii^ku mantuqa dictum, statement, ut- 
terance 



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jk-L~. mmtantiq examining magistrate 

JkJ natala u (natl) to squeeze out; to apply 
warm compresses (a to), foment, bathe 
with warm water or medicated liquid 
(a s.th.) 

J^kS natiil warm compress; fomenta- 
tion, lavation or bath in a medicated 
liquid 

.kJai natnata to hop up and down, skip 

Jai nazara u {nazar, J&L* manzar) to per- 
ceive with the eyes, see, view, eye, 
regard (a, c or Jl s.o., s.th.), look, gaze, 
glance (a, o or J[ at), watch, observe, no- 
tice (a, o or Jl s.o., s.th.), pay attention 
(a, o or Jl to); to expect (a s.th.); to 
envisage, consider, contemplate, purpose 
(a or j s.th.); to have in mind, have 
in view (Jl s.th.), put one's mind, 
direct one's attention (Jl to s.th.); to 
take up, try, hear (j a case; court), look 
into a case (j), examine (a or J a case); 
to judge, rule, decide (<>.> between two 
litigant parties); to take care (J of s.o.), 
help (J s.o.), stand by s.o. (J), look after 
s.o. (J) j IjjJS <dl Jai (sazran) to give s.o. 
a sidelong glance, look askance at s.o.; 
4-MiJaJl (j or L^kail Jai (qadlya) to try 
a case {jur.); 6*^j <^J1> j _JiS (talabi /.) 
to process s.o.'s application, take care 
of s.o.'s application; ,-buil 4>-y ^ J& 
^■Ixii! luhji or {jurjati l-miftah, fuhati 
l~m.) to peep' through the keyhole; 
a-iio ^1 unzur ba r dahu see below! Jai\ 
cj^ (zahrahu) see reverse! please turn 
over! ^1 pl«*>U (lil~amam) eyes front! 
(command; mil.) II to make comparisons, 
draw parallels (^ between) III to equal 
(a, * s.o., s.th.), be equal (a, o to s.o., 
to s.th.) ; to equalize, put on an equal 
footing (<_> a, 6 s.o., s.th. with), equate, 
liken, compare {^> a, o s.o., s.th. to); to 
vie, compete, be in competition (a with 



s.o.), rival (a s.o.); to argue, debate, 
dispute (» with s.o.), point out (lj * 
to s.o. s.th.) by way of argument or 
objection, confront (<_-» o s.o. with); to 
superintend, supervise (a s.th.) IV to 
grant (o s.o.) a delay or respite V to 
regard, watch or observe attentively 
(a, » s.o., s.th.), look closely (a, « at s.o., 
at s.th.), scrutinize {a, * s.o., s.th.); to 
bide one's time, wait VI to face each 
other, lie opposite; to be symmetrical 
(math.); to dispute, argue (with one 
another); to quarrel (J* about), fight (J* 
over s.th.); to contend (with each other) 
(Jp for s.th.), contest each other's right 
(Jp to s.th.) VIII to wait (* for s.o.), 
expect (a, o s.o., s.th.), await, anticipate 
(a s.th.); to look closely (* at s.o.); to 
look on expectantly, bide one's time, 
wait | j-. j-uSsJl * iS Z}\ Jkj\ to expect 
much of . . . ; j**- JT <uljj j* J&j\ (wara'ihi 
kulla kairin) to set the greatest expecta- 
tions in s.th. X to wait, await, expect; to 
have patience, be patient; to request a 
delay or respite; to ask (* s.o.) to wait, 
keep (o s.o.) waiting 

J£ nazar pi. jlkil anzar seeing, eye- 
sight, vision; look, glance, gaze; sight; out- 
look, prospect; view; aspect; appearance, 
evidence; insight, discernment, penetra- 
tion; perception; contemplation; exami- 
nation (J of); inspection, study, perusal; 
consideration, reflection; philosophical 
speculation; theory; handling (j of a 
matter); trial, hearing (j of a case, in 
court); supervision, control, surveillance; 
competence, jurisdiction; attention, heed, 
regard, notice, observance, respect, con- 
sideration, care | (J or) Jl \J& in view of, 
with a view to, in regard to, with respect 
to, in consideration of, on the basis of, due 
to, because of, for ; ( J or) Jl JicJ L> do. ; Js^-aj 
tf JkA\ (bi-§arfin-n.) or ^^kJI *La> {bi-qafi 
n-n.) regardless of, irrespective of; J&}\ c*£ 
under consideration, being studied, being 



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dealt with; Jl J£ dji irrespective of, 
regardless of; j^ki j in my eyes, in my 
opinion; j JiJI for the study of, for 
consideration, for further examination 
of, for handling . . . , for action on ... ; 
O »y-' J' J**^ (hayah) Weltanschau- 
ung; JkS\ oUl i'ddat an-n. re-examina- 
tion, reconsideration, resumption, retrial, 
revision; JiJl J* I aAZ an-n. speculative 
thinkers; theoreticians, theorists; jl*j 
Ja^\ or JiJI Jj^W farsighted; JiJI ^^J 
^war an-n. shortsightedness; _^iJl jw»J> 
shortsighted; ^kJl oli S&il (mahkama) 
the court of competent jurisdiction; <JL~» 
Jii 1§J (mus'ala) an unsettled, open 
question, an unsolved problem; J& *J t> 
(man) s.o. noteworthy, a distinguished 
man; the responsible, or authorized, 
person; JklU X>-\ to catch the eye; 
J 6^ jU (addra) to let one's eyes roam 
over ...; J ^^JU («-b) M^ falling to the 
responsibility of, under the jurisdiction 
of, subject to the authority of; JjU 

4-Ji ^iaJl Or jliiil 43jU Or 4-JI ^iaJl iSjrwl 

(nazara) to glance furtively at s.o., give 
s.o. a surreptitious look; Jii ^Vl li* j 
this matter calls for careful study, will 
have to be considered; ^ JkJ\ ^U to 
take no account of, disregard s.th.; 
^i Jti cJi y> he is under the protection 
of so-and-so, he is patronized by so-and- 
so; Jl «Jm c*i), JiJI c^i etc., see C-iJ 

jkj nizr similar, like; equal | ^kJl <Ap 
unparalleled, unequaled, matchless, u- 
nique of his (its) kind 

«^Li nazra pi. nazarat look, glance; 
sight, view; viewing, contemplation (Jl 
of s.th.); pi. £>\J& (philosophical) re- 
flections 

•jlii nazira delay, postponement, de- 
ferment (of an obligation) 

tsjai nazarl optic (al); visual; theoret- 
ic(al); speculative; (pi. -un) theoretician 



*ljaj nazariya theory; theorem; spe- 
culative or theoretical reflection (on s.th.) | 
i£>U>**JLl *ija* set theory (math.); <ij& 
a»j«1I n. al-mtfrifa theory of cognition, 
epistemology (philos.); oU^UJI <iJ& n>- 
al-'aldmdt theory of signs, semiotics; 
LwjJ 1 *ljiu n. an-nisblya relativity theory 

j^j nazir pi. *\J& nuzard' 2 , f. pi. ./Uki 
nazd'ir 2 similar, like, same, equal, match- 
ing, corresponding, comparable; an equiv- 
alent; facing, opposite, parallel; (with 
foil, genit.) in the manner of, in the same 
manner as, just like, just as; counterpart; 
colleague, opposite number (e.g., of an 
official); transcript, copy; (pi. jM«) 
isotope (phys.); j&j nazlra (prep.) as a 
compensation for, in consideration of, in 
return for, in exchange for, for, on | j& 
] C L jw*- «ii (daf k. mailman) on 
paying 50 milli&mes; a}\Jai people of 
his kind, people like him; <r~*-JI j-JiJ n. 
as-samt or jJiJl nadir (astron.); p^kii. 
jrikJl (aLuLi or) (munqati') incomparable; 
jJii 4 ^^i unparalleled, unequaled, 
matchless, unique of his (its) kind; J\& 
5*^ n. al-a§i rt a and ILJLt yllli (m«A'"a) 
radioactive isotopes (phys.) 

»jv£ nazlra head, foremost rank [ <j 
»jjij (with foil, genit.) at the head of 

jlki nazzar keen-eyed; (pi. SjlliJ naz* 
zdra) spectator, onlooker 

Sjliii nazzdra pi. -af field glass, bin- 
ocular; telescope, spyglass; (pair of) 
eyeglasses, spectacles (occasionally also 
pi. or du. with singular meaning: a pair of 
eyeglasses); (pair of) goggles | hjj SjUiJ 
(fardlya) or Sju-Ij SjLki eyeglass, monocle; 
O <Uia** SjLiiJ (muazzima) magnifying 
glass; jIaJLI SjUai n. al-maiddn field 
glass 

JljUiJ nazzdrdtl optometrist; optician 

SjUai nizdra supervision, control, in- 
spection, management, administration, 



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direction; ministry (now obsolete) | Sjlk 
VrjU^I n. al-karijiya (U.S.) State De- 
partment 

j^kU ndzur field glass 

J&L* manzar pi. J&\i* manazir 2 sight; 
view, panorama; look(s), appearance, 
aspect; prospect, outlook, perspective; 
an object seen or viewed, photographic 
object; scene (of a play); spectacle; stage 
setting, set, scenery; place commanding a 
sweeping view; lookout, watchtower | 
gj>- J*l* (jawwi) aerial view {phot); 
fU Jo^a ( f dmm) general view, panorama, 
total view; VtjU- J*^ (karijiya) out- 
door pictures, shots on location (in 
motion -picture making); V 1 ^ J^* (fa' 
H'iya) scenic views, scenery, landscapes 

ZjbuA manzara pi. Je>\^ manazir 2 place 
commanding a scenic view; view, scenery, 
landscape, panorama; watchtower, ob- 
servatory; guestroom, reception room, 
drawing room, parlor 

O J&+ minzar (pair of) eyeglasses, 
spectacles; telescope, spyglass 

jlku minzar pi. _^kL» manazir 2 tele- 
scope, spyglass; magnifying glass; mirror, 
speculum, -scope (e.g., laryngoscope) | 
Ajww j Ik-* {mvtazzim) magnifying glass; 
}j*-\ jlkix <_J»j (astvada) to have a 
pessimistic outlook, look on the dark 
side of everything 

3^kli» munazara emulation, rivalry, 
competition; quarrel, argument, alter- 
cation, debate, dispute, discussion, con- 
troversy; supervision, control, inspection 

^bJ tandzur difference of opinion, 
squabble, wrangle, altercation; symme- 
try | JebzS\ aJ& "adam at-t. asymmetry 

jUiii intizdr waiting, wait; expecta- 
tion | jUazil jl J* unexpectedly 

J^\j nazir pi. jUiJ nuzzar observer, 



viewer, spectator, onlooker; overseer, 
supervisor; inspector; manager, director, 
superintendent, administrator, chief; 
(cabinet) minister (now obsolete); prin- 
cipal, headmaster (of a school) | Jitj 
a-s-jU^I n. al-hdrijiya Secretary of State 
(U.S.); C&J\ J»\j' n. al-waqf trustee of a 
wakf, administrator of a religious endow- 
ment; jkUl JX, deputy headmaster (of 
a school) 



•jki 



L> ndzira administratress, directress, 



manageress ; headmistress (of a school) 
_p\j nazir and lj?\j w>azim pi. J&\J> 



nawdzir 2 eye; look, glance | <t>j^lj 
{naziraihi) before his eyes 



^ 



jjkj. manzilr seen; visible; foreseen, 
anticipated, expected; supervised, under 
supervision, controlled; envied, regarded 
with the evil eye; under consideration 
(case), pending (complaint, lawsuit; 
aUI in a court) ; point of view, angle (from 
which one sees s.th.) | aJI jjkj* one under 
supervision, subordinate, underling; pro- 
tege, charge, ward, pupil; jja^ js- invis- 
ible ; unforeseen, unexpected; ~<>jJ&j> oljal 
(adawdt) visual training aids; IjJZz* ^y,* 
(da f wd) pending lawsuit; jjkl\ {J xu-*t}\ 
V*' (J $a>h8) person whose case is under 
consideration 

^L* mundzir similar, like, equal; com- 
petitor, rival, adversary, opponent (esp., 
in a discussion); interlocutor 

ijalij nazufa u (^slki nazdfa) to be clean, 
cleanly, neat, tidy II to clean, cleanse, 
polish (* s.th.) V to clean o.s., become 
clean 

«LiiJ nazdfa cleanness, cleanliness, neat- 
ness, tidiness | ijUiJI cjj bait an-n. toilet 

ijuki nazvf pi. tlilaS nuzafd' 2 , ^jUaJ 
nizdf clean, neat, tidy; well-groomed, 
well-tended 



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(J»kil anzaf 2 cleaner, neater 

, _> k;T fonzt/ pi. -at cleaning, cleansing | 
jL&VI -«J»Ji'-" manicure; «J^bJl Jp *JuliXj 
dry cleaning 

.Jdix. munazzif pi. -a* cleaner, cleaning 
agent, cleanser 

Jikj wa?Zt (e#.) delicate, feminine 

*& nazama i {nazm) to string (a pearls, 
beads) ; to arrange, organize, put in proper 
order (a s.th.); to compose (a verse, a 
poem, music) ; to render in poetry (a s.th.) 
II to arrange, put in proper order, bring 
into order, rearrange (a s.th.) ; to organize 
(* s.th.); to regularize, settle, fix up (a 
s.th.), determine (a the details of s.th.); 
to adjust, regulate, control (a s.th., esp. 
techn.); to tune (a an instrument) V and 
VI to be strung ; to be ordered, be in good 
order, be well- arranged, be well -organized 
VIII to be strung; to be ordered, be in 
good order; to be or become adjusted, set 
right, regulated; to run properly, nor- 
mally; to be even or regular (noise); 
to be organized, be carried out, conducted 
(e.g., celebration, festival); to be incor- 
porated; to enter, join (J an organization, 
a corporation); to permeate, pervade [a 
s.o., a s.th.); to come over s.o. (*), seize, 
befall, overcome (• s.o., a s.o.'s limbs, 
s.o.'s body; of a sentiment, tremor, 
shudder, etc.) 

Jij nazm stringing (of pearls) ; compo- 
sition (of a poem, of verses); poetry, 
versification, versifying ; arrangement, 
order; organization; system 

fUii nizdm pi. -dt, Jii nuzum, Uajl 
anzima proper arrangement, regularity; 
methodical, organic structure; order; 
method; system; ruling system, regime 
{pot.); rule, statute; official ordinance; 
system of regulations | flkJl \Xa Jc along 
this line, in this manner; ^IUj js- j un- 



systematically; randomly; inaccurately; 
tjjU-^l pUi* alien status; alien act; ^Uii 
Jsij^Nl professionalism (in sports); fllij 
CU n. al-hukm ruling system, regime 
(pol); v^-^ 1 J'j^Vl j-Uii {Sakslya) 
personal statute {jur.); ^L-1 j»UH (asdsl) 
(basic) constitutional law, statutes, con- 
stitution; ^Lfl»l ^Uk* {iqtisadi) eco- 
nomic system; SjliV'j j-hW p^*j n. 
al-bults wa-l~idara police and administra- 
tive system ; jaJ\ Cj\j\j^ fU« n. jawa* 
zat as-safar passport system; SLU pLkj 
n. al-hayah (way of) life; Jl^ljl pUiJl 
(ra small) the capitalistic economic sys- 
tem; ^—JtJi j»lkiii (§amsl) the solar 
system; <J>--» fUiJ (sawtfl) sound system 
(of a language); fU! fUiJI fomm) public 
order; ^^ /»Uoi (/i£n) system of thought; 
tfjiS *UaJ (lugawl) language system; pLki 
jjjl' traffic laws 

(jrliaJ nizdmi orderly, regular, normal; 
methodical, systematic; regular (army) 

Jij tanzlm arrangement; readjust- 
ment, reorganization, reform; control, 
regu I ation , ad j ustment ; organization ; 
tactics; road construction {Eg.); city 
planning (Eg.) \ jjJS Jij traffic control; 
ljj^\ JiJ t, al-u$ra and JjU ^c3 
family planning; J-JJ1 *ii^ t.an-nasl do., 
birth control; jLo Jk£ {nisd'i) women's 
organization; V-W*" ^W**- 1 {siydslya) 
political organizations; j4«^J' »-^ i f ada£ 
of-f. reorganization 

*Ui^! intizdm order, regularity; me- 
thodicalness, systematic arrangement | 
j»Ukiu and flkjl j regularly; evenly, 
consistently, continually; methodically, 
systematically; orderly; accurately 

iili ndzim arranger; organizer, ad- 
juster; regulator; versifier, poet; (pi. 
Jiljj nawazim 2 ) weir, barrage {Ir.) 

plai* manzum ordered, orderly, tidy; 



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metrical, poetical; poem; pi. -at poetries, 
poetical works 

i^l*^* manzuma pi. -at treatise in verse, 
didactic poem; row, rank 

Ja^> munazzim pi. -un arranger, or- 
ganizer; promoter, sponsor; (pi. -at) 
regulator, governor (techn.) \ ]*iji\\ , U.-.« 
m. a4-$agt pressure regulator (techn,); 
4*jJ\ Ji-. m, aa-sur'a speed governor 
(techn.) 

itL« munazzam arranged, ordered, 
kept in order, orderly, tidy; neat, well- 
tended, well-kept; systematically ar- 
ranged, systematized; regular | ^Zx*- 
^ (jaiS) regular army; Jii* j^ irreg- 
ular; unsystematic; without firm plan or 
method, disarranged 



munazzama pi. -at organization | 
<_jL£JI oLk*. m. a§-£abab youth organi- 
zations; Ajj^l 4*kJJ (ttrnflmtvo) United 
Nations Organization, UNO; j j>*d\ *-M\- 
SJLkJLUl (fUastiniya) Palestine Liberation 
Organization, PLO; SJ.UI ^UwJl 3JiL. m. 
a$-$ihha. aUalamlya World Health Organi- 
zation, WHO; iJajjiVl Zu^l ^wk** m. oZ- 
wahda al-a. Organization of African Unity, 
OAU; *&\jj\j <iXici\ <wku (m. at-tagdiya) 
Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO 

Jiu> muntazim regular; even, uniform, 
steady; orderly; methodical; systematic | 
O <&£** £->\*?j* (maujat) uniform waves 
(phys.); iJjjJli jJiiL. (dirdsa) fully ma- 
triculated (at a university); ,*!*£•• t-Jlk 
regular student (at a university; in con- 
trast with v ...T:„. ,_JU, student by affili- 
ation) 

•J na'aba a i (na'b, <^~a1 na'ib) to croak, caw 
(raven); — a (na'b) to speed along 

i^jLo nu'db croak(ing), caw (of a ra- 
ven) 



<yUi na"db croaking, cawing; ominous, 
ill-boding 

u na'ata a (na r t) to describe, characterize 
a, o s.o., s.th.), qualify (a s.th.); to use 
as an attribute (*.-* a noun), provide with 
an attribute (* a subst.; gram.) 

C*J na f t description, qualification, char- 
acterization ; — (pi. Cjjm nu'ut) quahty, 
property, attribute, characteristic; de- 
scriptive, qualifying word, qualifier; at- 
tribute (gram.); epithet 

J*J na'ti descriptive, qualifying, qual- 
ificative 

Cjj*l» man' ut substantive accompanied 
by an attribute 



»oJ na'ja pi. na'ajat, *-Lu ni'aj female sheep, 



ewe 



j*j na'ara a % (j*j «a'ir,jl*j nu'ar) to grunt, 
snort (animal); (syr.) to howl; to roar, 
bellow; to spurt, gush forth (blood from 
a wound) 

lj*Z na'ra (n.vic.) snort; roar, bellowing 

Ijm nu'ra, nu'ara nose 

Zj*j nu'ara pi. -at> _^o nu'ar horsefly, 
gadfly 

lyo na'ara, nu'ara pi. -at haughtiness, 
arrogance, pride | <L*Jil 3/u (iqllmlya) 
jingoism, chauvinism; *^X* oj»j (mad* 
hablya) ideological arrogance; hj^cs^ %j* 
('unsuriya) racial pride 

jtJ na"ar noisy, uproarious, vociferous, 
clamoring, shouting; agitator, rabble 
rouser 

jvu na'ir noise, din, clamor, shouting; 
bellowing, mooing, lowing (esp., of cattle) 

«jbu na'ara, ncC'ara earthen jug (some- 
times with two handles), pot 



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r* 



jjpli na'ur Q hemophilia 

Ijjt-lj ncfura pi. j^y nawafir 2 noria, 
Persian wheel 



jj-^j twfasa a u (na r s) to be sleepy, drowsy; 
to take a nap, to doze, slumber; to be 
dull, listless, slack, stagnant (market, 
trade) II and IV to make sleepy, put to 
sleep (» s.o.) VI to pretend to be sleepy 
or asleep ; to doze, be sleepy, feel drowsy 

<«jj na'sa doze, nap, slumber 

,^-UJ nu'ds sleepiness, drowsiness; leth- 
argy 

OU*j na t 6dn 2 sleepy, drowsy 

^ptU yva'is pi. Lr *i nu's sleepy, drowsy; 
dozing, slumbering 

^inJ ruftUa a (na r $), II and IV to raise, lift 
up; to revive, reanimate; to refresh, in- 
vigorate, animate, arouse, stimulate, en- 
liven, inspirit (« s.o.) VIII to rise from 
a fall; to recover, recuperate from illness; 
to be animated, be refreshed, be stimulat- 
ed, be invigorated, be strengthened, re- 
vive, come to new life 

^iju na r $ bier | i £ J k~d\ J^j oUj 
banat n. as-sugra Ursa Minor {astron.); 



*j&\ 



,jJju oLj 6. n. al-kubra Ursa 



Major {astron.) 

"aJLm na r $a: £>ji\ SJUJ n. al-maut 
euphoria; swan song, death song 

^iLjl in'dS animation, reanimation, 
resuscitation, restoration to life; re- 
freshment; reconstruction, restoration | 

O tf-sLaal ^l*^ (iqtipadi) economic boost 

uV iU^I inti r a§ resurgence, revival; ani- 
mation, invigoration, stimulation, refresh- 
ment, recreation 

jUl. mun'U animating, refreshing, in- 
vigorating, restorative 



Ji*j na'aza a (na r z, ncfaz, i^J nu'uz) to be 
erect (penis) IV to be sexually excited 

J«^eU na'uz exciting sexual desire, 
sexually stimulating, aphrodisiac; a small 
variety of shark (zooL) 



j^j na'aqa a % {na e q, ^J na'lq) to croak, caw 
(raven); to bleat (sheep); to cry, scream, 
screech 

t$pU nd'iq: ^cU, JpU JT all that is alive 
and astir, everybody and his brother, 
every Tom, Dick and Harry 

J*J na'ala a(na'l) and IV to sole (a shoe); 
to shoe (a horse); — na r ila a (na r al) to 
be shod II to sole (a shoes); to shoe (a 
horses) V = naHla VIII to wear sandals; 
to be shod 

J*j na*l pi. JUJ nVdl, JaJ! artful sole; 
(pair of) sandals; horseshoe 

JpU na'il shod; soled 

jo na'ama u a and ncfima a (***J na'ma, jw 
man'am) to live in comfort and luxury, 
lead a life of ease, lead a comfortable 
and carefree life; to be delighted (t-» 
by), be happy, be glad (<-> about, at), be 
pleased (<-> with), delight, take pleasure 
(tj in) ; to enjoy, savor, taste, experience 
(^ s.th.) | y-» W» **j (naHma balan) to 
feel serene and confident about . . . ; — 
na e ima a (na r am) to be green and tender 
(twig); to be or become fine, powdery; — 
na'uma u («^*J nu'uma) to be soft, 
tender, smooth II to smooth, soften 
(a s.th.); to pulverize, powder (a s.th.); 
to accustom to luxury (« s.o.); to pamper, 
coddle, effeminate, provide with a life 
of ease (» s.o.) IV to make good, nice, 
comfortable, pleasant (a or <_» s.th.); to 
give (t-» J* s.o. s.th.), bestow, confer 
(<-> Jp upon s.o. s.th.); to bestow favors 
(Jp upon s.o,), be graciously disposed 
(Jp toward s.o.); to apply o.s., devote 



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1150 



o.s. (j to s.th.), take great pains (j 
with s.th.) j dJU-L^ Jjl jo I (mbdhaka) 
good morning! j ^^k-" **•*' (nazara) to 
look closely at, scrutinize s.th., regard 
s.th. attentively, pore over s.th., become 
engrossed in, ponder s.th. V to live in 
luxury, lead a life of ease and comfort; 
to enjoy (._-> s.th.) 

jj ni r ma with foil, indeclinable noun 
with article and nominative ending: 
what a perfect . . . , wonderful . . . ! truly, 
an excellent ... | Jbj ^J\ ^ n. r-rajulu 
zaidun what an excellent man Zaid is! 
tf-LZ ^LiJl jo* n. s-sabdbu sababuhum 
what a wonderful youth they have! 
JJU-M jo <ol innahu n. l-kalilu he is a 
wonderful friend indeed! c~+*jj I4J fa- 
bika wa-ni'mat in that case it's all right; 
ci*3 L m {fa? alia) well done! 

jo na f am yes! yes indeed! certainly! 
(with foil, verbal clause, or ji -*j na'am 
anna with nominal clause:) in fact, 
actually, it is true that . . . , I grant you 
that.,.; na'aml (colloq.) I beg your 
pardon? what did you say? 

ju na'am pi. j»Uil an'am grazing live- 
stock (sheep, camels, cattle, goats) 

<^J na r ma life of ease, good living; 
amenity, comfort; prosperity; happiness; 
enjoyment, pleasure, delight 

iwo" ni'ma pi. jo niam, juI anum, 
£j\^>j ni r mat, nVimdt benefit, blessing, 
boon, benefaction, favor, grace, kind- 
ness I *«l 4*jCj by the grace of God; ^-(j 
4*mJ1 very well off, wealthy, rich; jJI 
i*"3ttll the Three Graces; (<u*J) <c**J Jj 
waliy ni'matihi (ni'amihi) his bene- 
factor 



*jjj na'ma* favor, good will, grace | 
»L*lJlj *\jd]\ ,3 (wa-l-basa) in good and 
bad days 



d\*i nu'mdn blood | jjjJl jJlii anem- 
one (6of.) 

fUi na'dm (coll.; n. un. 5) pi. <*Uj 
na'a'im? ostrich (zool.) 

£»j na r im amenity, comfort, eaae, 
happiness, felicity ; gentle, tranquil, peace- 
ful I amI -jJ the grace of God, the bless- 
ings of God 

jcUJl an-na T aim name of several stars 
in Sagitta (astron.) 

aajm nu'uma softness, smoothness, ten- 
derness, delicacy, fineness; finely ground 
state, powdery consistency | 1»jjo* (Al*) ^ 
ojlikl from his earliest youth, since his 
tender age 

/J I an" am 2 softer; living in greater 
comfort, more softened by easy life 

/» Ui* min r dm munificent benefactor 

.pL* mana'im 2 favors, blessings, boons; 
amenities, comforts, pleasures, delights 

£*^ tarClm pampering, coddling, ef- 
femination 

l*U*l in" dm act of kindness, favor, 
benefaction; gift, donation, grant, dis- 
tinction, bestowal, award | J&}\ *U1 
i. an-nazar careful examination, serious 
consideration 

x(j rmim soft; smooth; tender; fine, 
powdery | jjilaJl pU n. az-zafr young, 
youthful, tender; jc-Ij ^SC~. (sukkar) pow- 
dered sugar; xUl U M^\ (jins) the gentle sex 

ju. mM«fl"om blessed with prosperity, 
spoiled by comfort, leading a pleasant life 



f~ 



mun'im donor, benefactor 



jOjo nefna* and 9-Lju na'nti' mint (bot.); 
peppermint 

^Lw nrind f % peppermint (adj.) 



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1151 



*j nad a {na f y, ncCiy, oUu ntfyan) to an- 
nounce the death (* of s.o., Jl to s.o.); 
to hold s.th. (a) against s.o. (J*), re- 
proach, blame (a J* s.o. for); — na r d i 
to lament, wail; to deplore (a s.th.) 

jj naly one who announces s.o.'s 
death; blame, reproach 

ILw naya pi. na'ayat news of s.o.'s 
death, death notice 

jo man* an and SUl. man* ah pi. £•!:-. 
mand'in news of s.o.'s death 

iUJ no^fea, n^6a swallow, gulp, draught 

noise 



jiu nagaza a (nagz) to tickle (o s.o.); to prick 
{* s.o., with a needle, or the like); to sow 
dissension, stir up enmity (^>j between) 

J^ nagasa a {nags, Jl£A» nagasdn) to be 
agitated, be shaken 111 to play <* with 
s.o.), tease (* s.o.), dally, flirt (• with 
s.o.) V = I 

4i^J nagsa pi. nagasdt motion; shaking 

J.\jt nugds and ^Ui nugdsi very 
small; midget, dwarf 

liUj nagasa banter, raillery, teasing, 
playfulness; elegance 

^om II and IV to disturb, ruffle, spoil (J* 
s.o.'s a pleasure, joy, life, or the like), 
make loathsome (a Jp to s.o. s.th.) V to 
be disturbed, be ruffled, be spoiled, 
become loathsome 

JjJ nagila a (nagal) to fester, suppurate 
(wound) J Jp aJLS JiJ {qalbuhu) to harbor 
resentment against, hold a grudge against 

JjJ nagl, nagil illegitimate child; bas- 
tard 

Jjo magftZ illegitimate child; bastard 



%y\ nugula illegitimacy, bastardy 

JJ nagama u t» nagima a (nagm? nagam) and 
II to hum softly in an even rhythm V do. 

Aj mz</m and nagam pi. j»Uj1 angdm 
tune, air, melody; voice, part (toim., of 
a contrapuntal composition); timbre, 
tone color; sound, tone 

JuAj nagmdy nagama pi. nagamdt tone; 
sound; musical note, tone (of the gamut; 
raw*.); inflection, intonation, melody; 
song, chant 

J.U tandgum symphonia, concord (of 
sounds) 

pjm mangum melodious (voice), sing- 
ing, lilting (intonation, tone) 

Jew. munaggam hummed softly, in an 
undertone 

(jXi) lAJ nagd u {nagw) and J^ nagd % (nagy) 
to speak (Jl to s.o.) Ill to whisper (» in 
s.o.'s ear); to talk gently, kindly, tenderly 
( e to s.o., esp., to a child); to flatter, 
court (» s.o.); to twitter (bird); {eg.) to 
babble (child) 

<J*> naffa i to blow one's nose; to snuff 
Uu naff a {tun.) pinch of snuff; snuff 
iJs'Jj naffaf snuffer 

^ nafata u i {naft) to spit, spit out, 
expectorate, discharge, cough out (a 
s.th.); to squirt out (a its venom; of a 
snake); to exhale, puff out (a the smoke; 
of a smoker); to utter, voice (a s.th.); to 
exude and inspire (<j a with s.th. s.o.), 
transfuse (<j a s.th. into s.o.) 

vlou naft expectoration ; saliva, spittle | 
iUaJjl dJj n. as-saitan erotic poetry 

4iij nafta pi. nafatdt expectoration; 
saliva, spittle; pi. expectorated or e- 



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1152 



jected matter, expectorations, discharge, 
outpourings, emissions, effusions; in- 
vectives, accusations | f^Vt obii lit- 
erary productions 

«jLb* nufata saliva, spittle 

itb* najfdt jet-propelled [techn.) | i]j£- 
iLij (muharrik) jet engine; <uLcj »J\b 
jet plane; 4? Lb* SjaJ {qudra) jet power 

ajUJ naffata pi. -a£ woman who spits 
on the knots (in exercising a form of 
Arabian witchcraft in which women 
tie knots in a cord and spit upon them 
with an imprecation; Kor. 113,4); sor- 



iJLb* naffata pi. -at jet plane 

J Lb* naff all jet- (in compounds) | _^wJ 
til-ij jet propulsion 

*i-ii4 minfat pi. dJU* manafif jet {techn.) 



pJii nafaja u {nafj, jUucJ nafajan, ^-y6 
nufuj) to spring up and take to flight 
(game); to jump, leap, bound; to vaunt, 
brag, boast V to brag, boast VIII — I 

gJu nafj bragging, boasting 

^UJ naffaj braggart, show-off; snob 

iiU nafija pi. ^\jj nawafij 2 musk bag; 
container for musk 

*uU nafaha a {nafh, jUuiJ nafahan, f~\J>J 
nufah) to spread, be diffused (fragrance), 
exhale a pleasant smell, be fragrant; 
to blow (wind); to make s.o. (*) a present 
of («-*), present (<-j » s.o. with); to treat 
(a o s.o. to s.th.) Ill to protect, defend 
<o* 3-th.) 

*U»jb* nafha pi. nafahat breeze, gust; 
breath; diffusing odor; fragrance, per- 
fume; scent; gift, present 

minfaha rennet 



£.ii nafaha u {nafh) to blow, puff; to breathe; 
to blow up, inflate, fill with air (a or 
j s.th.); O to pump up, fill (a tire); 
O to fill with gas (balloon); to blow (* 
tunes, j on an instrument); to breathe 
s.th. (a) into s.o. (j), inspire (a j s.o. 
with); to inflate, puff up, elate, flush with 
success, fill with pride (o s.o.) | <3jJ\ j *& 
{buq) to blow the trumpet; <*-jj j iij 
(HtM'At) to animate, inspirit s.o.; «a* 
4jj_^ <_3 (a«rot»At) to bring s.th. into 
being, give birth to s.th.; SjUj J iJu 
**-jj {zammarati ruhihi) to rouse s.o.'s 
temper; i*+Ji)\ fJj {mm* a) to blow out 
a candle; 4jJi£ fJu (sidqaihi) to be puffed 
up, become inflated; <ujL ±Ju (bi-anfihl) 
to snort V and VIII to be blown up, 
inflated, filled with air; to swell; to 
puff up, become inflated | iy£ -kixjl 
(sahruhu) and 4^-L*. C^JcJ^ (masdhiruhu) 
his lungs became inflated (out of fear or 
pride) 

fJ6 nafh blowing, blowing up, in- 
flation, pumping up, filling with air 

*i*ij nafka (n. vie.) blow, puff'; breath; 
gust; distention, inflation, swelling; con- 
ceit, overweeningness, haughtiness | 
(<otT) 4j\jS~ *U«jb* (kadddba) self-conceit, 
vainglory, bumptiousness 

O r-Lb* nufak pulmonic emphysema 
(med.) 

£\Ju najfdk flatulent; grandiloquent 

£-Ui nuffdk vesicle; swelling, inflation 
{med.) 

IU-U* nuffaka pi. -at blister, vesicle; 
bladder; air bladder, swimming bladder; 
bubble 

£ii* minfak pi. ~sL. manafik? bellows 

j"-liu minfak pi. Mgili* manafik 2 bellows; 
air pump, tire pump; blowpipe 

iJzS tanaffuk inflatedness, inflation; 



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1153 



JUj 



bumptiousness, bumptious behavior; 
pride 

jrL&l intifak process of being inflated; 
distention, inflation, swelling, protuber- 
ance; flatulence, meteorism (med.) | ^-UxJi 
4jJ\ int. ar-ri'a pulmonic emphysema 

i*\j ndfik blowing; blower; player of a 
wood-wind or brass-wind instrument; 
flatulent | ^jjJI ^ n, al-buri bugler; 
*AjJ> «*U jWLj U (n. darmatiri) there is 
not a soul in the house 

rj&* manfuk blown up, puffed up, 
inflated; swollen; pumped up; bloated; 
paunchy, obese, fat; conceited, self- 
conceited, overweening, snobbish; turgid, 
bombastic (style) 

«i£w. muntafik blown up, puffed up, 
inflated; swollen [ 5U-I «i£u m. al-jvMa 
bloated, fat; jO-uaJI ±Jcl* m. a§-§adr with 
a swelled heart (from pride) 

u nafida a (nafad, jUJ nafdd) to be ex- 
hausted, depleted, used up; to run out, 
come to an end, dwindle away; to be out 
of print | jwall (>*. 4jjJ JUi (main as- 
sabr) to be at the end of one's patience 
IV and X to use up, consume, spend, 
exhaust, drain, deplete (a s.th.); to 
taste thoroughly, enjoy to the full (a 
s.th.) | **-j J£* Jb&Ul {bulla wusHn) 
to exhaust, or avail o.s. of, every pos- 
sibility 

•JLaj nafda pi. nafadat entry (in an 
account book), booked item 

alii nafdd exhaustion, consumption, 
depletion (of stores), dwindling, wastage, 
waste 

*yc3\ an-nafud Nafud (desert in N Nejd) 

jiU nafid: j^J\ oiU n. as-sabr impatient 

SoiU nafida void, vacuum 



JUj nafada u (iUl nafad, i^ij nufud) to 
pierce, bore (a s.th. or j* through s.th.), 
penetrate (a, <> s.th.), go or pass (a, ^ 
through s.th.); to penetrate (Jl into), 
get through, pass through (Jl to); 
O (mil.) to break through, fight one's 
way through the enemy (^ or j); to 
get (Ji to s.o.), arrive (Jl at s.o.'s place), 
reach (Jl s.o.); to lead (Jl to), give, open 
(Jl on; of a door or window); to com- 
municate, be connected (Jl with; of a 
building, lot, premises), join; to be car- 
ried out, be executed, be legally valid, 
be effective, be operative, be enforceable, 
be executable, be executory; to do well 
or skillfully ( j s.th.) II and IV to cause 
(a s.th.) to pierce or penetrate; to carry- 
out, execute, accomplish, effect (a s.th., 
also, an idea), do, perform, fulfill, dis- 
charge (a a duty); to realize, implement, 
carry into effect (a a plan, a project, 
ideas) ; to enforce (a a resolution) ; to carry 
through (a a program); to execute, carry 
out (* a sentence; j against s.o.); to 
transmit, convey, send, dispatch, for- 
ward ( Jl * s.th. to s.o.) V to be executed, 
be carried out 

JUj nafad pi. iUil anfdd opening, 
aperture, orifice, hole, vent, outlet, es- 
cape, way out 

ilii nafdd penetration, permeation; 
implementation, realization, effectua- 
tion; effectiveness; execution | «j*~*Jl ilii 
perspicacity, acute discernment, penetra- 
tion 

ijjUj nafddiya permeability (e.g., to 
water) ; penetrating power (of radiation) 

iUi naff ad piercing, penetrating; effec- 
tive, effectual; permeable, pervious 

i_jij nufud penetration, permeation; 
effectiveness, effect, action; influence, 
prestige, authority j jik. iyu (mutlaq) 
full powers, free hand, unlimited authori- 



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1154 



ty; hjJu ji influential; J^iJI jUaJ sphere 
of influence 

JuL» manfad, manfid pi. JUL* manajid 2 
opening in a wall, air hole, window; 
passage, passageway, exit; outlet; way 
out, escape; entrance, access; gateway, 
gate; loophole, dodge; O electrode (el,) | 

ol*U -iii. m. al-miydh flood gate, 
lock gate, sluice gate; j!j*JI Xkl\ (bahrl) 
access to the sea 

XJcS tanfid carrying out, implemen- 
tation, effectuation, realization ; discharge, 
accomplishment, fulfillment, perform- 
ance, execution; distraint, legal execution 
(jut.) | Xks}\ (j>s) jjy> (_> J^-^ (tauri, 
dauri t-t.) to become effective, come into 
force; JLijJI b^ 'aun at-t. minor ex- 
ecutory officer, bailiff (km.); XJc3\ ~J 
qism at-t. executive division (of a court) ; 
JLjLxU aLU j»lSC>-i executory decisions, 
precepts, executions, writs of fieri facias 
(jur.); flAc^l C*- JLiij t. hukm al-i f ddm 
execution, carrying out of a death sen- 
tence 

(^-UiJ tanfidl executory, executive | Sii- 
ijXjiiT (lajna) executive committee; i^V 
ajJL^j implementing regulation (of a law, 
of an agreement; pol., jur.) 

ilfljl infad sending, dispatch, convey- 
ance, delivery, transmission; carrying 
out, execution, discharge, performance 

JUL ndfid piercing, penetrating; effec- 
tive, operative, effectual; legally valid | 

1 JUL r*~^ I (asbaha) to become operative, 
become effective, come into force (law); 
<lJ JUL O-l (hukmu) the sentence will 
be carried out, has legal force; <J&I JUL 
n. al-kalima influential, powerful; JUL 
JjxaI! valid, effective, in force; JiU ^*1 
(a7nr) strict order 

SJUL nafida pi. JUI^j nawujld 2 opening 
in a wall, air hole; window; Q ticket | 



O JJtAkVi SJUL n. al-itlaq loophole, em- 
brasure 

oil* munaffid executant, executer, 
executioner [ S*-*^! JUi* m. al-wasiya 
executor {jur.); XL* by- ( r aun) minor ex- 
ecutory officer, bailiff {tun.) 

-U^» mutanaffid influential 

jlj nafara u i (jytj nufur, jUl nifar) to 
shy, bolt, stampede (animal) ; — i (nafar) 
to flee, run away; to have an aversion 
(u- to )> nav e a distaste (j* for) ; to avoid, 
shun, eschew (^ or ^ s.th.), keep 
clear (jc or j* of), turn away, flee (^ or 
jr. from); to hurry, rush, hasten (J or J! 
to) ; — i (jjjsj nufur) to swell, bulge out, 
protrude, jut out, stick out II to startle, 
frighten, scare away, chase away, drive 
away (* s.th.); to fill (* s.o.) with an 
aversion (j- to), arouse a distaste (j* a 
in s.o. for), make loathsome (j* * to s.o. 
s.th.), alienate, estrange, deter (,y * 
s.o. from), spoil s.o.'s («) pleasure (,y in), 
make (* s.o.) dissatisfied (j* with) III to 
avoid (a, o s.o., s.th.), keep away (« from 
s.o.), have an aversion (* to s.o.}; to 
contradict (* s.th.), be incompatible 
(a with) YI to avoid each other; to 
conflict, clash; to disagree, be incongru- 
ous, incompatible, mutually repellent Xto 
be frightened away; to call upon s.o. 
(*) to fight (J* against), call out (» s.o.) 
to go to war ( J^ against) 

jM nafar pi. jlijl anfar band, party, 
group, troop; troops; person, individual; 
{mil.) soldier, private; man (as a numera- 
tive) 

IjJu nafra aversion, distaste, dislike, 
antipathy 

jy6 nufur shying, flight; bolting, 
stampede (of an animal); aversion, 
distaste, dislike, displeasure; alienation, 
estrangement 



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o~* 



jjZ nafur shy, easily frightened, 
scary, fearful, timid; reticent, diffident, 
bashful, coy, reserved 

jJ6 naflr pi. jUjI anfar, IjAj\ anfira 
band, party, group, troop ; departure into 
battle; trumpet | fU jJu {'amm) general 
call to arms, levy en masse; general 
alarm 

SjjiU nafura pi. j£\j> nawdfir 2 fountain 

Zjijl naufara pi. J»\j> nawdfir 2 fountain 

jJcS tan fir estrangement, alienation, 
repulsion, deterrence 

ybj tanafur mutual aversion or re- 
pulsion, disagreement, disunion, dissen- 
sion, conflict, strife, incongruity, discord 

Jit ndfir pi. jJu nafr, nuffar fleeing, 
fugitive, shy, fearful, timid; having an 
aversion (^y to) or a distaste (y for); 
swelling, protuberant, bulging, protrud- 
ing, projecting, jutting out; relief-like, in 
relief; three-dimensional, 3-D (film) 

jk^ munapr t munfir repulsive, repel- 
lent 

jJu nafusa u {nafas, ^lu nijas, U\Ju na* 
fdsa) to be precious, valuable, priceless; 
— nafisa a (nafas) to be sparing, niggardly 
(t-> with s.th.); — (L-Uj nafdsa) to envy, 
begrudge (a J& s.o. s.th.); — nafisa a 
and pass, nujisa (^-UJ nifds) to be in 
childbed II to cheer up, comfort, appease, 
reassure (» s.o.); to relieve (je s.o. * of 
s.th., esp., of sorrow, cares), dispel, 
banish (^a s.o.'s * worries, anxieties); 
to air ( jp one's secret feelings), give vent 
(jp to one's emotions), uncover, reveal, 
voice, get off one's chest, get out of one's 
system, abreact (jp one's suppressed 
desires, frustrations, fears, etc.); to de- 
sist (jp from), cease (jp doing s.th.); 
pass, nuffisa to get lost (jp to s.o.); 
to let out air, leak; to be in childbed 



III to compete, vie (jp « with s.o. in); 
to compete, fight, struggle (Jp for), 
seek, try to obtain, desire (J* s.th.), 
strive, be out (Jp for), aspire (Jp to) 

V to breathe, inhale and exhale; to take 
breath, pause for breath, have a breather, 
have a break, take a rest | ol^-J-! ( _ r kS 
<ijil (al-hasardti l-mu'lima) to heave 
painful sighs; *l-UsJ! Jc3 {su'adaa) to 
sigh deeply; to breathe a sigh of relief, 
breathe again; jJ~H\ { j~^ iJ Jc3 {na* 
fasa) to be at one's last gasp, be dying; 
SUJ jp U ~£S (hayah) to breathe one's 
last, die ; £j\ C-*a'j {rih) the wind blew 

VI to rival, compete, vie, contend (J* for, 
j in s.th.) 

ijiJl nafs i., pi. (^jij nufus, Lr Jj\ anfus 
soul; psyche; spirit, mind; human being, 
person, individual; inclination, liking, 
appetite, desire; personal identity, self 
(used to paraphrase the reflexive pronoun), 
(with def. noun) the same, the very . . . 
(see examples below) | <uu^j he himself; 
personally, in person; \~*jiU J*^ we 
ourselves; j^\ ^Jij j in reality, actu- 
ally, in fact; **yi »& j do.; -g-— ill >£*■ 
in their own opinion; <~J& y> i>U- 
(d^iij) he himself came to me, he came 
personally to see me; <u-ij' J* »U- he 
came of his own accord; ^i <u Cj^j I* 
ts*** &i> Jxi wnat I na< * promised my- 
self ; j/i i Ju the essence of the matter, 
the nature of the affair; the same mat- 
ter; #^1 ^pXJ or 4~Ju *^\ (nafsuhu) the 
thing itself; the same thing, the very 
thing; ^Jd\ Jp $&*i\ and ,jJcS\i *SiII 
(tiqa) self-confidence, self-reliance; J-£j 
{J Jc}\ bi-siqqi n-n. or ,^-iiVl J-tJ (follow- 
ing VI.-.V) with (the greatest) dif- 
ficulty, barely; iJ Jc}\ j\k^ base-minded, 
low-minded; ^^1 C*J& unselfish, self- 
less, altruistic; ^^iJI i* Him an-n. psy- 
chology; ^ki\ jS high-minded, proud; 
^^1 \£- inahabbat an-n. amour propre, 
selfishness; ^^iJij i/-*J' J A* to make 



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every conceivable sacrifice, sacrifice all, 
give up all one's possessions; J* <u«i 
<~aj (qasamahu) to divide or split s.o.'s 
personality; ^y^ ~^z*>- see *U*i>-; SjyU 
,jMjk^\ see <jy-u (under jji) 

t5 -iJ na/si spiritual, mental, psychi- 
c(al); (pi. -un) psychologist [ (S Jd\ JJU*=JI 
psychoanalysis ; JL-Jti aJU- state of mind, 
mood 



nafslya mental life, inner life, 
psyche; frame of mind; mentality, mental 
attitude | <cx~jU j ^1 (attar a) to make 
a deep impression on s.o., touch s.o. 
deeply 

i jJ& nafas pi. iJ Xsl\ anfas breath; 
whiff; puff (from a smoking pipe, from 
a cigarette); swallow, gulp, draught; 
style of an author; freedom, liberty, 
convenience, discretion | jj^^\ u Jd\ J*- 
to the last breath; u *Ju jj enough to 
slake the thirst; refreshing (drink); j^ 
^jJcW diqan-n. labored breathing, asthma; 
°Jj-*' i> ir* ti J-* ne ac * s according to 
his own desires; £j^J i> <j~^ J ^ ( aWi! 
n&a) you can do as you please! dL*J 
<wUjl (anfdsahu) to hold one's breath; 
<u-LiJl c~^U (anfdsuhu) to give up the 
ghost; jw^Vl 4—ij jU- to breathe one's 
last; Jj^iaJt (^aJI endurance, persistence, 
capacity to wait 

4*Ju nufsa respite, delay 

*\*Ju nafsa' 2 pi. ^Li nawajis 2 confined, 
in childbed; a woman in childbed 

jLuiJ nafsdni psychic(al), mental | 
tiL^AJ v-J* (#66) psychiatry; jLJj ^^L 
psychiatrist; jLJu iU psychologist 

O v^~- ** nafsdnlya psychology 

,^-Uj m/as parturition, delivery, child- 
birth, confinement, accouchement; child- 
bed, puerperium; see also below | i y- 
^UJI hummd n-n. or L-liJ j^ puerperal 
fever, childbed fever 



4L-UJ nafdsa preciousness, costliness 

jj-iij nafls precious, costly, valuable, 
priceless 

4— jutJ nafisa pi. ^LiJ nafd'is 2 gem, 
object of value, precious thing 

(j-uiu manfas pi. ^U* rnandfis 2 breath- 
ing hole, air hole, valve 

O 4~J£* minfasa pneumograph (med,) 

(j-juU tan f Is airing, ventilation; cathar- 
sis (psych.) 

i-ili* ynundfasa pi. -af emulation; 
competition (also com.); rivalry; ath- 
letic event, contest, match 

,j-Uj m'/as emulation; competition (also 
com.); rivalry; athletic event, contest, 
match 

^j-i^j tanaffus respiration 

iS -JcJ tanqffusi: l? ~«ij jt$>- (jaAaz) 
respiratory system 

^-JUj iandjus mutual competition, ri- 
valry; fight, struggle (Jp for) | ^Jb" 
t^s*- (hayawi) struggle for existence 

jj-ilu mundfis competitor; rival 

^^i^. mutanaffas place to breathe 
freely; breathing space, free scope (for 
s.th.), free atmosphere; relief, escape, 
way out 

JLm nafaga u (nafs) to tease (a wool); to 
swell out, puff up; to swell, become 
swollen; to ruffle its feathers (bird) II to 
comb or card (a cotton) V to puff up, 
become inflated; to ruffle the feathers, 
bristle the hair VIII do. 

l JJu Tiafas wool 

jjilij naff as a variety of large lemon 



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J^y£* manfuS puffed up, inflated; 

ruffled, bristling ; disheveled (hair) ; fluffy 
(hair, wool) 

^iij nafatjLa u {nafd) to shake (a s.th.), shake 
off (^ a s.th. from), shake out, dust, dust 
off (a s.th,); to knock the ashes from a 
cigarette (a); to make (» s.o.) shiver 
(fever); — u (^>aj nufv4) to recover, 
recuperate (j> from) | J~£ll *lc a& 
(kaaala) or *LS jLp ^aX {gubdra ka* 
aaliht) to shake off one's laziness; ^j-aJJ 
«jLp (gubdrahu) lit.: to shake off its 
dust, i.e., to have reached the end of, be 
finished with; *+H <* u a^ (hamma) to 
shake off one's sorrows, shed one's 
anxiety; ijljj*^ «-r^ t> o**> {Ufibi I- 
auraq) to gamble away at cards; ^kil 
jS}\ j- *Jb {yadahu, amr) to chuck s.th., 
shake off s.th., rid o.s. of, refuse to have 
anything to do with; tAi Jb j* «-b ( _ r iiJ 
to break with s.o., dissociate o.s. from, 
go back on s.o. II to shake violently, 
shake out (a s.th.); to shake (a s.th. 
several times, e.g., a pillow); to dust off 
(a s.th,-), wipe off (jUJ' al-gttbara dust, 
^ from furniture) | jUJI j* 4jLj ^Jlaj 
(tiydbahu, gubar) he shook the dust off 
his clothes; <~J$ ^iuu (nafsahu) to shake 
oneself, shudder IV to use up completely, 
exhaust (a provisions, stores); to be 
devoid of all means, be reduced to 
poverty, be impoverished, be depleted; 
to shake off {^ « s.o. from); to remove, 
dismiss (^ » s.o. from) V (pass, of II) 
to be shaken | jLili j» Lf *£j {gubar) 
to be dusted, be dusted off VIII to be 
shaken off, be dusted off; to shake; to 
shudder, shiver, tremble ((> with); to 
shake off from oneself (j* s.th.) ; to wake 
up, come to consciousness | j* ^j&I 
4jL- {svbatihl) to shake off one's lethargy; 
to become shudderingly aware of one's 
situation | U*l_> u ^kj\ {wdgifan) to jump 
up, jump to one's feet 



a«j nafad that which is shaken off or 
falls off 

igaoj nafadl: O *r*** *4^ deciduous 
forest, leafy forest 

i-^iJ nafada scouting party, recon- 
naissance patrol 

l^tij nufada ague fit, feverish shiver 

^UJ nafad ague fit, feverish shiver 

Xj>\l& nufada that which is shaken off 
or falls off 



4~aJu nafida pi. ^Uj nafa'id 1 scout- 
ing party, reconnaissance patrol 

ijaJc** minfad sieve; winnow 



LL. minfada pi. i _ y ^^ mandfi$ 2 
ashtray; feather duster; O vacuum 
cleaner 

^Usil intifad shaking, shiver, shudder, 
tremor; shuddering awakening 

Xj>\JcJ\ intifada (n. vie.) pi, -at shiver, 
shudder, tremor; awakening (pot.); popu- 
lar uprising 

_kjt> naft naphtha, petroleum 

Joaj nafpi of naphtha, soaked in 
naphtha ; oil-, petroleum- (in compounds) | 
^Ju rV - ** {mi§bah) oil lamp; iJaiJ SS^JS 
{SirJca) oil company 

4kil nafta blister 

<UaJ nufata irritable, touchy, thin- 
skinned; hot-tempered 

jail, munaffif blistering, vesicatory 

-jU nafa'a a {naf) to be useful, beneficial, 
advantageous, be of use (* to s.o.), avail, 
help (• s.o.); to be usable, to do, serve 
(J for) | *ij V useless, of no use II to 
utilize, turn to use, put to use (a s.th.); 
to use (a s.th.), make use (a of) VIII to 
turn to advantage, turn to good account, 



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put to use, utilize, use (,y or ^> s.th.), 
take advantage, avail o.s., make use 
{^ or l-> of); to profit, gain, benefit (<y* 
or t-j by s.th.); to enjoy (<>. or i_-> s.th.) 
X = II 

*ij naf use, avail, benefit, advantage, 
profit, gain; good, welfare 

ijJsj nafl out for one's own advantage, 
self-interested, selfish; profit -oriented, 
profit-seeking; (pi. -un) utilitarian; prof- 
iteer 

4**& naf it/a usefulness; utilitarianism 

9 Uu naff a? very useful, of good use 

fjil nafu' pi. «ij nufu* very useful, 
of good use 

4*jL. manfa'a pi. *ibu rmindji 2 use, 
avail, benefit; beneficial use, useful serv- 
ice; advantage, profit, gain; (isZ. Xaw) 
yield of a utilizable thing or of a right, 
produce; interest; public establishment, 
public -service facility | (!L.j>) H.U «ili» 
fomfflo, 'umumiya) public-service fa- 
cilities, specif,, property set aside, or 
available, for public use; \&? ^ilu 
(§ihhiya) sanitary facilities; O v* 1 ^* 
i.Ul 4mL1I madhab al-m. al-amma utili- 
tarianism (pkilos.) 

9\Jej\ intifa' use, employment, utiliza- 
tion, exploitation, usufruct; benefit, ad- 
vantage, profit, gain 

«iU ttq/T useful, beneficial, advanta- 
geous, profitable, usable, serviceable; 
wholesome, salutary 

4*5 1! nafi'a public works | <*iU! jjj 
minister of public works 

*,&•:'■■. muntafi* beneficiary, usufructu- 
ary 

jiJ nafaqa u (JUj nafaq) to sell well, find 
a ready market (merchandise); to be 
brisk, active (market); — riafaqa and 



nafiqa a (nafaq) to be used up, be spent, 
run out (stores, provisions, money), be 
exhausted; — nafaqa u (J^ij nufuq) to 
die, perish (esp., of an animal) II to sell 
III to dissemble, dissimulate, play the 
hypocrite | tjji Jsli (damirahu) to act 
contrary to the dictates of one's con- 
science IV to spend, expend, lay out, 
disburse (Jp j& money for); to use up, 
consume, spend, exhaust, waste, squan- 
der, dissipate (a s.th.); to spend, pass (a 
time) ; to provide (^ for s.o., esp., for s.o.'s 
means of support), bear the cost of s.o.'s 
(Jp) maintenance; to keep (Jp s.o.) 
V Jp ijJiSo j£j (bi-kidbatin) to tell s.o. 
a fib X to spend, waste (Jp a money 
for) 

jij nafaq pi. JUj I anfdq tunnel, under- 
ground passageway; subway shaft 

4aJu nafaqa pi. -at, JUj nifdq expense; 
cost; outlay, expenditure, disbursement; 
cost of living, maintenance, support; 
(I si. Law) adequate support, esp., of the 
wife; charitable gift, handout (to the 
poor) | izjuu Jp at s.o.'s expense; JJS 
CjUjUI inexpensive, cheap 

JUj nafaq brisk trade, good business; 
salability (of a commodity) 

JUL. minftiq squanderer, wastrel, spend- 
thrift, profligate 

4JuL. munafaqa hypocrisy, dissimula- 
tion, dissemblance 

JUJ nifdq hypocrisy, dissimulation, 
dissemblance 

JUJ I infdq spending, expenses, outlay, 
expenditure, disbursement 

jiU ndfiq selling well, easily market- 
able, in demand (commodity) 

jsL. mundfiq hypocrite, dissembler 
JiJ V and VIII to do more than is required 



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by duty or obligation, to supererogate 
{specif., prayers, charity, or the like) 

Jju nafi supererogatory performance, 
specif., a work of supererogation 

Jjj najal pi. jUji anfal, dj& nuful, 
jUi nifdl booty, loot, spoil; present 

Jij najal clover 

UsLJ nq/E2a pi. Jii> nawdfil 2 super- 
erogatory performance; work of super- 
erogation; gift* present; booty, loot, 
spoil | jl J^SJi &U «> (». U-qavl) it goes 
without saying that . . . 

jcJu nafnaf pi. (JuliJ nafdnif 2 air, atmos- 
phere; steep hillside, precipitous cliff 

^_j>jaj nafnuf (ir.) a woman's dress 



{j& and Ji) U! no/a u (nafw) and Jj na/a 
i {nafy) to expel, eject, oust, ostracize, 
exclude. ^ 0T «> 6 s -°- feom ^ remote, 
evict., \>anY&li, exue, ex.-pataV&.te ^ a.o.V» 
to depoTt {» s.o.); to refute, disprove. 
Tebut, controvert, repudiate {* s.tYi.) 
to deny (* s.th:) ; to reject, dismiss, dis 
card, disclaim, disavow, decline, refuse, 
disallow (* s.th.); to exclude, preclude 
(> s.th.); to negate {gram.) Ill to hunt, 
chase, pursue, track down (o s.o.); to 
exclude, preclude (* s.th.); to contradict 
(* s.th.), be contrary (* to); to be in- 
compatible, be inconsistent O with) | 
*-j\&\ jli to offend against decency VI 
to be mutually exclusive or contradicting, 
cancel each other out, be incompatible 
YIII to be banished, be exiled, be ex- 
pelled; to be refuted, be disproved, be 
controverted, be contradicted, be denied; 
to fall off, fall away, be dropped, be 
omitted, be absent, be nonexistent X to 
reject as worthless, useless, unaccept- 
able (a s.th.) 



ostracism; deportation; denial, disclaim- 
er, disavowal, repudiation, disproof, ref- 
utation, rebuttal; refusal, rejection, dis- 
allowance, prohibition, ban; negation 
(also gram.); negative answer | JJU vM 
to answer in the negative, say nojjUl 
JJL to make a negative or rejecting 
gesture; JJI C>j>- harf an-n. particle of 
negation {gram.); JJ a*U witness for the 
defense {as opposed to oLJl .uli s. itbdt) 

^ nafyi negative 

Jj nafiy denied; rejected, discarded 

»Uj nafd*, Slij nafdh and #jlij nufdwa 
s.th. discarded as worthless or useless; 
dross, refuse 

Zliu nufdya pi. -at s.th. discarded as 

worthless or useless; remnant, remains; 

discard, castoff; reject, throwout; dross; 

refuse, waste, scrap, offal, sweepings, 

garbage; pi. cAAft excretions {biot.) 

j~* maufau pi. JsV^ manajiu place oi 
exile; banishment, exile 

»lil^» mundfah contradiction, incom- 
patibility, inconsistency 

JsU tandfin mutual incompatibility 

»U&I intifa absence, lack 

^ manfiy turned down, denied, re- 
jected, discarded; negated, negative; ban- 
ished, exiled, expatriated; deported 

Jail, mundfin incompatible 

jl naqqa i {jJu naqlq) to croak {frog); t< 
cackle, cluck {hen) 

jj naqq croaking; cackle; gabble 

3\m naqqdq surly person, gruff man 
grumbler; griper, carper, faultfinder 



JJ nafy expulsion; banishment, exile, 
expatriation; ejection, ousting, eviction, 



43 Uu naqqdqa frog 

jJU naqlq croaking, croak; cackling 
cackle; gabble 



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Joj naqaba u [naqb) to bore, pierce, 
perforate, breach (a s.th.), make a hole 
or breach (a in), punch or drill a hole 
(a through); to dig, dig up, dig out, 
excavate, hollow out (a s.th.); to traverse 
(j a country), pass, travel (j through); 
to inquire, ask, look, search (jp for), 
examine thoroughly, investigate, explore, 
search into, delve into; — naqiba a 
(naqab) to be perforated, be full of holes 

II to dig (jp for); to drill (jp for, e.g., 
for oil) ; to explore, study, investigate (^p 
s.th.), penetrate, delve, search (^ into), 
look, search ( jp for) ; to travel (J through) 

III to vie in virtues (o with s.o.) V to 
examine, study, investigate (jc s.th.), 
look, search (jp for); to veil her face 
(woman); to be perforated, be full of 
holes VIII to put on a veil, veil one's 
face 

«^Jij naqb digging, excavation; pierc- 
ing, perforation; — (pi. ^Uji anqdb, 
*_-»UaJ niqdb) hole, opening, breach; boring, 
bore; tunnel 



^UJ naqqdb punch 

i_->Uj niqdb pi. 
veil j jp i_jULJI «J 
disclose s.th. 



nuquby lJu\ anqiba 
to uncover, reveal, 



4jUj niqdba pi. -at cooperative society; 
union, association, guild; corporation; 
syndicate; trade-union, labor union | 
J \fS\ *iUj n. al-ummdl trade-union, labor 
union; ijLf. *Am (mihnlya) white collar 
union 

iiUi niqabi cooperative; syndicalistic; 
syndicalist; trade-unionist 

4-jUJ niqabiya syndicalism; trade- 
unionism 

._~JiJ naqlb pi. »Laj nuqaba' 2 leader, 
head, headman; director, principal, chief; 
chairman of a guild; president; syndic, 
corporation lawyer; head of a labor or 



trade union; captain (in most Arab coun- 
tries; mil.); staff sergeant, first sergeant 
(Jord.; mil.); tongue of a balance | 
iJsl^VI i-~JiJ head of the Alids, head of 
the descendants of the Prophet 

ILJij naqiba pi. c-JUi naqaib 2 soul, 
spirit, mind, intellect ; natural disposition, 
nature, temper, character 

*_JL. manqib, minqab and ZJx* man* 
qaba pi, «_JL- mandqib 2 mountain trail, 
defile, pass 



. minqab and oil* minqaba punch, 
perforator, drill; lancet 

cJL. mandqib 2 virtues, outstanding 
traits; glorious deeds, feats, exploits 

^■■a. ' ." tanqlb pi. -at drilling (esp., for 
oil); digging, excavation; investigation, 
examination, inquiry, search, exploration, 
research 

c? Juj tanqlH: ^oJU ^j (MV) drilled 
well, exploratory well (oil industry) 

i_Jc-» munaqqib pi. -un drilling or ex- 
cavation specialist; excavator; prospector; 
investigator, researcher, scholar, explorer 

2 ^JaJi an-naqab Negev (desert region in 
S Israel) 

Til] naqaha a (naqh) to prune, lop (a a tree), 
trim, clip (a s.th.) II do. ; to review, revise, 
read over carefully, correct (a a writing), 
improve, polish, refine (the style) IV to 
check, go over, re-examine, revise, correct 
(* s.th.) 

ry&tanqih checking, (re-)examination; 
revision; correction 

Aaj naqada u (naqd) to pay in cash (a o to 
s.o. s.th.); to peck (a at); to examine 
critically (* s.th.); to criticize (a Jp s.o. 
for) III to call to account (» s.o.) IV to 
pay (a & to s.o. s.th.) VIII to criticize 



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(a s.th.), find fault (a with), take ex- 
ception (a to), disapprove (a of); to 
show up the shortcomings ( Jp of s.o.), 
criticize (J* s.o.); to receive payment 
in cash 

jloj naqd pi. naqadat criticism ; critique ; 
critical comment or remark; — (pi. ^xj 
nuqvd) cash, ready money; pi. specie, 
coins, change; IaaJ in cash; for cash, cash 
down | J*S I JuiH {adabi) literary criticism ; 
J1JU! jJaJl self-criticism; aiJb in cash; for 
cash, cash down; jlUI 3jj waraq an-n. 
banknotes, paper money; .>>£JI HiiiU- 
change purse; *jZj **&> qiVat n. and i^Lis 
AjiJ! & piece of money, coin; ^yd '**j*£- 
coin collection 

^-LaJ naqdi critical; monetary; numis- 
matic; cash (in compounds) | ^JiJ ^aS 
(tadakkum) inflation; ^Aaj »lj>- (jaza*) 
a monetary fine; <uJ& 4*L* {qit r a) piece 
of money, coin 

4jJLaj naqdiya ready money, cash 

jUj naqqad critic; reviewer 

•iUj naqqada captious critic, caviler, 
carper 

JUL. manqad (eg.) brazier 

jUu minqdd pi. JLili* mandqid 2 beak, 
bill (of a bird) 

ilijl intiq&d'pl. -at objection, exception; 
criticism, censure, reproof, disapproval; 
review, critique | jli alifcjl self-criticism 

JjU ndqid critical; (pi. -un, jUj nvqqad, 
»J& naqada) critic | ^Ur»-i oiU social 



critic; 



iT-r- 



oSU (mosraA?) theater critic 



XtiL* muntaqid critic 

J&-I muntaqad blameworthy, reprehen- 
sible, objectionable, exceptionable 

& naqada u (naqd) to dehver, save, 
rescue (j* 6 s.o. from); — naqida a 



(naqad) to be saved, be rescued, save 
o.s., escape IV to deliver, save, rescue 
(j- 6 s.o. from); to salvage, recover 
(a s.th.) X = IV 

iUjl inqad deliverance, salvation, sav- 
ing, rescue; salvaging, recovery; relief 

iliJL-l istinqdd deliverance, salvation, 
saving, rescue; salvaging, recovery; relief 

Xjcjk munqid rescuer, savior, deliverer 

jju naqara u (naqr) to dig; to pierce, bore, 
hollow out, excavate (a s.th.), make a 
cavity or hole (a in); to cut, carve (a 
s.th., csp., stone or wood); to engrave, 
inscribe (,3 in); to peck up (a a grain; of 
a bird) ; to peck (* at s.o.) ; to strike, bang, 
knock, rap (Jp at, on); to drum (a on 
s.th.); to snap one's fingers; to offend, 
annoy, vex, hurt, insult, revile, malign, 
defame (« s.o.), cast a slur (« on s.o.), 
make insinuations (« against s.o.); to 
investigate, examine (^ s.th.); — naqira 
a (naqar) to be offended, annoyed, 
miffed (Jp at) II to peck, peck up {a 
s.th.); to investigate, examine (jc s.th.) 
Ill to have an argument, to quarrel, 
wrangle, bicker (* with s.o.) 

jZ naqr excavation, hollowing out, 
carving out, engraving; hollow, cavity, 
hole; snap(ping) of the fingers 

Jiu naqir annoyed, offended, hurt, 
miffed 

ljJ6 naqra pi. naqardt blow, knock, 
bang, rap; drumbeat; pluck(ing) (of 
strings) 

lyu nuqra pi. jZ nuqar, jUj niqar 
pit, hollow, cavity, hole; depression; 
orbit, eye socket; neck furrow, nape 

Ijjj niqra bickering, wrangle, ar- 
gument, quarrel 



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jUi naqqdr carver, engraver 1 
n. al-kasab woodpecker (zool.) 



\j\ll 



jJu naqlr tiny spot on a date pit; an 
utterly worthless thing | j-Ju ^j^ <£•&?■ V 
la yujdi sarwa n. it is of no use at all; 
-MJ i£jj5> <iAU, V he lias absolutely 
nothing, he hasn't got a red cent to his 
name; j\m ^j J^jJ V nothing at all, not 
the least little bit 

IjrJii naqira pi. J\m naqd'ir 2 corvette 

SjUj naqqdr a small drum having a 
hemispheric body of copper or wood 

4jjUi nuqqarlya pi. -at {eg.) a per- 
cussion instrument resembling a kettle- 
drum 

j^sU ndqur pi. j**l^ nawaqir 2 (Koranic) 
a wind instrument 



*jjai naqura 
rigmarole 



prattle, idle talk, 



jlJc* minqar pi. j>$b-* manaqir 2 beak, 
bill (of a bird) ; pickax 

S^li* mundqara bickering, wrangle, 
argument, quarrel 

Syli naqira pi. J\y nawdqir 2 bickering, 
wrangle, argument, quarrel; misfortune, 
calamity 

ulj^ij naqrazan (eg.) small drum 

fjsyij niqris gout; skilled and experienced 
(physician) 

^^j^ij niqris skilled and experienced 
(physician) 

Jju naqaza u i (naqz, jlij niqdz, o\jZ naqa* 
zdn) to bound, leap, skip, hop II to rock, 
dandle {» a child) 

ojju naqza jump, leap, start 
,j»j*\j ndqus pi. ^^^ nawdqis 2 (church)bell; 



gong; hand bell (used, e.g., 
liturgy) ; bell jar, globe 



in Coptic 



Jtlj naqasa u (naq§) to variegate, dapple, 
make many- colored, daub with various 
colors, bedaub (a s.th.); to paint; to 
chisel, sculpture, carve out; to engrave 
(a s.th., Jp on, in) II to paint; to engrave; 
to sculpture III to argue, dispute (* with 
s.o.); to discuss (a s.th.); to debate (a a 
question); to criticize (a s.th.), object, 
raise an objection (a to), raise a protest 
(a against); to hear, examine, interrogate 
(a s.o.; jur.) VI to carry on a dispute, to 
debate (j about) VIII to extract, pull 
out (a a prick or thorn) 

^JJu naqs pi. J^yu nuqus painting, 
picture, drawing; engraving; inscription; 
sculpture, figure | ^UJI J* Jju (nuhas) 
copper engraving 

^iUj naqqds painter; house painter; 
artist; sculptor 

i^U; niqdsa (art of) painting or sculp- 
ture 

J&*» minqas pi. JisL* mandqis 2 chisel 

<_^La^. minqas pi, u Zx$\^, mandqis 2 chisel 

iiiU* munaqaSa pi. -at argument, con- 
troversy, dispute, debate, discussion; 
contestation, opposition, objection, pro- 
test 

^Ui niqaS pi. -at argument, contro- 
versy, dispute, debate, discussion 

tj<jj£* manqus colored, dappled, varie- 
gated; painted; engraved; sculptured; 
inscribed 

J&+ mundqis opponent in a dispute; 
disputant 

,jA4J naqasa u (naqs, uLaiu nuqsdn) to 
decrease, become less, diminish, be 
diminished, be reduced (a by an amount; 



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^AA> 



of a number); to decrease, diminish, 
lessen, reduce, impair (a s.th.), preju- 
dice (a, « s.o., s.th.), be prejudicial (a, 

to), detract (a, * from); to lower, peg 
down (a s.th.); to be deficient, lacking, 
incomplete, insufficient, inadequate, de- 
fective, faulty, imperfect; >JA\ *m 
(Sai'u) he lacked, needed the thing, was 
in want of the thing; to fall short ( je- of), 
be less, be lower ( jc than) | u *j£j UU \ f 

1 ji>-1j \j4$ { e aman, $ahran) 13 years 
minus one month; t$iljW ^» \+*j£j see 
under o^ taraf II and IV to decrease, 
diminish, lessen (a s.th.) ; to reduce, lower, 
peg down (a s.th.); to curtail, cut (a 
s.th.) Ill to invite bids (a for a project, 
etc., so as to determine the lowest 
bidder) VI to decrease gradually, di- 
minish slowly, grow less or smaller by 
degrees VIII to decrease, diminish, be- 
come less; to wane; to impair, diminish, 
lessen (a s.th.) | oj.A3 j* (J *j£j\ (qadrihl) 
to disparage s.o., detract from s.o., 
degrade s.o. X to ask for a reduction (a 
of s.th.); to find (a s.th.) decreased, de- 
ficient, short, defective, imperfect, inferi- 
or; to discover the absence (a of), miss 
(a s.th.) 

^yaju naqs decrease, diminution; def- 
icit, loss, damage; wantage; lack, want; 
shortage (J of); gap, blank, omission; 
defect, shortcoming, failing, fault, blem- 
ish; deficiency, imperfection, inferiority | 
JlJIjII ,j^ai falling birth rate; ^ojH i_*T^ 
mwrakkab n, inferiority complex; jyJ> 
^aUU inferiority feeling 

oUftiJ nuq$an = ^om naq§ | OUaiJI 
oLjJIj (ziydda) omissions and additions 
(in a text) 

JLa Ju naqlsa pi. f j*j\ju naqai§ 2 short- 
coming, failing, fault, defect 



tanqis diminution, 
decrease, reduction, lowering 



lessening, 



IsaSIl. munaqasa pi. -at competition 
to determine the lowest bidder, public 
invitation to submit bids (for public 
works), notice to bidders; award of 
contract to the lowest bidder 

(j^Uul inqas diminution, lessening, de- 
crease, reduction, lowering, curtailment 

ija&S tandqus decrease, diminution, 
decrement 

> y>\jcj\ intiqds impairment, lessening 

^oSU ndqis pi. aai nuqqas decreasing, 
diminishing; diminished, lowered, de- 
creased, reduced; faulty, defective; de- 
ficient, lacking, imperfect, incomplete; 
short of supply, scarce; less (j* than); 
growing lighter; defective {gram.); L<JU 
ndqi$an (colloq. naqi§) minus, less {arith.) 

^\y naivdqi$ 2 shortcomings, faults, 
defects 

^jsjjc* manque decreased, reduced; defi- 
cient, incomplete; insufficient, inadequate 

^^aSL. munaqi$ pi. -un bidder in an 
open competition {munaqasa) 

{J JJ6 naqada u (naqd) to destroy, demolish, 
tear down, wreck, raze (a s.th.); to tear 
apart, take apart, undo (a s.th.); to 
break, violate, infringe (a s.th., esp., a 
contract or similar legal obligation); to 
cancel, abolish, repeal, abrogate, revoke, 
nullify, declare void, annul (a s.th.); to 
invalidate, refute (a a suspicion); to 
quash, rescind, reverse (a a sentence) | 
# VjJl (jAdJ (walaa) to renounce allegiance, 
to revolt; ^JiXj V la yunqadu irrefutable; 
incontestable, irrevocable III to be in 
disagreement (a with), be contradictory, 
contrary, opposite (a to), contradict (a 
s.th.), be incompatible, inconsistent (a 
with) IV to weigh heavily («^ zahrahu 
on s.o.'s back) V to be destroyed, be 
demolished, be torn down, be wrecked, 



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be razed; to be broken, be violated; to 
be undone; to disintegrate, decay, fall 
down, break down, collapse; to dis- 
appear, wear off, fade away, die away 
VI to contradict each other; to be mutu- 
ally exclusive VIII — V; to rise, mutiny, 
rebel, revolt (Je- against); to attack (Jp 
s.o.), take the field, go to war (Jp against 
s.o.) 

^Jtlj naqd destruction, demolition; 
breach, violation, infringement; in- 
fraction, offense; refutation, invalidation; 
veto (pol.); contradiction, logical in- 
compatibility | Jp-i jm n. al'hukm 
reversal of a sentence; f:>Ul ^-^ ^« 
as-saldm breach of the peace; Ak.)\ *&z 
pl^rVlj mahkamat an-n. wa-l-ibram Court 
of Cassation (Eg.); <uAaJ j^t V (yajuzu) 
{it is) no longer open to an appeal, 
incapable of revision, irrevisable, legally 
valid, final (sentence); l _yaJci\ J>- haqq 
an-n. right of veto 

^Ujl anqad (pi. of ^All nuqd) debris; 
rubble 

^jaJu naqld opposed, opposite, contra- 
ry, antithetical, contradictory; antithesis, 
opposition, contrast, opposite [ ^AJiJ J* 
contrary to, in opposition to, in contra- 
distinction to, unlike; u a : ^}\ Jjs on the 
contrary; <wLi Jl t jkJ&\ ^ Jul (in* 
taqala) to go from one extreme to the 
other, move in extremes 



ij naqida pi. ( _ r ajl_4j naqaid- polemic 
poem; contrast 

U6\^» munaqada sharp contrast, contra- 
diction; opposition ; contestation of a right 

^r^tfbj tanaqvd pi. -at mutual contra- 
diction, incompatibility; inconsistency, 
contrariety; conflict (^j between); an- 
tagonism 

j^Usil intiqdd collapse, breakdown; 
uprising, revolt, rebellion 



^yt* manqud destroyed,, demolished, 
wrecked; broken, violated; undone, re- 
pealed, abrogated, annulled; refutable, 
disprovable 

^L. munaqid contradictory, contrary, 
incompatible, inconsistent | «uli j^SL. 
(ddtahu) self- contradictory 

^Ui* mutanaqid mutually contra- 
dicting, contradictory, conflicting, mu- 
tually incompatible; pi. oLaihit con- 
trasts, contrarieties, contradictions, op- 
positions 

iaij naqata u (naqt) to point, provide with 
diacritical points (a a letter) II do.; to 
spot, dot, dab, stain, speckle (a s.th.); 
to fall in drops, drip; to cause (a s.th.) 
to drip, let (a s.th.) fall in drops, drop 
(a s.th.); to distribute (^> or * s.th.) as 
a present (Jp to s.o.); to give a wedding 
present (U to the bride) 

ikSJ nuqta pi. JaiJ nuqat, JoUi niqaj 
point, dot; diacritical point; period, full 
stop; drop; jot, tittle, speck; trifle, tiny 
piece; part (esp., of motors, of machines); 
matter, affair, subject, point; detail, 
particular; item; spot, location, site; 
place, village, hamlet, market town 
(geogr.); branch, post (adm.); base, po- 
sition, outpost (mil.); (eg.) wedding pres- 
ent; jUkiJl colon (typ.) | JLaSVl «k*J 
«. al-ittisal junction (of traffic lanes); 
JU^Vt ikii bottleneck (in street traffic); 
jlSojVI Uui base, strong point (mil.); 
pocket of resistance; 3U-.UI 4k£j (amah 
ya) main point; key position; iLii 
ptfU-Vl interrogation mark; »UL»V' iUU 
n. ai-itfa* or jlUI "4*Z fire station; 
j*^LJVl ikSj n. al-intUaq starting point; 
^-J^JI ikiJ police station, station house; 
j^J! ^aJU n. at-tajammud freezing point; 
6j=^\ &AJ n. at-tahaumnU turning point, 
turn of events, turn of the tide; Jaii 
£*JilJI grease nipples (of motors); SLaI 



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*Sj*~ t (gumrukiya) customs station, cus- 
tomhouse; *;»-jL>- ittA* (karijiya) outpost ; 
wJjJI SLU n. ad-danab aphelion (astron.) ; 
^Tjl iLtj m. ar-ra's perihelion (astron.); 
eJa*^ &*; n. #u*f a weak point; 5J«JaJ 
j£*l\ n. al-'anbar mole; beauty spot; 
jvJl SklU n. a£-'at» leucoma (med.); »ta 
ikiJi epilepsy (wed.); JaJUU and J*UJIj 
(rawya^ niqat) on points (in sports); 
Jij^i- 1 J* i»UJl ^*j to clear up matters 

^jjtl nuqut (syr., eg.) wedding present 
to the bride 

"ihJu nuqaita droplet 

itUi naqqata dropping tube, dropper, 
pipette 

Jtf^JL- manqut having one (diacritical) 
point; pointed, having (diacritical) points; 
spotted, dotted, speckled | &^c* IL** 
{fash) semicolon 

iaiL. munaqqat pointed, having (dia- 
critical) points ; spotted, dotted, speckled 

,*JU naqa r a a (naq f ) to soak, steep (j * s.th. 
in); to infuse, brew (a tea, etc.); to slake, 
quench (a thirst); to stagnate, be stag- 
nant, gather in a pool (water) IV to soak, 
macerate (a s.th. in a liquid); to slake, 
quench (a thirst) X to stagnate, be 
stagnant; to become impure and foul by 
stagnation (water); to be swampy 
(ground) 

«ij naq' maceration, soaking, steep- 
ing; infusion; (pi. «iul anqu') stagnant 
water, quagmire, swamp, bog; (pi. fUi 
niqa\ 9j& nvqu*) dust 

SpUJ nuqa'a infusion 

O oLf-UJ nuqd'lyat infusoria 

pjj naqi* infusion; that with which 
s.th. is soaked or permeated; (eg,) juice 
obtained from dried fruits soaked in 



water | j^cJl *Ju n. at-tin drink made 
from figs 

9jJ6 naqif dried fruit, dried apri- 
cots 

*j£* manqa' pi. aSU* manaqi 2 quag- 
mire, swamp, bog; sump, place where 
water gathers | * Jdl *2l» m. ad-dam place 
of execution 

fjj£j> manqfC macerated, soaked; in- 
fusion 

■a'.l.-. rnustanqa' pi. -at quagmire, 
swamp, bog; moor, morass, marsh, fen | 
oUJ&LJJ jf humma l-m> swamp fever, 
malaria 

•JwJ naqf, niqf chick 

JJaJ naqala u (naql) to move from its place, 
move away, displace (a s.th.); to remove, 
take away, carry away, carry, transport 
(Jl * s.th. to); to transfer, transplant, 
shift, translocate, relocate (Jl ... J- a, • 
s.o., s.th. from ... to); to transmit, 
convey, communicate, bring, deliver, 
make over, pass on, hand over (Jl a 
s.th. to s.o.); to transfer (» an official, 
Jl to a place, to a post) ; to shift (Jp into 
the next gear; auto); to translate (Jl ,> 
from one language into the other); 
to hand down, pass on, report, relate 
(Jl a s.th. to s.o., fjs- from, or based on, 
s.o, or a source) ; to copy (j- a s.th. from) ; 
to transcribe (a a copy, ^ or J*, e.g., 
from an ancient manuscript); to quote 
(^ an author or a literary work), render 
literally (a a text, ,3* or ^ from a source) ; 
to enter, post (a an item; in bookkeep- 
ing); to communicate, spread (Jl a a 
disease to s.o.), infect (a Jl s.o. with); 
to transfer, assign, convey, cede (Jl a 
s.th., esp. a right, to s.o.) II to move, 
move away, displace, move on, move 
forward, advance, transport, move about, 
let wander, let roam (a s.th., esp., a great 



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1166 



deal of s.th. or a great number of things, 
s.th. successively, one thing after the 
other) | oLL>- JJaJ (kutahu) to stride along, 
move along; _ / -«Jl JiJ (basara) and Ja! 
JiJI (nazara) to let one's glance wander 
about, allow one's eyes to wander (J in a 
room, over people, (>j between different 
objects or from one to another) III to 
exchange (a * with s.o. words); to cast, 
shoot (a o at s.o. glances); to report 
(a * to s.o. s.th.), inform (a * s.o. of); 
to hand, pass (a » to s.o. s.th.) V to 
be carried, be carried away, be removed, 
be transported; to be transferred, be 
conveyed, be assigned; Q to be trans- 
mitted (by radio); to shift, change its 
locality; to change ones residence, 
remove, go elsewhere; to change position 
(mil.); to move about; to walk about; to 
rove, roam, migrate, wander, travel 
about | iiiUl Jjli* j JJaij [m. al-balaga) 
to be versed in rhetoric VI to carry, 
transport (a s.th.); to report to one 
another, relate or tell each other (a s.th.) ; 
to exchange (a s.th.); to spread, report, 
relate {a a story, etc.), pass on, hand 
down (a s.th.); to spread by word of 
mouth (a s.th.) | j-JV aiIsLj (alsun) 
to pass from mouth to mouth, be on 
everybody's lips, be the talk of the town; 
^4jN1 <dU>Lj (aidi) to pass from hand to 
hand, change hands; jX\ Jjl^i-i ciibJ 
(Jcabara) the report was taken up by the 
entire press; ^^Sjl JibJ (kaldma) to 
talk with one another, have a talk VIII to 
be carried, be carried away, be re- 
moved, be transported; to be transfer- 
red, be conveyed, be assigned; O to be 
transmitted (by radio); to shift, change 
its locality; to change one's residence, 
remove, go elsewhere; to change position 
(mil.); to walk about; to rove, roam, 
migrate, wander, travel about; to be 
transferred (official); to be turned over, 
be delivered, be transferred (ship); to 
be communicated (disease), spread (Jf 



to); to be spread, circulate, make the 
rounds (rumor); to be transplanted (Jl 
into or to); to move, move along, travel; 
to betake o.s., proceed, go, take the 
road (Jl to), head (Jf for), turn (Jl to); 
to apply o.s., turn (Jl to a field of in- 
terest); to turn, make a turn (Jl into 
another street; of an automobile) ; to pass 
(^> from one owner Jl to the other) ; O to 
be propagated, spread (waves, etc.; Jl 
to, occasionally also j); Q to jump 
across (el. spark); to shift (from attack 
to defense); to go away, depart (^ and 
jfr from), leave a place (<>. and ^); to go 
around (J in or among), make the round 
(J of), visit (one after the other) | JiJl 
J I <u to shift, translocate, relocate s.th. 
to; *ii! 5>j Jl Jj&l (rahmati lldh) lit.: 
to pass away into God's mercy, i.e., to 
die; <oj jlj*. Jl JJbJl (/. rabbihi) lit.: to 
be transferred into the presence of the 
Lord, i.e., to die, pass away; t^u, JiJl 
jy (ba§aruhu) his glance wandered about 
between (several persons or objects) 

Jju naql carrying, carriage; convey- 
ance, transportation, transport; removal; 
translocation, relocation, transplanta- 
tion; transfer (also, e.g., of an official); 
change of residence, move, remove; 
transmission (also by radio); translation; 
transcription, transcript, copy; tradition; 
report, account; entry, posting (in an 
account book); conveyance, transfer, 
assignment, cession; meaning extension, 
transfer of meaning (lex.), use of an old 
Arabic word with a new meaning (by 
loan translation) | j* ^Uj as was reported 
by (or in) . . ., according to a report by 
. . .; based on, according to; f-dl JaJ n. 
ad-dam and »L—U1 JJU blood transfusion; 
Oj*Jl JiJ n. a?-$aut sound reproduction 
(TV); JL^UU jj^\ J& n. a8-$uwar bi4> 
lasilkl radiophotography; *UII JiJI ('dmm) 
public transportation, transportation sys- 
tem; 4-SCULl Jil n. al-milklya transfer 



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of ownership; JLjISL. JJaJ motor trans- 
port (of passengers and cargoes); lj>-\ 
JiJl ujratan-n. cartage, carriage, freight ; 
JiJl 2jU- sayyarat an-n. truck, lorry; 
JiJI JU. transfer fees, assignment fees; 
JiJl JjUj means of transportation, con- 
veyances 

JiJ naqli taken over from other earlier 
authorities (e.g., sciences), handed down; 
traditionary, traditional; of or pertaining 
to transportation, transport- (in com- 
pounds) | iAiS «jL- {say yam) truck, lorry 

Cj\Aju naqliyat traditional sciences (of 
the Arabs); transport services, trans- 
portation system, transportation; trans- 
ports I <i_JsL~* C^Lil! ('askariya) troop 
transports 

Jij nuql pi. JjJU nuquL candied or salted 
nuts and almonds; dried fruits; candy, 
sweets; dessert 

Lij nuqall pi. -iya (eg.) seller of nuts 

Jij naqal rubble, debris 

4JU naqla acceleration, pickup (of a 
car or plane) 

"Aju nuqla migration ; change of locality 
or residence, move 

UU nuqla pi. JJLJ nuqal gossip ; pattern, 
model 

JUJ naqqdl portable, transportable 

yUj naqqdla pi. -at stretcher; am- 
bulance; transport, transport vessel; 
truck, lorry; transport vehicle 

JUJ naqqdli transportable; mobile 

J-ij naqtl (yein.) mountain trail, de- 
file, pass 

Jiu manqal pi. J5L. mandqil 2 brazier 

ZjCj* manqala stage of a journey; way 
station; an Oriental game played on a 
board; — minqala protractor (math.) 



JJLJ tanaqqul pi. -at change of locality; 
change of residence; (mil.) change of 
position, station or garrison; traveling, 
roving, roaming, wandering, migration; 
conveyance, transportation, transport; 
transmission; transfer; reshuffle, shake- 
up, reorganization, change of personnel; 
regrouping, shifting, rearrangement 

JUxjl intiqdl change of locality; 
locomotion; change of residence, move, 
remove, removal; translocation, relo- 
cation; transfer; conveyance, transpor- 
tation, transport; transition (Jl — j* 
from — to); transmission; communica- 
tion, infection; transit, passage (of the 
sun through the zodiac); demise, death | 
JliJ "VI jjb taur al-int. transition period; 
jLo^l Iji fatrat al-int. interim period, 
interim stage, stage of transition; .Up 
*IjJI*j! jUixJl f id int. al-adro? Day of the 
Assumption of the Virgin (Chr.) 

JUzJi intiqali: JliJl Xp ( f ahd) tran- 
sition period; aJUoI U*-^ (marhala) 
transitional phase or stage 

JS'J ndqil pi. -un, USJ naqala t JUJ 
nuqqal carrying; carrier; bearer; trans- 
lator; copyist; narrator, transmitter (of 
traditions, of folktales, etc.); — con- 
ductor (el.) J ^-yJl JSU n. as-sur'a gear- 
shift lever (of an automobile); JT JjU 
(all) assembly line, conveyor belt; JSU 
l*jjyJ\ (jurtuma) germ carrier; O J*'-* 
O^vJi n. as-§aut microphone 

ilii J ndqila pi. -at transport, transport 
vessel J JjjtJl ilili n. al-betrol and 5JL5L* 
i^ojii n. az-zait tanker; $j£-\ a1»Lj troop- 
ship, transport; Cj>\JW^\ aIsU aircraft 
carrier; O '&j*^* ~*&\i (mutaharrika) con- 
veyor belt 

*JS\} ndqiliya conductivity (el.) 

JjL. manqul carried, conveyed, trans- 
ported; transferred; transmitted; trans- 
lated; copied, transcribed; movable, 



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mobile, portable; handed down, tra- 
ditional; traditional stock; (pi. -at) a 
movable thing | o*s!jJL* or (di^l) Jlj*l 
'4jk^, movable property, movables, ef- 
fects, personal property ; J^JJ Cj^jjC* m. 
al-manzil household furniture, house- 
hold effects 



JJLjl* mutanaqqil movable, mobile; 
portable; transportable; ambulant, itin- 
erant, migrant, roving, roaming ; nomad ; 
inconstant, changing | Jiju j , tl .»i {mus- 
tasfari) temporary field hospital, ambu- 
lance 

J,c.:.« muntaqil ambulatory; movable, 
mobile; contagious, infectious, communi- 
cable | Uidti iUp*i/l the movable feasts; 
Aii^L. ILL Cilia) contagious disease 

-4J naqama % (naqm) and naqima a {na* 
gam) to revenge o.s., avenge o.s., take re- 
venge {,y on s.o.), take vengeance; to 
be hostile ( Jp to), be full of rancor or 
vindictiveness, have a spite, be resent- 
ful ( Jp against s.o.), be mad, angry (Jp at 
s.o., a for, because of); to hold s.th. (a) 
against s.o. (Jp) VIII to revenge o.s., 
avenge o.s., take revenge (^ on); to take 
vengeance (J for) 

iJJj naqma, niqma pi. Ju niqam, oI^aJ 
niqamdt revenge, vengeance; retribution; 
punishment, heavy blow, trial; rancor, 
spite, malice, resentment; wrath, in- 
dignation 

*\jcj\ intiqdm revenge, vengeance 

^Uu'l intiqdmi revenge, reprisal (in 
compounds) 

iU naqim avenger; hostile (Jp to); 
indignant, angry ( Jp at or about) 

Jb'-« muntaqim avenger; vindictive, 
revengeful 



1 jui naqnaqa to croak (frog); to cackle, 
cluck (hen) ; to gnaw, nibble 

2 jjUj naqdniq 2 small mutton sausages [syr.) 



(fl^Jij nuquh) and naqiha a 
(naqah) to be on the road to recovery, 
to convalesce; to recover, recuperate (^, 
from) VIII do. 

<& naqah and I^ju naqha recovery, 
convalescence 

4JU naqih recovering, convalescent 

*aUJ naqdha recovery, convalescence | 
aaUJI jb rest center, convalescent home 

<ut> naqih a convalescent 

(jli and J^i) JJ naqiya a (*Ui naqd', SjUj 
naqdwa, nuqdwa) to be pure II to purify, 
clean, cleanse; to clarify, rid of extra- 
neous matter (a s.th.); to select, pick 
out, cull, sift, sort (a s.th.); to hand-pick 
(a s.th.) IV to purify, clean, cleanse 
(a s.th.) VIII to pick out, select (a s.th.) 

»tai naqa purity 

SjUi naqawa purity, cleanness 

«jUj naqawa, nvqdwa choice, select or 
best part (of s.th.); selection, pick; 
fineness (of a precious metal) 

4jUJ nuqaya selection, choice, pick 

JJ naqly pi. *Ui niqd", *LajI anqiyd' 2 
pure, clean, immaculate, unstained; clear, 
limpid, free of dirt or extraneous matter; 
pure, unmixed, undiluted (of a liquid) 

Jjil anqd purer, clearer 

aJLj tanqiya cleaning, cleansing, purifi- 
cation; clarification; sifting, sorting | 
4iUI *Jc3 t, al-luga language purification 

#liJi intiqd 3 selection | »U&Vl J^ SjJJf 
(qudra) selectivity (radio) 



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1169 



oSJ 



cjU&l intiqd'i selective; eclectic (adj. 
and n.) 



J~* 



muntaqan selected; select 



Ixj na&a'a a (»dii naF) to scrape the scab 
(a off a wound) 

Lj^j nakaba u (nakb, nakab) to make un- 
happy, miserable, afflict, distress (»s.o.; 
of fate); to drop (a s.th.); to put (« s.o.) 
out of favor; — i^j^ nukub) to blow 
sideways; to veer, shift (wind); — (nakb, 
nukub) to deviate, swerve (jt from, esp., 
from a path, road, route, course) II to 
avert, divert, deflect, turn away, remove 
(a s.th.) V to deviate, swerve (a or jc 
from); to avoid, shun, eschew (a or jc 
s.th.); to refrain (^t from), steer clear 
(Cf °fl» *° take u V on one's shoulders, 
to shoulder, take upon o.s., assume (a 
s.th.) | jt aj t-^cJ to make s.o. deviate or 
swerve from 

<_-SsJ nakb pi. ^j^J nukub and <Sij 
nakba pi. nakabdt misfortune, calamity; 
disaster, catastrophe 

i^id. mankib pi. t^fU* manakib 2 
shoulder; side, flank; highland, upland | 
*\j$ *-&* £« [mankibaihi, hxwSa) 
approx. : to race along, dash along 

VL?£- mankiib fate- stricken, afflicted 
with disaster; unhappy, unfortunate, ill- 
fated, miserable; victim (of a catastrophe) 

uxj nahata u (nakt) to scratch up (a the 
ground) II to crack jokes (J* about s.o.), 
poke fun ( J* at), ridicule (J* s.o.) 

*&j nukta pi. cS^J nvkat- olSvj nikdt 
jot, tittle, speck, spot; witty remark, 
witticism, wisecrack, joke; anecdote; 
pun, play on words; the point of a joke | 
cScJl jj»\a- quick-witted, quick at rep- 
artee 



oi£j nakkat witty; humorou3, piquant; 
mocker, scoffer 

C*Sc3 tanklt chaffing, legpulling; teas- 
ing, banter, raillery, mockery; joking, 
jesting, funmaking 

C-5c» munakkit mocker, scoffer 

£»& nakata u i (nakt) to break, violate, 
infringe (a a contract or similar legal 
obligation) VIII to be broken, be violated 

iiCl nakt breach, violation (of a con- 
tract, etc.) 

iM'U ndkit perfidious, faithless, false, 
disloyal 

«So nakaha u i a (p-lSCj nikah) to marry (U 
a woman), get married (La with) III to 
become related by marriage (« to s.o.) 
IV to give in marriage (U « to s.o. a girl) 

JSsJ nikah marriage; marriage con- 
tract; matrimony, wedlock 

tiTL* mandkih 2 (pi.) women 

X& nakida a (nakad) to be hard, harsh, dif- 
ficult; to be unhappy, miserable; — 
nakada u (nakd) to give little (« to s.o.); 
to torment, pester, molest {© s.o.) II to 
make life hard, difficult, miserable (• for 
s.o.), embitter s.o.'s (*) life III to torment, 
harass, pester, molest (» s.o.) V to be 
made miserable, be embittered (life) 

aSj nakd pi. :>(&! ankdd misfortune; 
hardship, adversity; molestation, trouble, 
nuisance; worry, concern | JUaJl &3 
misfortune 

uSo nakid pi. ^ISvJl ankdd y x5*L« ma* 
nakid* hard, troublesome, laborious; un- 
happy; peevish, cross, bad-tempered 

aSJl ankad 2 troublesome, painful, ex- 
cruciating 



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1170 



SjT'U-. munakada pi. -af inconvenience, 
discomfort, trouble, burden 

ij£x» mankiid unhappy, unfortunate; 
ill-fated | iii- 1 ijs^. m. al-hazz pi. x5"L. 
JJ-I mandkid al-h. ill-starred, unlucky, 
unfortunate 

J& nakira a {nakar, nukr, jj& nukur, j& 
naklr) not to know (a, * s.o., s.th.), have 
no knowledge, be ignorant {a of s.th.); to 
deny, disown, disavow, renege (a s.th.) 
II to disguise, mask (• s.o.); to use in its 
indefinite form (a a noun; gram.) Ill to 
disapprove (* of s.o.), reject (» s.o.) IV to 
pretend not to know (o s.o.), refuse to 
have anything to do (a, « with s.o., with 
s.th.) ; to feel unable to identify s.th. (a), 
find strange or unfamiliar (a s.th.); to 
refuse to acknowledge, disown, disavow, 
disclaim deny {a s.th.); to renounce, 
renege (a s.th.); to refuse, deny (a 
J* s.th. to s.o.), dispute, contest (Jp a 
s.th. of s.o.); to reject (Jp a s.th. with 
regard to s.o.), disapprove (Jj^ a of s.th. 
with regard to s.o.); to censure, blame, 
rebuke (J* » s.o. for), criticize (^ a s.th. 
in s.o.); to hold s.th. (a) against s.o. (J*), 
reproach (a J* s.o. for) | *Jl j J&\ {ddtahu) 
to deny o.s. ; *»Ju ^Sol (nafsahv) to 
harbor self-doubts ; to have one's presence 
denied, pretend not to be present (^ 
to s.o.); 4JU J**J ^^jj (ni'matl) he is 
ungrateful toward me; »ljl J I OjSCjl I 
pretended not to see him V to be in 
disguise, be disguised; to disguise o.s.; to 
change for the worse, change beyond re- 
cognition; to become estranged, be alien- 
ated (J from s.th.); to snub (J s.o.), treat 
(J s.o.) with hostility, deal ungraciously 
(j with s.o.); to deny o.s. (J, e.g., a 
feeling), shut out from ones heart (J 
s.th ) VI to have no knowledge, be igno- 
rant (a of s.th.); to pretend not to know 
(a s.th.), feign ignorance, make as if one 
doesn't know; to refuse to have anything 



to do (a with), snub, cut, ignore, pretend 
not to know (» s.o.) X not to know (a, » 
s.o., s.th.), have no knowledge, be igno- 
rant (a of s.th.); to disapprove (a of s.th., 
e.g., of s.o. 's words or opinion); to judge 
derogatorily (a s.th.), speak disparagingly 
or slightingly {* of s.th.), reject (a s.th.); 
to detest, loathe (a s.th.) 

j& nukr denial, disavowal 

^So nakir unknown, little known 

IJ&i nakira indefinite noun (gram.); 
(pi. -at) a nameless human being, un- 
known person; supernumerary (tkeat.) 

o\J& nukrdn ignoring, denial (of a 
fact), disavowal | jl^SCj "^ la nukrana it 
is incontestable; J~*i-J o\J*J ingratitude; 
olJJl olj& self-denial 

j& nakir disavowal; reproach, blame; 
disapproval, rejection; negation; repre- 
hensible, repugnant, disgusting, vile, re- 
volting, loathsome, abominable, atro- 
cious; one of the Angels of Death (see 
Jcj>) I j&)\ Up (jxft) JLi {$adda, Sad' 
dada) to reproach s.o. severely 

^Soi ankar 2 , f. »\J&S nakra' 2 reprehen- 
sible, abominable, disgusting, vile, re- 
volting, loathsome; ugly; rejecting, dis- 
approving J »1^So ZaLJj) a vicious smile; 
a sneer; »\j£j c>\Joj (nazarat) disapproving 
glances 

jl&l inkar denial, disavowal, negation, 
contestation; refusal, rejection, non- 
acceptance I CilJJI jl&i self-denial, self- 
lessness, unselfishness; <lL*4- J&\ {U- 
jamilihi) and c**3 jl&l i. ni'matihl in- 
gratitude toward s.o. 

^jlSvJl inkarl denying, disafnrmative; 
negative 

j$^j tanakkur disguise, masquerade | 
^Sodl Jiit mahfil at-t. fancy-dress party, 
costume ball 



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(^Jj5o 



iSj&J tanakkuri: iSj^ Ji»- (haft) 
and 4j^Scj 4JU*~ (kafla) masked ball, 
costume ball, masquerade; Sj^Soj ^^ 
costumes, carnival dress 

jl&JL-l istinkar disapproval; horror, 
aversion, loathing 

^U nakir denying, disavowing; un- 
friendly, hostile, forbidding | J^*i-1 ^U 
ungrateful 

jjSd. mankur reprehensible 

J&* munakkar indeterminate; indefi- 
nite (gram.) 

^rSc* munkir pi. -un denier 

J>c* munkar denied; not recognized , 
unacknowledged, disowned, disavowed, 
disclaimed; reprehensible; shocking, de- 
testable, abominable; abomination, atroc- 
ity; pi. Cj|^&- objectionable, forbidden, 
or reprehensible, actions | j&j ^Sc* the 
two angels who examine the dead in 
their graves as to their faith 

j&l, mutanakkir disguised, in dis- 
guise; incognito | jZcz* {J ^sj (raqs) 
masked ball, costume ball 

^£jL~. mustankar objectionable, rep- 
rehensible; odd, strange 

jSO nakaza u (nakz) to prick; to goad, egg 
on (« s.o.) 

^Sj nakasa u (naks) to turn around, turn 
over, invert, reverse, turn upside down 
(a s.th.); to lower, withdraw, retract, 
pull in (a s.th.); to bow, bend, tilt (<u»lj 
rcCsahih or *J\j one's head); to cause a 
relapse (a of an illness); pass, nukisa-. to 
suffer a relapse II = I; to hang at half- 
mast (a a flag) VIII to be turned over, 
be inverted, be reversed; to sink, drop 
forward (head) ; to relapse, suffer a relapse 



Lf Sij nuks relapse (in an illness) ; degen- 
eration, degeneracy 

4— SCj naksa pi. nakasat relapse (in an 
illness); reverse {which one suffers), set- 
back, debacle 

^f^ScJ tanakkus degeneration (biol.) 

^ISoM intikas relapse 

^^So. mankus inverted, reversed; re- 
lapsing, suffering a relapse 

^Si^ munakkas inverted, reversed | 
^-I^JI ^.-SCl* m. ar-ra's with bowed head 

^jS^* muntakis relapsing, suffering a 
relapse 

^tS^J nakaxa i a (naks) to clear out, dredge, 
clean (a s.th., esp., a well); to stir up, 
rout up, turn up, hoe up, rake up, dig 
up, break (a the ground); to rummage, 
ransack, search (a s.th.); to disorder, 
ruffle, tousle, dishevel (a s.th.}; to shake 
(a trees) 

^iic-* minkas pi. (jtS'L. manakis 2 hoe, 
mattock; rake 

^ISv^, minkas pi. u L>$*\i* manakis 2 
O dredger; poker, fire iron; (eg.) pickax 

tjoS^J nakasa i u (naks, ^jQ nukus, ^k*^-* 
mankas) to withdraw, turn away (jt 
from); to recoil, shrink (je- from) | ^SCi 
a~j& Jc ('aqibaihi) to retreat, climb 
down, give up one's intention II to cause 
(e, s.o.) to retreat VIII to fall back, recoil, 
retreat 

(JtSJ nakafa u (nakf) to stop, arrest (a s.th.); 
to disdain, scorn, spurn (,jc s.th.); to 
reject (^ s.th.) | ^a&j ^ (yunkafu) ir- 
resistible, resistless; immeasurable, un- 
fathomable III to vex, annoy, trouble, 
pester, harass, torment (o s.o., a with) 
X to be proud, haughty; to disdain, scorn, 
spurn, reject (jp or ^ s.th.), look down 



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1172 



upon (j* or t >-), have an aversion {^ or 
<>. to), loathe, detest (^ or ^ s.th., also 
*); to refrain (61 from doing s.th.) 

ii& nakafa parotid gland {anat.) 

JSO nakafl parotid (adj.) | S-iaJI vW^' 
5-i^JI (gudda) inflammation of the parotid 
gland, parotitis, mumps (med.) 

J»l& nukdf O parotitis, mumps (med.) 

1 ( J& nakala i u (J^& nukul) and nakila a 
(nakal) to recoil, shrink (j- or j* from), 
flinch, shirk (j* or j^ s.th.), desist, 
refrain, abstain, draw back, withdraw 
((> or ,y from); — nakala i (naU) to 
break (a or y a promise, an agreement, 
a contract); — nakala (*lSo nakla) and 
II to make an example {<-* of s.o.), 
punish severely (<^> s.o.), teach s.o. (^) 
a lesson; to maltreat, torture (*_j s.o.) 
II and IV to repel, force back, drive back, 
hold off, deter (^ « s.o. from) 

J& nakl breach, violation (of a promise, 
an agreement) 

J& nikl pi. Jt&l ankal, t}j& nukul 
fetter, shackle, chain; bit (of a bridle) 

Jt& nakal exemplary punishment, 
warning example, warning 

J^SsJ nukul refusal to testify in court 
(Ish Law) 

J*&j tankll exemplary punishment; 
forcing back, driving back, containment; 
maltreatment, torture 

2 J& II to nickel, plate with nickel (* s.th.) 
JSCi nikl nickel 

•tSo nakaha i a (nakh) to blow, breathe (Jp 
or J in s.o.'s face) 

'<$& nakha smell of the breath; 
fragrance, smell, scent, aroma 



£j nakd i (4jI& nikaya) to cause damage, 
to harm; to hurt, injure (j or a s.o.); 
to vex, annoy, offend (<-» s.o.) 

4jl& nikaya wrong, harm, damage, 
prejudice; vexation, annoyance, griev- 
ance, offense, outrage, chicanery [ <ui aj& 
nikdyatan fihi in defiance of him, to spite 
him; Sji&JI aJ Jaic-I (aglaza t nikdyata) to 
beset s.o. grievously, ride roughshod over 
s.o. 

£j\ ankd worse; causing more damage, 
more harmful, hurting or offending more 
grievously 

x f namma u i (namm) to betray, reveal, dis- 
close, bespeak, indicate, show (Jp or ^ 
s.th.); to give evidence (^ of s.th.); to 
report in a libelous manner (J* a s.th. 
about s.o.), sow dissension (<>j among or 
between) 

e namm slander, calumniation, cal- 
umny; (pi. -un, »Lc*l animrnd 1 ' 2 ) talebearer, 
scandalmonger, slanderer, calumniator 

«' nimma louse 

l»lc* nammdm (eg.) a variety of mint 
sativa L.; hot.) 



Ajt nammdm slanderer, calumniator 

l^S namtma pi. s\x* namd'im 2 slander, 
defamation, calumny 

<*\1 ndmma stir, bustle, life 



8 ^c* numml pi. -d£ coin | CjL*JI ,1p 
numismatics 



Urn an-n. 



r-i_jx' look up alphabetically 

jjc* V to become angry, furious (J with s.o.), 
turn into a tiger 

j£ namir pi. jx" numur, jU'l anmdr, 
jj£ numur leopard, panther 



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1173 



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y: namir clean, pure, healthy, whole- 
some (esp., water) 

ly numra pi. y: numar speck, spot 

^"1 anmar 2 , f. »\j£ namrd' 2 , pi. y 
numr spotted, speckled 

j^a munammar spotted, striped, brin- 
dled 

2 jjt II to mark with numbers, to number, 
provide with a number (a s.th.) V to be 
numbered 

Sjj:* numra, nimra pi. y numar, nimar 
number, numero; figure | o*-ij ly: nimrat 
w. first-class, first-rate, A-l, excellent 

SjU* nammara pi. -at numberer, num- 
bering machine, date stamp 



tanmir numbering, numeration, 



count 



j*l* munammar numbered, counted 

ffjs numrusi pi. %»j\x namarisa {eg.) china- 
ware dealer 

OjS numruq and 4*j£ numruqa pi. Jjle' na* 
mdriq 2 cushion, pad; pillow; panel, saddle 
pad 

jrf* namasa i (nams) to keep secret, hide, 
conceal (a s.th.); to confide a secret (» 
to s.o.), confide in s.o. (*), let (* s.o.) in 
on a secret, make (o s.o.) one's confidant 
III to confide a secret {» to s.o.) 

j** nims (coll.; n. un. I) pi. ^j/ 
numus ichneumon, mongoose; ferret, 
marten, weasel {tool.) 

,j»j*\i namus pi. ^^'ji nawdmis 2 law 
(also of nature); moral law; honor, honor - 
ftbleness, good name, reputation; con- 
fidant; sly, cunning, wily; clever | ^j*^ 
jfy\ (ahbar) the Archangel Gabriel; 
aaJoJI ^rt*!^ the laws of nature 



,jfj*\j namus (coll.; n.un. 5) pi. -at 
mosquito(es) (zool.) 

4-^.jjlJ ndmfimya mosquito net 

U^iJI an-namsa, an-nimsd Austria 

^jL-x namsawi, nimsawi Austrian 
{adj.); (pi. -un) an Austrian 

( _ t ix nami&a a (namas) to be freckled, have 
freckles 

U' namas (coll.; n. un. S) freckles; dis- 
colored spots on the skin 

JLx 71 amis freckled 

^Ic'i anmas 2 , f. >Ux' namsd' 2 , pi. ^j:' 
nums freckled 

Jax* namat pi. J?U" nimat, J?U*i anmdt way, 
manner, mode, fashion; form, shape; 
sort; type ( Xls J* in the manner of; 
Ja*Ji \Xa Jp in this manner, this way, 
after this fashion; Ja*JI d-j4»- new- 
fashioned, modern; Ja*jJl J^ old- 
fashioned, outmoded; Jb-!j Jax* Jp *-& 
they are, of the same stamp, they are all 
alike; O (J-*^* <s*kj\) U^ { ^ , 
the pyknic (athletic, leptosome) type; 
O J»lcVI hJ*> nazariyat al-a. theory of 
types, typology; ^IsilM -W n. al-intdj 
type of production 

( J a x* ?iamatl formal, rigid, stiff 

Jx" H to embellish, decorate, ornament, 
adorn {* s.th.) ; to compose in perfect form 
(a e.g., an article, a report); to write in 
an elegant, lofty style (a e.g., a letter); 
to improve stylistically (a a text) 

J-*^j tanmiq ornamentation, embel- 
lishment; elaborate embellishment (with 
figures of speech); elegant composition 
(of a text) 

j^i* munammaq adorned, embellished; 
carefully worked out, produced in perfect 



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form; stylistically well formulated, ele- 
gantly written (text), polished (language) 

J/ namila a (namal) to tingle, prickle, be 
numb, be benumbed (a limb) 

Jx* naml (coll.; n. un. 2) pi. JU* nimal 
ant 

Jx" namll antlike; ant- (in compounds); 
formic 

SJLc" namliya meat safe, food safe 

Jx' namal itching, tickling sensation; 
tingle, prickle, pricking sensation; for- 
mication (med.) 

Jc* namil creeping, crawling; teem- 
ing with ants; nimble, deft 

5JLc"l unmula pi. J.UI anam.it 2 fingertip 

J-j^jJ tanmil itching, tickling sensation; 
tingle, prickle, pricking sensation 

Jj^. manmul teeming with ants 

Ix namnama to stripe, streak (a s.th.); to 
adorn, embellish, ornament (a s.th.) 

^x* nimnim streaks or ripples in the 
sand (caused by the wind) 

i*ic' namnama, nimnima wren (zool.) 

L*L* munamnam adorned, decorated; 
dainty, small and delicately pretty; 
miniature (adj.) | 5,, •, .;,, ^j miniatures 

*wul» munamnamu pi. -at miniature 

(jx) Lc nam a u (jx numuw) to grow; to 
increase; to rise; to arise (j- from, out 
of) II to VIII see ijK nama i 

jx numuiv growth; progress 



rOjx* namudaj, numudaj pi. -at and ^-Slx" 
namadij 2 model; type; pattern; sample; 
specimen; exemplar, example; blank, form 



^ijx namudaji, nu mudaji exemplary, 
model (in compounds) | vr^>x *iU 
model clinic 

J nama i (namy, *lx* nama , ILx' namlya) 
to grow; to increase, augment, multiply; 
to rise; to progress, make progress, 
advance; to thrive, prosper, flourish; to 
be ascribed, be attributed (Jl to s.o.); to 
ascribe, attribute (Jl a s.th. to s.o.); to 
be told, be reported (Jl to s.o.; of an 
event), reach (Jl s.o.; news), come to 
s.o.'s knowledge II and IV to make 
grow, increase, augment, promote, fur- 
ther, advance (a s.th.) VI to grow grad- 
ually, be continually increasing VIII to 
trace one's origin ( Jl to s.o.), descend, be 
descended (Jl from), be related (Jl to); 
to be affiliated, be associated, have con- 
nections (Jl with); to depend, be depend- 
ent (Jl on); to belong (Jl to, esp., to an 
organization), be a member (Jl of an 
organization) 

#lx* nama growth, expansion, increase, 
augmentation, increment, accretion 

^ namly growth, expansion, increase, 
augmentation, increment, accretion 

Six* namah pi. ^ naman small louse 

)u«jj tanmiya expansion, promotion, 
furtherance, advancement; increase, aug- 
mentation; raising, stepping up, intensi- 
fication, boost; furtherance of growth, 
development | i*1jJ V»^ (zira'lya) agri 



cultural development; SjiLaa"! 
sadly a) economic development 



(iqti= 



*U'I inmdb expansion, promotion, fur- 
therance, advancement, increase, aug- 
mentation; raising, stepping up, in- 
tensification, boost; cultivation, breed- 
ing (of plants); furtherance of growth, 
development 

<jlx \ inmal serving growth and devel- 



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opment, developmental | lJ\x\ oUjyi. 
developmental projects 

ȣ*! intima pi. -af membership; af- 
filiation, adherency (to a trend, doctrine); 
commitment 

aU namin growing ; being in a state of 
growth and development j 4~«U)I O'jiJl 
(6wMdn) and 3L.LJI W (dtttwri) the 
developing countries 

i~.L> namiya pi. pl^J nawamin growth; 
morbid growth, morbid formation, ex- 
crescence, tumor (wed.) | SJikj-Ji i/W 
(saratdniya) cancerous formations {med.) 

*liit mu&inamin in gradual or continu- 
ing growth 

Jju muntamin belonging, pertaining 

^x* muntaman descent, origin, re- 
lationship; affiliation, membership; com- 
mitment 

^ nahaba a u and nahiba a (nahb) to 
plunder, rifle, take by force (a s.th.) | 
^j^i i-sfJ nahaba l-arda and Ji^' *-*** 
(fan^a) to cover the distance (Jl to) 
quickly or at tremendous speed IV to 
let (» s.o.) rifle (a s.th.); to leave, sur- 
render as booty (a o to s.o. s.th.) YI to 
grip, seize (a the soul, the heart) | ^bJ 
IjAe ^jV (arda'adwan) to race along at 
a tearing pace VIII to grip, seize (a the 
soul, the heart); to rifle, snatch away 
(a s.th.); to take in eagerly, devour (a 
s.th.; said of the eyes) | ^jVl t^Jl 
{arda) to dash along, drive at full speed; 
JjJJl u*pi (tanga) do., to cover the 
distance (Jl to) quickly or at tremen- 
dous speed 

._*$; nahb robbery, plundering, pillage, 
looting, spoliation; gallop; (pi. i_jI$j 
nihdb) plunder, spoils, booty, loot; 
prey; L^ nahban by robbery 



i-fl nuhba booty, plunder, spoils, loot; 

prey 

^1 nuhba booty, plunder, spoils, loot 

^{# nahhdb robber; plunderer, ma- 
rauder, looter 

u^U ndhib pi. -un robber; plunderer, 
marauder, looter 

lj^ nuhbura abyss; hell 

p& nahaj a a (nahj) to proceed, act ; to enter 
(a upon a road), take (a a route or course), 
follow, pursue (a a way, a road); to 
make clear, clarify (a s.th.);- to be open, 
plain, distinct; — nahaja i and nahija a 
(nahaj) to be out of breath, gasp for 



breath, pant 



SL*. 



E* 



(kittatan) to 



pursue a plan; to assume an attitude; 
<Jlji* J* «{j (minwalihl) to follow s.o.'s 
example II to put out of breath, make 
breathless, cause to pant (o s.o.) IV do.; 
to be clear (matter, affair) ; to make clear, 
clarify, explain (a s.th.) VIII to enter 
(a upon a road), take (a a route or course), 
follow, pursue (a a way, a road) | ^xil 
aLj^ {sabilahu ) and X *Ly- •gj^** ' to 
follow s.o.'s example, follow s.o.'s foot- 
steps, imitate s.o. 

^ nahj pi. t-jv nuhuj a well-trodden 
path or trail; — (pi. ^ anhuj) street 
{tun.); — method, procedure, manner | 
<b^ pf (nahjahft) to follow s.o.'s method; 
fy&\ 7y^\ the straight path, the right 
way, the proper manner 

—# nahaj quick breathing, panting; 
breathlessness 

~,^J nahlj quick breathing, panting; 
breathlessness 

«£-. manhaj, minhaj pi. «aL* mandhij 2 
a well-trodden path or trail; manner, 
procedure; method; program; course | 
JLdl «Li curriculum; ii»«Jl £*tl* m. al- 



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1176 



baht methodology of research, research 
methods 

( j>^^ manhaji, minkaji methodological; 
programmatic 

^■L^ minhdj pi. ^aLu manahij 2 way, 
road; method; program; curriculum | 
J»UiJl ^I^a m. an-nahat program of ac- 
tivities 

t^aU ndhij a well-trodden path or trail 

J^j nahada a u (:>^$J nuhud) to become round 
and full, swell (breasts); to be buxom, 
have round, swelling breasts V to sigh 
VI to share the expenses; to distribute 
among each other in equal shares (a 
s.th.) 

a^j nahd pi. *j£ nuhud female breast, 
bosom; elevation, rise, hump, bump 

•X^j tanahhud pi. -at sighing, sigh 

o.lf-j tanahhuda (n.vic.) a sigh 

aaU nahid full, round, swelling (breast); 
in the bloom of youth; buxom 

j# nahara a (nahr) to flow copiously, stream 
forth, gush forth ; to chide, scold, reproach 
(« s.o.); to turn away with angry words, 
brush off, rebuff, reject, repulse, drive 
away, chase away (o s.o.) VIII to chide, 
scold (o s.o.); to drive away, chase away 
<* s.o.) 

^J nahr pi. j#\ anhur, jlgjl anhar, j^i 
nuhur stream, river; — (pi. anhur and 
anhar) column (of a newspaper) | ^j I* 
if j£$\ (nahrain) Mesopotamia; ^fi\ »ljj U 
Transoxiana; oajl j^ Eridanus [astron.); 
OJjV jr n. al-urdunn the Jordan river; 

%, al-'dsl 



v>Ul jr n. as-salam the Tigris; 



the Jordan river; 



*UI 



Orontes (river in Syria); Ijl^l <JU (an- 
karan) to flow in streams 



iSjV nahrl river- (in compounds), 
riverine, fluvial, fluviatile 

jLfj nakdr pi. j^jl anhur, ^j nuhur day- 
time, day (from dawn to dusk, as dis- 
tinguished from pj yawn = day of 
24 hours) | *>Uj IjL^J nahdran iva-lailan by 
day and by night; jl^J JJ laila nahara 
day and night; ^jl jl^J (anhar) a wonder- 
ful day 

tSjlf! nahdri relating to day or daytime, 
diurnal; objt^j news of the day, miscel- 
lany (heading of a newspaper column) 

_^$jl anhar 2 see nahdr 

_>$J nahir copious, ample, abundant, 
plentiful, much 

j^j nuhair pi. -at little river, creek, 
brook; a tributary, an affluent 

jtgiil intihar rebuke, scolding, rep- 
rimand, reproof; rejection, rebuff, re- 
pulse, repulsion 

j# nahaza a (nahz) to push, thrust, shove 
(0 s.o.); to drive, urge on (* s.o.); to 
repulse, hold off, ward off (e s.o.) Ill to 
be near s.th. (a, esp., fig.), approach, 
attain, reach (a s.th.); to seize (a s.th.) | 
^jJLJl jaL> to attain (the age of) majority; 
!>-**»-' I jaU he was close to fifty, he was 
pushing fifty VIII Z*jJd\ j#£\ (al-fursata) 
to seize or take the opportunity, take 
advantage or avail o.s. of the opportuni- 
ty; J ~*~*j a j^\ (furpatan) to use s.th. 
as an opportunity for 

Sj^j nuhza opportunity, occasion 

Jlf! nahkdz: ^y^ jl$J n. al-furas quick 
to seize an opportunity, an opportunist 

jlt=*l intihdz: ^^ Jl^jl int. al-furas 
exploitation of opportunities, opportun- 
ism 

^jl^xjl intihdzi timeserver, opportunist 



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ajJI^J) intihaziya opportunism 

jLp nahaSa i (naM) to bite, snap, grab with 
the teeth (a s.th.); to tear to pieces, 
mangle (» s.c ) 

JtL^J nahhds snappish, biting, mor- 
dacious, sharp 

^^j nahada a (nahd, ^^J nuhud) to rise, get 
up <jp from a seat, from bed); to take 
off, start (airplane); to pounce (Jl on 
s.o., on s.th.); to raise, lift, hoist, heave, 
carry (<~> s.o., s.th.); to carry on, practice, 
pursue, attack resolutely, tackle, handle, 
take in one's hands, further, promote, 
encourage (v s.th.), give a boost, give 
impetus (^ to s.th.), bring new life 
(<-» into s.th.), bring about an upswing 
{<-> of s.th.); to stand up (t-* for), take up 
the cause of (.->), espouse; support, 
endorse, champion (^ s.th.); to rise, 
revolt, rebel (Jp against s.o.); to get 
ready, prepare (J for a piece of work, a 
task, or the like), begin, start, undertake 
(J s.th.), enter, embark (J upon); to 
be apposite, pertinent, apropos (argu- 
ment) | lx tf ( jk# (qcfiman) he got on his 
feet, he got up; ^Vl> ^Jup {bi-l-amr) to 
assume power, take the command; 
i^ 4>J-l c ■-<*!> (hujja) proof has been 
established for . . .; J*^ ^m^ (kiml) to 
lift and carry a heavy load; »i~-aJ1j ^j**? 
( f t6 J ) to take the burden upon o.s.; 
bU»JJIj JLSii ^A^ (dahdyd) to take 
losses and sacrifices readily upon o.s.; 
o j^Ll j\e j* (with masdar) he or it is 
not up to . . ., is not capable of ... ; (with 
imperf.) aUaj ^^ he undertook it, took 
it upon himself to do it HI to offer resist- 
ance (« to s.o., * against a plan, etc.), 
resist, oppose, defy (* s.o., * s.th.); to 
argue, dispute (« with s.o.) IV to tell (» 
s.o.) to rise, lift up, raise, help up (« s.o.), 
awaken, (a)rouse, stir up, animate, 
inspire, stimulate, excite, incite (* s.o.) 



VI to get up, stand up, rise, draw o.s. 
up VIII do. X to awaken, (a)rouse, 
stimulate, animate, encourage, incite, 
instigate, egg on (« s.o., Jl to) 

lj ^l nahd awakening, rise, growth, 
bootn, upswing, advancement, progress 

\J>4> nahda pi. -at getting up, rising; 
awakening (esp., national), rise, growth, 
boom, upswing, advancement, progress; 
resurgence, revival, rebirth, renaissance; 
(spiritual) movement; ability, capability, 
power j Ul^}\ <Lp r id an-n. Day of National 
Awakening (of Iraq, celebrated on the 
9th of Shaban); ojjj^I i-i^Ji the Euro- 
pean Renaissance 

,jJ>j^ nuhud raising, boosting, revival, 
restoration, promotion, advancement, 
furtherance, encouragement, activation 
(^ of s.th.) 

l*i*!jw. munahada resistance, opposition 

u J>\^j\ inhad awakening, arousing, 
stimulation, animation; promotion, ad- 
vancement, encouragement, initiation of 
an upswing, of a boom 

^l^jJL-i istinhad awakening, arousing, 
stimulation, animation; promotion,, ad- 
vancement, encouragement, initiation of 
an upswing, of a boom 

( _ r i» l J nahid rising, getting up; active, 
diligent, energetic | lJ JtA\J JJj conclusive 
proof, cogent evidence 

j^aIl. munahid pi. -un resistance fighter 

J^J tiaha/ja, nahiqa a (nahq, Jl^j nuhdq, J-^J 
nahiq) to bray (donkey) 

sii^j nahaka a (i5"l$i nahdka) to wear off, 
wear out, use up, consume (a s.th.); to 
grind down, crush (a s.th.); — (rmhk) 
and ruihiha a (nahk, iiQj nahka) to exhaust, 
weaken, enfeeble, debilitate, sap the 
strength of, wear out, wear down, 



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1178 



enervate, unnerve, waste, emaciate (» 
s.o.); nahika and pass, nahika to be 
worn off, worn out, run down, used up, 
spent, exhausted, enervated, gaunt, 
emaciated | <ui^ dlfi ( r irdahu) to injure 
s.o.'s honor IV to exhaust, wear out, 
enervate, ruin (o s.o.) VIII to waste, 
emaciate, enervate, exhaust (o s.o.); to 
violate, abuse, defile, profane, desecrate 
(a s.th.); to infringe, violate (a a law), 
trespass (a on rights, freedom of s.o.), 
offend against (a); to rape, ravish (U 
a woman): to insult, defame, malign, 
slander, abuse, brutalize (* a man) | V 
(il^ij la yuntahahu inviolable, sacro- 
sanct, sacred, consecrated 

dip nahk weakening, exhaustion, ener- 
vation, attrition; consumption, depletion, 
exhaustion; abuse, misuse; infraction, 
violation; profanation, desecration; sac- 
rilege 

*S^J nahka exhaustion: emaciation, 
wasting away 

fJl^Jl inhdk exhaustion 

iSl^ji intihdk weakening, exhaustion, 
enervation, attrition; consumption, deple- 
tion; — (pi. -at) abuse, misuse; infrac- 
tion, violation; profanation, desecration; 
sacrilege; rape; pi. otTlfol encroach- 
ments, trespasses | **^i-l tSl^S\ int. al- 
hurma sacrilege: Sj^*Jl iSl^i int. al-aura 
offense involving moral turpitude 

fj^» manhuk exhausted, worn out 

dX&* munhik grueling, exhausting 

J^j nahila a (nahal, J4I* manhal) to drink 

IL^j nakla pi. nahaldt drink, draught, 
gulp, swallow 

J^w manhal pi. JaL. rnandhil 2 watering 
place, spring, pool 

_$j nahima a {naham, <*l$J nahama) to have a 



ravenous appetite, be insatiable; to be 
greedy, covetous (j of) 

^ naham ravenous appetite, voracity; 
greed, greediness, avidity 

3*$.» nahma burning desire, craving, 
greed, avidity 

^j nahim greedy, avid; insatiable, 
voracious; glutton, gourmand 

^P nahim greedy, avid; insatiable, 
voracious; glutton, gourmand 

fj^u manhunt greedy, avid; insatiable; 
covetous, desirous (^ of s.th.) 

<C$j* nahnaha to restrain, hold back, keep, 
prevent (j& * s.o. from) ; to sob 

(^j and ^^j) l$i nahd u (nakw) and ^j nahd 
a (nahy) to forbid (^ s.o. s.th., to do 
s.th.), prohibit, ban ( j* » s.o. from doing 
s.th.), interdict, proscribe (jp * to s.o. 
s.th.); to restrain, hold back, keep, pre- 
vent (j^ s.o. from); pass. ^ nuhiya to 
come, get (Jl to s.o.; of news), reach 
(Jl s.o.), come to s.o.'s knowledge IV to 
get (Jl a s.th. to s.o.), make s.th. (a) 
reach s.o. ( Jl); to communicate, transmit, 
make known (Jl a s.th. to s.o.), bring 
(a s.th.) to s.o.'s (Jl) knowledge, inform, 
apprise (a J! s.o. of s.th.); to lead (Jl to, 
e.g., certainty, a result, a conclusion); 
to carry out (a s.th.); to bring to an 
end, terminate, finish, end, wind up, 
conclude, complete (a s.th.); to put an 
end to s.th. (a), settle, decide (a s.th.) 
VI to come to an end, run out, expire 
(period of time); to attain a high degree; 
to come, get (Jl to s.o.), reach (Jl s.o.); 
to desist, refrain, abstain (jt from), give 
up, renounce, forgo, abandon (^ s.th.), 
cease, stop (^ doing s.th.) | ^tcl Ji ^LJ 
(asmd r ihim) to come to s.o.'s hearing, to 
s.o.'s knowledge VIII to be concluded, 
terminated, finished, done with, settled, 



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JV 



decided, be over; to run out, expire, come 
to an end (appointed time); to end, end 
up, wind up (^ by, in or with); to finish, 
terminate, conclude, wind up (j* s.th.), 
be or become finished, done, be through 
(j* with s.th.); to wind up, land eventual- 
ly <J( at), get ultimately (Jl to); to 
run into (Jl a square; street); (with 
61 Jl) to come or lead to the point 
where . . . , end at the point where . . . , 
get eventually so that . . . , result in ... ; 
to come to s.o.'s (Jl) knowledge; to lead, 
lead up, bring (Jl uj s.o. to); to desist, 
refrain, abstain (^ from s.th.), give up, 
renounce, forgo, abandon (je s.th.), 
cease, stop (jc doing s.th.) | *JI ^1 
<dT k-*H (Hb'u kuUuhu) the entire burden 
fell on him; jl Jl j*^\ ^j\ the upshot 
was that . . ., the long and short of it 
was that . . .; ul Jf j» V' «u ^1 he got 
to the point where . . .; ^j-J^J.1 Lf- - r i\ 
(majlis) she finally got to sit down, found 
a seat ( j in a place) 

j^ nahw end, termination 

^1 nahy prohibition, ban, interdiction, 
proscription | ^*V \j ^^Jl {amr) unlimited, 
absolute authority, dictatorial power, 
command 

^ nahyi prohibitory, prohibitive, 
prohibitionary 

^J nuhan intelligence, understanding, 
reason, mind, intellect 

"L^i nuhya mind, intellect 

»l^ nikd* utmost degree, limit; end, 
termination 

ajI^j nihdya pi. -at end; termination, 
conclusion; outcome, result, upshot; 
the utmost; limit, utmost degree, ex- 
treme, extremity; nihdyatan in the end, 
at last, finally, ultimately, eventually ) 
5jL^JI J in the end, at last, finally, ulti- 
mately, eventually; ajL^jJ( Jl to the end; 



4jI$J ^j (bi-la) unending ( ly) ; Ailp j& J! or 
4 4jI$J V U Jl (la niMyata) unendingly, to 
infinity, ad infinitum; ajL^JJ to the 
greatest extent, extremely; <->jVl *A^ n. 
aUarab the ultimate goal; <jj*~d\ ^jL^JI 
(migra) minimum; (^Ju)l) (jjSj\ sU*" 
[kubrd, 'uzma) maximum; ULJl SjI^JI 
{'ulya) the best grade, the highest 
rating (in a system of school marks); 
fjjSi\ 4jL^J1 J *>-j± J*l (a r ld darajatin) 
absolute maximum (of temperature); 
t^iwail ijLfJi j *>-j* J5l (aqallud.) absolute 
minimum; SjI$JI JL>- hadd an-n. utmost 
limit, last step; JjU-1 J SjL^J otT (ni* 
Myatan, hidq) to be the ne plus ultra of 
skill, be extremely skillful; Sjl*- SjI^ 
happy ending; Jjlki! li\^ j (n. al-matdf) 
in the long run, finally, eventually 

<jl$J nihcfi extreme, utmost, last, 
final; ultimate, eventual; final, decisive, 
conclusive, definitive; IJLgJ niha'iyan at 
last; finally; jl^l pi. -affinal (in sports) | 
tiLflJI JJi next to the last, penult, last 
but one; ul^l tJu^J nisf an-n. semifinal, 
(jjlfJ £j rub f an-n. quarter -final (in 
sports); jl^ jiJUl (inddr) or jl^ Wj 
(baldg) ultimatum; jlf* £»- (huhm) final 
decision, final judgment (jur,); jL^ ^^U 
extreme remedy, last resource; jL^ J^i 
(fauz) ultimate triumph, eventual success ; 
yif *ljL. final match, final (in sports) 

jl$J V la-niha't infinite, unending 

y L4J V la-nihd'iya infinity 

»lfil inhd' finishing, termination, com- 
pletion, conclusion; settlement; suspen- 
sion, stop 

«Uj tandhin finity, finitude, limited- 
ness; expiration (of a period of time) 

*\&j\ intihd' end, termination, com- 
pletion, conclusion, close; expiration | 
J*- VI »l$xjl int. al-ajal end of life, death 

o U ndhin interdictory, prohibitory, 



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1180 



prohibitive | J»-j ^ dX^\J J^-j li* (hi* 
julun ndkika) here is a man to fill any 
man's shoes; ^ <£JL»lJ {also jc or c->) how- 
excellent is ... ! how remarkable is ... ! 
suffice it to ... ! let it be enough to ... ! 
to say nothing of ... , not to mention . . . , 
let alone . . . ; above all, in the first place, 
primarily; take, for instance, .. . ! »-j viX-AU 
it is enough to mention ...; uL <iJL*U (bi- 
an) let it be enough to ... ; let it suffice 
you to know that . . . ; not to mention the 
fact that . . . ; to say nothing of the fact 
that . . . ; aside from the fact that . . . 

ILfeU nahiya pi. s>\y nawahin ban, 
prohibition, proscription 

^i* Tnanhly forbidden, prohibited, 
interdicted, illicit 

ohx* mutanahin finished, terminated, 
expired; limited, bounded, finite; ut- 
most, extreme; excessive, exaggerated | 
obx. j£ unlimited, boundless, infinite, 
unending, endless; a»^\ j »bu (diqqa) 
extremely thin, of the greatest fineness; 
jk**i\ j oLi* (sigar) extremely tiny, 
minute 

<ui* muntahin ceasing, running out; 
finished, done; expired (validity) 

^X* muntahan finished, terminated; 
end; the utmost, extreme; highest degree, 
utmost limit | SxtJI ^^e. bim. s-sidda 
with extreme force; <5jJ1 ^^ J ( m - 
d-diqqa) extremely thin; *l^u* «1j to 
reach its highest degree 

(#jj) Aj nd'a u (nau') to be barely able to 
carry (v s.th.); to have to carry a 
load or burden («_>); to weigh heavily (^ 
upon s.o.) | J^J-U »U (html) to bear a 
burden with difficulty; to be weighed 
down by a burden; <d£l& »U (&»- 
kalkalihl) to oppress s.o. grievously, 
weigh heavily upon s.o. Ill to offer re- 
sistance (» to s.o.), resist, oppose, with- 



stand, defy (• s.o.); to vie, compete (« 
with s.o.); to fight, struggle, contend 
{» with s.o.) | *1jl*)I JjLj {'adaa) to be 
hostile to s.o., treat s.o. with hostility 
IV to weigh down, crush (« s.o.) 

*jl nau' pi. »I^Jl anwa\ oT^i nu'dn, 
tempest, storm; gale, hurricane 

•ljU* mundwa'a resistance, opposition, 
recalcitrance, insubordination; struggle, 
contention, strife 

1 (t_jjj) i_jU ndba u (naub, (_jL» manab, <uLJ 
niydba) to represent (jc s.o.), act as 
representative (jc of s.o.), deputize, 
substitute (^ for s.o.), act as deputy, 
substitute, or proxy (jc of s.o.), take 
s.o.'s (jp) place, replace [y- s.o.), per- 
form s.o.'s (,3p) office, act in s.o.'s {je) 
behalf; to return from time to time (J[ 
to s.o.), visit periodicallv (Jl s.o.), 
frequent (J{ s.o.'s place); — (naub, VjJ 
nauba) to afflict, hit, strike, befall (o 
s.o.; of misfortune), happen, occur (* 
to s.o.), fall to s.o.'s (e) lot or share, 
descend (« upon s.o.) II to appoint (« 
s.o.) as deputy or agent (jp of), com- 
mission, depute, or delegate (* s.o.) to 
act in behalf of (j^) III to take turns, 
alternate (o with s.o.) IV to depute, 
deputize {t> s.o.), commission or delegate 
(a s.o.) to act in behalf of (^J, in s.o.'s 
(Cf) place; to empower, authorize {* 
s.o.); to act in behalf of (j*); to send as 
a delegate (» s.o. to parliament); to come 
from time to time (J( to s.o.), visit 
frequently (Jl s.o.), frequent (J! s.o.'s 
place) | *ii I <J( t-jUi to turn repentantly 
to God VI to take turns, alternate (j or 
Jp in, also a in some activity), do s.th. 
(J or J*> a l so *) by turns; to visit, 
befall or afflict (« s.o.) successively or 
alternately | «_-»_^iaj-M 4^jbJhehas suffered 
one misfortune after the other A1II to 
befall, beset, afflict (a s.o.), happen, 
occur (e to s.o.) 



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lijt navba pi. <~>ji nuwab change, alter- 
nation, shift, rotation; (one's) turn; time, 
instance (= lj* marra); case, instance, 
occasion ; — (pi. -at ) fit, attack, paroxysm 
(path.); crisis; change (or relief) of the 
guard, guard duty, guard; bugle call; 
(syr.) troupe of musicians, small or- 
chestra of native instruments | 4jjJb 
alternately, in rotation, by turns, sue-' 
cessively, one by one, one after the other; 
4-o~a* ijjj ( r asabiya) nervous crisis; 
«u*it ob^J n. gadabiki his fits of rage; 
^* <4> (qalbiya) heart attack; C*\jjJ 
JA\ n. al-matar rainy spells, periods of 
rain; <jy o»U- it was his turn 

^o^' naubatji on duty; commander 
of the guard, officer on duty; doctor or 
official on night duty 

*^*ziy naubatjlya rotation (work), shift 
duty, esp., night duty (of a doctor, etc.) 

hjj nuba pi. i^tjl nuwab misfortune, 
calamity, mishap, misadventure, ac- 
cident, reverse, heavy blow 

ijLJ niydba pi. -at representation, re- 
placement, substitution, proxy, deputy- 
ship; branch office, branch, agency; 
delegation; prosecution, public prose- 
cutor's office (jur.) | jc ijlJ niyabatan 
'an in place of, instead of, in lieu of; 
SiLJLj acting, deputy, by proxy; jJL» 
ajLJL 4*»LaJJ (mudlr al-ma^laha) the 
deputy director of the department; 
^ SjLJIj in the name of, in behalf of; 
4«Uf 4jUJ1 ( r dmma) offices of the prose- 
cutor general (jur.; Eg.); «~»>*jJ1 5jLjJI 
('umumiya) prosecution, public prose- 
cutor's office (jur.); ^Jj>- ajU (ju£iya) 
prosecutor's office at a district court, 
office of the district attorney (jur.); 
<»LJ1 ij-jjj chief prosecutor (jur.); J-jSj 
*jUJI representative of the public prose- 
cutor's office (jur.); 4JUI obLJl (mdliya) 
the financial delegations (formerly, Alg.) 



jU niyabl vicarious, deputed, del- 
egated; representative; parliamentary | 
3LjL3 4*^£>> representative (parliamentary) 
government; U^J kjA^t (majlis) parlia- 
ment 

^-L. mandb replacement, substitution, 
proxy, deputyship; substitute; office 
performed by proxy, place taken as 
deputy; share, portion, allotment | ^->'J 
<uL* to represent s.o., substitute for s.o., 
act in s.o.'s behalf 

4jjLl. munawaba alternation, rotation; 
mundwabatan alternately, in rotation, 
by turns, successively, one by one, one 
after the other | ajjLIIj do. ; ^J\ i> jlx. m. 
ar-rly (Eg.) periodic rotation in irriga- 
tion 

4jLjl irwba authorization; deputation, 
delegation, appointment as authorized 
agent or deputy | LJUai obU! (qadaiya) 
requests for legal assistance (from court 
to court) 

<jj ] Cj tanawub alternation, rotation, 
doing s.th. by turns or in shifts ; periodic 
change; alternation (el.) | ^jbiJb suc- 
cessively, one after the other, one by one, 
by turns, alternately, in rotation; jU 
t_jjbdi relay race (sport) 

<_Jl; naib pi. t_jljj* nuwwab representa- 
tive, agent, proxy, substitute, alternate; 
delegate; deputy; (with foil, genit.) 
vice-; authorized agent; sergeant (Jord.; 
mil.); sergeant major (formerly, Leb.; 
mil.) ; authorized representative of a cadi, 
assistant magistrate (I si. Law), also 
^jt. i_-jU (Sar'i) \ ^-j^J\ <_*jU vice- 
president; vice-chairman; *LJI ^Ui 
( f dm7n) the prosecutor general (jur,; Eg.); 
^j^ «— -jU Cumumi) public prosecutor 
(jur.); Jji *_-jLJ (awwal) regimental ser- 
geant major, master sergeant (formerly, 
Leb.), luLe <-J\J warrant officer, acting 
officer (Ir.), JajjC- <~J\J corporal (Ir.; mil.); 



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.J^oUJl uJU n. al-qunsvl vice-consul; ^U 
dJILI n. al-malik viceroy; JL. ^JU {mall) 
financial delegate (formerly, Alg.); i _ r i£ 
*~>\j^\ majlis an-n. house of representa- 
tives, parliament; i^^iJ! *_jI^J n. aS-ia'b 
the people's representatives 

fc.Jlj tia'i& share, portion; allotment; 
contingent, quota; distributive share in 
estate, statutory portion 

SJU nciiba pi. -a£, t^JljJ nawaib 2 
vicissitudes, ups and downs (of luck, of 
a battle, etc.); heavy blow, disaster, 
calamity, misfortune 

(_jy_» munawivib mandator (jur.) ; con- 
stituent, voter 



VJ^ 



munawwab : 



iuU^ officer 



on duty, commander of the guard 
l^jUw munawib on duty (esp. officer) 

<_-j£» munib repentant 

<-jjlx» mutandwib alternating, alter- 
nate, rotating; rotational, by rotation, in 
shifts, successive | VJ^ 1 J^H (toyy® r ) 
alternating current (el.) 

2 <j^JI j» *^> bildd an-nuba Nubia 

(jy n£&i Nubian (adj. and n.) 

1 {Cjjj) CjU ndta u (naut) to sway, reel, 
totter, stagger 

2 £jjl not notes (mns.), also j^*^' ^>j> w - ^ _ 

ju_>j ndta note (mw$.); note, remark 

C-j>J tanwit putting into musical no- 
tation, scoring 

5 <JjJ nuti pi. Jljj nawdtiy, "LSjJ nutlya 
seaman, mariner, sailor; skipper | J\j* 
i^Ui ship's crew 



C> 



J ?mA Noah 



2 (r^j) »-U naha u (nauh, r\jt nuwdk, »U 
niydh, ^-Lj niyaha, ->-lx* mtma/i) to wail, 
weep, lament; to mourn, bemoan, be- 
wail (J* s.o.); to coo (pigeon) III to be 
opposite s.th. (a), He face to face (a with), 
face (* s.th.) V to swing; to pendulate, 
dangle; to sway VI to howl, whine 
(wind) 

fjl nauh and ?-\y nuwdh loud weeping, 
wailing, lamentation (for the dead) 

r\jj naurwdh mourner 

4*-ljj nawwdha hired female mourner 

S^L* nd"iha pi. f\y nawaih 2 , oULi 
nd'ikdt hired female mourner 

4*- L. manaha lamentation, wailing, 
mourning 

f-y II to halt for a rest ; to take up residence 
IV to make (a a camel) kneel down; to 
stay, remain (<_> at a place) | ^r-jJI 4-ie M 
4JSCiSCj (biCsxt, bi-kalkalihi) to be in great 
distress, be in a grave plight X to kneel 
down 

i-lli mundk pi. -a£ halting place, way 
station; residence, abode; — mundk, ma* 
ndk climate 

^L. mundki, mandki climatic 

(ijj) iU ndda u {naud, i\jj nuwdd, a\*jj nawa* 
dan) and V to sway; to swing back and 
forth; to pendulate 

x jy II to flower, blossom, be in bloom; to 
put forth or bear (a blossoms); to light, 
illuminate, fill with light, furnish with 
lights (J or a s.th.); to shed light (J or a 
on s.th.); to enlighten (J or * s.o.); to 
light (a a lamp) IV jUl andra to light, il- 
luminate, fill with light, furnish with 
lights (a s.th.); to throw light (a on a 
problem), elucidate, explain, clarify (a 
a problem); jj>\ anwara to come to 



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light, show, appear, be uncovered, be 
disclosed, be revealed Y to be lighted, be 
lit, be illuminated; to receive enlighten- 
ment, be enlightened X to seek enlighten- 
ment, insight, or an explanation; to 
receive light, be lighted, be lit, be il- 
luminated; to obtain enlightenment, 
gain insight, get an explanation, receive 
information 

jU nar f,, pi. jl^ nlrdn fire; rifle fire, 
gunfire; conflagration; jUI Hell | jbJi J^ 
jabal an-n. volcano; jU! .Uj^ slow match, 
fuse; jU! p^> saik an-n. the Devil; 
]* Jt jU ('alam) a leading light or 
celebrity; ic Je- jU j* j^>\ ( r alam) very 
famous; jli Jc OS*' to be on pins and 
needles; v^" t - 5 '-/ u * (Jowitj/o) heavy fire, 
drumfire (m#.) 

t$jli nan fiery, igneous, fire- (in com- 
pounds); burning, blazing, red-hot | 
4jjU ajT (in popular usage) motor, any 
motor-driven device; *jjU *>-lji (oVtr^ 
raja) motorcycle; ^jl! *-*>L- firearm; 
tSj\j j- (sahm) rocket; <^jU jlL> {talaq) 
shot (from a firearm), rifleshot, gunshot; 
<jjL> w-jUJI fireworks; ^jU ^jJLi. pro- 
jectile (of a firearm), bullet, shell 

jy naur (coll.; n.un. I) pi. j\y\ anwar 
blossoms, blooms 

Ijjj naura pi. -at blossom, bloom (of a 
plant) 

jjj nur pi. j \y\ anwar light; ray of 
light, light beam; brightness, gleam, 
glow; illumination; light, lamp; O head- 
light (of an automobile) ; lantern | O jy 
Jly (barraq) blinker, flashing fight; O jy 
CjU steady light; 4JV-OI jy n. ad-daldla 
leading light (naut); JsliT jy (kassdf) or 
i_a£5~ jy searchlight [mil.); O XJ+ j\y\ 
(kafiya) indirect lighting; jy}\ A umm 
an-n. the Virgin Mary (Chr.); jyi\ c~y- 
sabt an-n. Easter Saturday (Chr.); lii-JU 
jy bravo ! excellent ! well done ! j jJl ^lj 



to come into being, come into the world, 
be born; jjy\\ j\y\ traffic lights; *-$Ul 
6jjj (alldhumma) oh God, grant us your 
light! 

iSjy nurl luminary, luminous, like 
light; light-, lighting- (in compounds); 
bright, shining, brilliant, radiant 

Ijy nura lime; depilatory agent 

<j\jy nurani luminous 

Ijijjj nurdnlya luminosity, brilliance 

jy nawat (coll.) gypsies; vagabonds, 
tramps 

,jjjj nawari gypsy; vagabond, tramp 

ju nayyir luminous; shining, brilliant; 
lighted, illuminated, brightly lit, full of 
light; clear, plain, distinct; o\jd\ sun 
and moon 

j\y nuwwar (coll.; n.un. S) pi. j j\y 
nawawir 2 blossom(s), flower(s) 

j\La manar and SjL. manara pi. jjLl. 
manawir 2 , j\i* mana'ir 2 lighthouse; min- 
aret 

jy^ manwar pi. jjli* manawir 2 light 
hole (in a wall); skylight 

j jJl tanwir flowering, blossoming, 
bloom, efflorescence; lighting, illumina- 
tion; enlightenment; j y^>\ and j j£ 
J^^aaJI the Enlightenment 

£jjL» see below 

2jlji indra lighting; illumination; en- 
lightenment 

lj\l na'ira hatred, flame of war 

jy~» munawwar lighted, illuminated; 
enlightened; shining, brilliant; bright | 
*jjJJ epithet of Medina 

jC munlr luminous, radiant, brilliant, 
shining; enlightening, illuminative; ra- 



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1184 



diantly bright | jC* *— »- (jism) luminous 
body, luminary 

jj^j> mutanawwir lighted, illuminated 

^cJL*. mustanlr lighted, illuminated; 
enlightened; educated; an educated per- 
son 

2 (jy) HI to maneuver 

oj jlu mundwara pi. -at maneuver ; trick ; 
shunting (railroad); CjIjjL-. military ma- 
neuvers | \yr C*1jjL« (jawwlya) air ma- 
neuvers; 42-Ujlo i)jl^« diplomatic ma- 
neuver; Sjjbll J^U shunter 

jjlu mundwir pi. -i«i maneuverer, 
tactician, manipulator 

ry_y nauraj pi. ryl>J nawarif threshing 
machine, thresher 

^jy naaras^ pi. ^jIjj »aw?om 2 sea gull (zoo?,) 

LJbu.j^j nurastdniyd neurasthenia 

^jGUj^J normandl Norman (adj. and n.) 
\jMLjjj normandiya Normandy 

jjjjj nauruz Persian New Year's Day 

H^y) ^U nasa u (naus, oU-jJ nawasdn) to 
dangle, swing back and forth, bob 

^y' nawwds dangling, bobbing, swing- 
ing; O pendulum (Syr.) 

8 ( _ r -jjU ndwus, u^j^ nd'us pi. ^jy' na* 
wdwis 2 sarcophagus 

s ^\j nds (coll.) men, people, folk 

Oj-U ndsut human nature; mankind 

j*y nausara to form a fistula (jj*>\1) 

J^y III to skirmish, engage in a skirmish 



(o with s.o.); to brush (a against s.th.), 
play (a around or about s.th.); to chal- 
lenge, incite, provoke (• s.o., to a fight) 

IZy nausa [eg.) typhoid fever 

UjIl» mundwara pi. -at skirmish; chal- 
lenge to a fight, incitement, provocation | 
<^ t j>- S-tjL* (harblya) military skirmish- 
ing, hostile or provocative action 

J^jt* mandtviP and ^-ij^* mand* 
wiH (eg.) bluish purple 

>>Ujj nusddir ammonia 

(^y) ^t* nasa u (nates, ^b- mands, ^yt^ 
manis) to avoid, shirk, evade, dodge 
(^ s.th.), flee, draw back (jc from) 
VIII to grow dim, die down (light, 
lamp) 

^y naus wild ass, onager 

^L. mands and i yt£* manip avoidance, 
shirking, evasion; escape, way out | ^ 
c- ^Ca (irtandpa) inevitable, unavoidable 

(ley) J»Li nata u (naut, J»lJ niydt) to hang, 
suspend (^ a s.th. on); to entrust (lj a 
s.th. to s.o., a cj s.o. with), commission 
(a <~> s.o. to do s.th.), charge (* i_j s.o. 
with); to make dependent, conditional 
(u or J* a s.th. on); pass. JaJ nlta to 
depend, be dependent, be conditional 
(<-; on), be linked (^ to), be connected 
(^ with), belong (^ to); to be entrusted 
(o> to s.o.) ; to hang, be suspended ( Jp on) 
II and IV = I | i*^ 4»U1 (bi-Sartin) to 
make s.th. dependent on (or subject to) 
a condition, make s.th. conditional; *Mjl 
4j-^aj (bi- f uhdatihi) to entrust s.o. with 
the responsibility for s.th., make s.o. 
responsible for s.th. 

J*jj naut pi. J»1jjI anwd/, i»Lj ?nya( 
s.th. suspended, hanging, or attached; 
decoration, medal, order, badge of honor | 
Sjl.U-1 i^J n. al-jaddra order of merit 



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JaJ nait pi. i?LJ m^a£ aorta | jjJb _^la^« 
t-*jJUJI Js«Lj <d (manzarun yusaqqu) a 
heart-rending sight; <~>J$>\ J^LJ Ja* to 
break the heart 

J»L. manat place where s.th. is sus- 
pended; object, butt (e.g., of mockery); 
anchor (of hope) | LjJl J»L* m.at-turayya 
or »lj_ji-l i»b^ m. al-jauzd* the highest 
heavens, as high, or as far, as the Pleiades 
(or Gemini, respectively) 

Js^J tanawwut, tunavnvit weaverbird 

VjL. manut dependent, conditional (<~> 
on) 

isjX* munawwat entrusted, commis- 
sioned (c-> with), in charge of (<y) 

J?L* munat entrusted, commissioned 
(«j with), in charge of {U) 

£j II to divide into various kinds, classify 
(a s.th.); to make different, diversify, 
vary, variegate (a s.th.), give variety 
(a to); to change, alter, vary, modify, 
alter in its outward appearance (a s.th.), 
change the appearance (a of) V to be of 
various kinds or forms; to be manifold, 
diverse, varying, variegated, multiform, 
complex 

9j> nau r pi. f\y\ anwa r kind, sort, 
type, species; variety; way, manner, 
mode, fashion; form; nature, character, 
quality, grade; UjJ nau'an somewhat, a 
little; to a certain extent, in some 
measure, in a certain way, so to speak, 
as it were j U Uy somehow or other, in 
a way, after a fashion, somewhat; U^J 
XSj (wa-kammiyatan) in nature and 
quantity, qualitatively and quantitative- 
ly; ^U- 9^ {boss) in particular, 
especially; ^y j* Jj^l the first of his 
(its) kind; gp\j»\ Jp o^iLU oppressors of 
all kinds, all sorts of oppressors; fji 
OLJI/I n. al-insan or jLi^i fjA\ the 
human race 



^y nau r l relative to the nature or 
type; characteristic, peculiar, proper; 
specific; qualitative | ^ji {ojj or) JJtf 
{tiql, wazn) specific gravity 

ijcjj nau'iya pi. -at peculiar quality, 
specific character or nature (of s.th.) 

*jj^ tanwi change, alteration, modi- 
fication; diversification; mixture of var- 
ious things or themes; pi. CjUj^ miscel- 
lany, melange; Festschrift 

9yS tanawwu" diversity, variety, mul- 
tiplicity ; change, change-over, readjust- 
ment 

fy* munaiuwa' different, diverse, 
various, miscellaneous, sundry, manifold, 
multifarious, complex; pi. tlfle^u miscel- 
lany, medley, motley mixture | 6l*p 
SJI^p (gina'tya) medley of songs, potpourri 

«p^l- munawwcta {Tun,) medley, pot- 
pourri 

fyz* mutanawwi* different, diverse, 
various, miscellaneous, sundry, manifold, 
multifarious, complex; oUyju miscel- 
lany (heading of a newspaper column) 

x (iJsjJ and <_aJ) ndfa u {nauf) to be high, 
lofty, exalted, sublime; to exceed (jp 
or Jp s.th., esp., a number), be above 
(jfr or Jp), be more than (jp or Jp), go 
beyond (jp or Jp) | jjl Jp o>>J L. 
more than fifty II *JlJ nayyafa and IV 
to go beyond (jp or Jp), be more than 
( jp or Jp), exceed ( jp or Jp s.th.) | l _L r L L. 
Cj \jL« <L> ^j jp (taldti sanawaiin) more 
than three years, over three years 

tJslJ naf yoke 

JsjJ nauf pi. .Jsi^Jl anwaf that which 
exceeds a number or measure, excess, 
overplus, surplus 

c_aJ nayyif excess, overplus, surplus | 
j <JaJ or «_aJj together with round 



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figures: some..., ... and some, ... odd, 
e.g., OjjJ^-j <JaJ some twenty, twenty 
and some, twenty odd 

SiLj niyafa Excellency, Eminence 
(CopL-Chr. ; title of cardinals and bishops) 

Ja^ munlf high, tall, lofty; exalted, 
sublime; outstanding, excellent 

2 j_^. manufi a brand of Egyptian cotton 

<Sjil\ (d-manuflya province in Lower 
Egypt 

j\3jl nufimbir, novembir November 

3y V tjjS tanawwaqa and J~J tanayyaqa 
to be squeamish, fastidious, finical, 
dainty, choosy (j in) X JSyJL-1 istanwaqa: 
JJLI J^JUl (jamaia) he mistook the he- 
camel for a she -camel (proverbially of a 
mistake) 

4sLj naqa pi. 3j> nuq, JU niydq, ii»l*lj 
wagai she-camel | J^ *!jj ^-Vl J J «L> ^ 
(nagata, jamaia) I have no hand in this 
matter, I have nothing to do with it 

JJ nayyiq squeamish, finical, fastidi- 
ous, choosy, dainty, overnice 

ii^l ammk 2 foolish, silly, stupid 

(J^j) JU nala u (naul) to give, donate, present, 
offer, hold out, grant, award (<_j J or » 
to s.o. s.th.), confer, bestow (*_j J or « 
upon s.o. s.th.) II to let (a s.o.) obtain 
(a s.th.), give, afford, bring, yield (a » to 
s.o. s.th.) Ill to give, hand, pass, present, 
offer, extend, serve, hand over, deliver 
(* j or « to s.o. s.th.) | oLjJaJI aJjU (qur* 
bdna) to administer the Communion to 
s.o. {Chr.) VI to reach (a for s.th.), take 
(a s.th.); to accept (a s.th.); to receive, 
get, obtain (a s.th.); to take, eat (a food), 
have {a a meal, tea, coffee, etc.); to take 
s.th. (a) out of (,y), derive, draw, obtain 



(,y a s.th. from); to take in, grasp, 
comprehend (a the meaning of s.th.); to 
take up, treat, discuss (a a subject), deal 
with (a); to extend (», a to), include, en- 
compass (o s.o., a s.th.); to reach {• s.o.; 
of a glance); to partake of the Com- 
munion, communicate {Chr.) 

(JjJ navl pi. Jljil anwal gift; way, 
manner, mode, fashion; loom; freightage, 
freight 

Jl^j nawal gift, s.th. received; favor, 
benefit; that which is proper, right, in- 
cumbent, a duty | I IT J*iJ jl dUljj 
you must do this; Jlyj ^Jli ^ that's 
improper, that isn't right 

Jjii minwal and Ji^-» minwal loom 

Jl^u minwal way, manner, mode, 
fashion; method, procedure; form | Jp 
Jlyll Ija in this manner, this way; 
jl^Ij J[yu Jp > they are of one stamp, 
they are all alike; I AT J*£ jl .iiflj^ you 
must do it this way 

SJjL. mundwala presentation, offering, 
handing over, delivery ; Communion (Chr.) 

JjbJ tanawul taking of food, eating, 
drinking ; comprehension, grasp, receptiv- 
ity; Communion (Chr.) | JjUdl J^-* sahl 
at-t. easily understandable, simple to grasp 

JjLi* mutandwil reaching out, taking, 
seizing, grabbing; partaking of the 
Lord's Supper, communicating; com- 
municant 

<JjLi» mutanawal attainable, available, 
within reach; attainableness, availabili- 
ty; reach, range | Vjl^u j~&\ difficult to 
reach, hard to get at; sOj Jjls* (j) c^- 
(m. yadihi) available, at s.o.'s disposal, 
within reach, handy, on hand; JjLr* j 
attainable to s.o., within s.o.'s reach; 
^jjU Jjbu J within everybody's means; 
*L$iVI J£* Jjl^u (J comprehensible to all, 
understood by all; ^jbu j a J*>- to 



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Ojl 



bring s.th. within s.o.'s reach, make s.th. 
attainable, available to s.o. 

djiji naulun and j_^jL» nawulun pi. ,>J^ 
naivcUm 3 freightage, freight 

Uji) Aj ndma (1st pers. perf. nimtu) a (naum, 
fLi niyam) to sleep, slumber; to go to 
bed; to go to sleep; to abate, subside, 
let up, calm down, be calm (wind, sea, 
etc.) ; to be inactive, dull, listless (market) ; 
to be benumbed, be numb (limb); to 
neglect, omit, overlook (^ s.th.), forget 
((j* about s.th.), fail to think of ( je) ; to be 
reassured (Jl by s.th.), accept (Jl s.th.), 
assent (Jl to), acquiesce (Jl in); to place 
confidence (Jl in s.o.), trust (Jl s.th.) | 
oa»- *J* f W fawTa jafnihi) he sleeps the 
sleep of the just II to lull (• s.o.) to sleep, 
make (• s.o.) sleep, put to bed (», esp., a 
child); to anesthetize, narcotize, put to 
sleep (» s.o.) IV = II; to bed, lay stretched 
out (« s.o.) VI to pretend to be asleep, 
feign sleep; to seem to be asleep, look 
sleepy; to place confidence, put trust 
( Jl in s.o.) X to let o.s. be lulled to sleep 
or narcotized (J by s.th.); to accede (J 
to s.th.), comply (J with) ; to trust ( Jl s.o.), 
have confidence ( Jl in s.o.), rely, depend 
(Jl on s.o.); to entrust (i_j Jl s.th. to 
s.o.); to be reassured {^l by s.th.), 
accept tacitly (Jl s.th.), acquiesce (Jl in 
s.th.), content o.s., be content (Jl with) 

p^ naum sleep, slumber | pJ! Si^p 
gurfat an-n. bedroom; *jl\ ^aJi night- 
gown, nightshirt 

tjy naumt of or pertaining to sleep, 
somn(i)-, sleeping- (in compounds) 

A*ji nauma sleep, nap 

A*jj nuwama one who sleeps much, 



Ay naivwam one given to sleep, sleeper 



fjjj na'um sound asleep; one given 
to sleep, sleeper; late riser, slugabed 

* L* manam sleep; (pi. -at) dream 

Ai* manam place to sleep; bedroom, 
dormitory 

2ub> mandma place to sleep; bedroom, 
dormitory; nightwear, nightgown, night- 
shirt; — ili Lit Manama (capital of 
Bahrein Islands) 

fj£ tanwlm lulling to sleep; narcotiza- 
tion, anesthetization; hypnotism, hyp- 



<\j naim pi. fLJ niyam, *y nuwwam, 
-J nuyyam, Ay nuwwam, AJ nuyyam 
sleeping; asleep; numb, benumbed (limb) ; 
calm, tranquil, peaceful (night) 

py\» munawwim sleep-inducing, somnif- 
erous, soporific; narcotic; hypnotist; (pi. 
-at) a soporific, somnifacient | <*y\m '*&y? 
(jur'a) soporific potion, sleeping draught, 
nightcap; pjl* Aj* (dawa*) a soporific, 
somnifacient; *+y\» <-?ji*- sleeping pills 



L»JL*y numidiya Numidia 

^JUjJ numidi Numidian (adj.); (pi. 
-uri) a Numidian 

by II to add a final nun (a to a noun), 
provide with the nunnation (a a noun; 
gram.) 

by nun pi. -at name of the letter b ; — 
(pi. oLu ntndn, o\y\ anwari) large fish, 
whale | by}\ ji the Prophet Jonah 

i}y nunl shaped like a j, crescent- 
shaped 

3j^i nuna dimple in the chin 

^fj£ tanwin nunnation (gram.) | U* 
^iU^V'j j>ysi^ (idafa) they are like 
day and night, they are diametrically 



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1188 



opposed, they are as unlike as they could 
be 

jvjj nuwambir (Mor.) November 

*j) II to raise, elevate (a s.th.); to praise, 
laud, extol, acclaim (u> s.o.), speak 
highly (^ of); to commend, cite (^ s.o. 
or s.th.); to stress, emphasize (^ s.th.); 
to make mention, speak (l_j of s.o. or 
s.th.), refer (<^> to, also ^ to s.th.), 
name, mention (je s.th.); to hint (jc- or 
^ or Jl at), allude (^ or ^ or Jl to), 
intimate, imply (^ or v or Jf s.th.) 

<lj£ tanwih encomium, tribute, praise; 
mentioning, mention; reference; hint, 
allusion 

tjy nawa i (iJ niyya, e\y nawah) to intend, 
propose, purpose, plan, have in mind, 
make up one's mind (a to do s.th.), 
resolve, determine (a on s.th. or to do 
s.th.); — % (tjjj nawan) to absent o.s., 
go away (^ or j- from) II to miaow (cat) 
III to make an enemy of s.o. {*), fall out 
with s.o. («), be hostile, antagonistic (* 
to), declare o.s. the enemy {« of) VIII to 
propose, purpose, intend (a to do s.th.) 

gy nawan remoteness, distance ; desti- 
nation 

t^y nawan (coll.) date pits; fruit ker- 
nels, stones 

l\y nawah (n. un.) pi. CjLjI nawayat 
date pit; fruit kernel, stone; core; 
center; atomic nucleus; nucleus (fig., 
from which s.th. will grow), central 
point, starting point | SjJJI t\y n. ad- 
darra atomic nucleus 

(jjji nawawi nuclear, nucleal, nuclei-, 
nucleo- {in compounds) ; of or pertaining 
to nuclear physics, nuclear, atomic | <U*L-I 
<ijjj (asliha) nuclear weapons; \jy \j*~ 
{tajriba) nuclear test 



J nayy fat; see also under .J 

ij niyya pi. -at, \j)y nawayd intention, 
intent, design, purpose, plan, scheme; 
determination, will, volition, direction 
of will; tendency, inclination, desire | 
"Ll J* with the intention to ...; jl IjJI j 
it is intended to ...; 4;jJ! j-«>- husn an-n. 
good intention, good will, sincerity, hon- 
esty; iJ! <**&* salamat an-n. guileless- 
ness, innocence, sincerity; bona fides, 
good faith {jur.); ZJ\ A** undesigning, 
guileless, artless, sincere; simplehearted, 
ingenuous, simple-minded; a-J1 *y su* 
an-n. evil intent, insincerity, malice, 
cunning, deceit; (jur.) bad faith, mala 
fides, dolus malus; ^jJI *j~j against one's 
better judgment; (jur.) in bad faith, 
mala fide; SLJl JU» sdfi n-n. sincere, 
candid, frank, openhearted; 4-Jl 4 U A±\ 
(niyata) to be loyally attached to s.o. or 
s.th.; J ou (j^U-l or j «cuj cJLo- hasunat 
niyatuhu fi do. ; to have good intentions, 
be well-intentioned toward...; 4^jJ JU»I 
(nlyatahu) to evoke the right intention 
in one's heart (ethical and religious); 
J*. LJ1 JJU- to determine on s.th., resolve 
to do s.th., direct one's intention to 

jL. munawin hostile, unfriendly 

(»j) *\j na'a i (»j nay\ »jJ nuyu\ S#^J 
nuyiVa) to be raw, uncooked (esp., meat) 

nj ni, j nly raw; unripe; gross 
(weight); see also under ^y 

\-*\j nab pi. uLJl anyab, «_j^J nuyub, <_*ajIj1 
andyib 2 canine tooth, eyetooth; tusk; 
fang | 4jLJ| ^f. jiS" (kassara) to bare one's 
teeth 

i_jU nab pi. *_-»LJl anyab, <~>yj nuyub t 
<^jj nib old she-camel 

uyrJJ^ nitrogen, nitrojin nitrogen (chem.) 



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1189 



JJ 



j>*~}\ an-nljar, an-nlgar Niger (country and 
river in W Africa) 

U>>~J nljeriyd, nigiriyd Nigeria (country 
in W Africa) 

«Jcu mutanayyah late lamented, deceased 
{Chr.i eg.) 

*jO nayyir and 6l>! rttraw see under J j^j 

2 jJ »tr pi. jLjI anydr, b\ju nirdn yoke 
S jw ntra gums (of the teeth) 

<Jjjv nairubi Nairobi (capital of Kenya) 

}jjo nairuz New Year's Day (Chr.-Copt.) 

£l>j naizak pi. iijLj naydzik 2 short lance; 
shooting star, meteor 

^-aJ ms Nice (seaport in S France) 

OLjJ nisdn 2 April (/Syr., Le&., Jord., /r.) 

oLSju nUan see olli (,^-iJ) 

j^aJ wt> porcupine 

JaJ, i»LJ see Ja^j 

(JaJ see «JsjJ 

JJ see (3_^ 

L-^JLJ niqosiyd Nicosia (capital of Cyprus) 

(iLJ) i}\j ndka i to have sexual intercourse 
(U with a woman) 

<JCj nikl nickel 

J (JJ) JU ndla (1st pers. perf. niltu) a (nail, JU* 
mandl) to obtain, attain, achieve (a 
s.th.), get hold, get possession (a of); to 



win, gain, acquire, earn (a s.th.); to get, 
obtain, procure (J * s.th. for s.o.); to 
accomplish (j* a s.th. with s.o.), succeed 
(j- a in s.th. with s.o.), get s.th. (a) from 
s.o. (<>); to affect, influence (,y s.o., 
s.th.), bear upon s.th. (j*); to cause 
damage, do harm (^ to s.o., to s.th.), 
prejudice, impair, harm (<y s.th.) | 
*-** j* u- 9 tJU ( e *>rf*7w) to decry, depreciate, 
discredit, defame, malign, slander s.o.; 
JU. ^jl <o, JU (aufara maudlin) to do s.o. 
untold damage, harm s.o. most grievous- 
ly; *j~i «JU (6*-5il s *ft) to harm s.o. or 
s.th.; j~ki <dU (bi-durrin) do.; <-iJ ^ JU 
JU. iJLl see JU* below IV to make or 
let (J or » s.o.) obtain (a s.th.), procure, 
get (J a or e a s.th. for s.o.) 

Jj nail obtainment, attainment, acqui- 
sition; a favor received; derogation, de- 
valuation, disparagement (,y of s.th.) 

JU. mandl obtainment, attainment, 
achievement, acquisition | JUil jl*j un- 
attainable; intangible, impalpable, far 
from reality; JU11 l^jw ?a e b al-m. un- 
attainable; JUil (J^- or) i^jjs (sahl) 
easy to get, attainable; JUil j£t mum* 



kin al-m. attainable 



; JU. £ 



«>JU 
(ablaga maudlin) it made the deepest im- 
pression on him 

JjU ndHl acquirer, earner, obtainer, 
gainer, winner; a favor received, a boon, 
benefit, gain 

2 Jj II to dye with indigo (a s.th.) 

Jj nil, itJ nila indigo plant, indigo 

JjjU munayyal dyed with indigo 

3 jj II (eg.) to channel Nile water onto the 
fields for the purpose of alluviating the 
soil 

J-Jl an-nil the Nile | JjJI ^J zaman 
an-n. time of the Nile inundation; ^1^ 



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1190 



LJ! flowers of the European white water 
lily (nenuphar) 

J^J nlll of the Nile, Nile (adj.), 
Nilotic 

J^ manyal Nilometer 

JvjJu tanyil (eg.) alluviation of the 
soil by irrigation or inundation 

r-JL-J nllaj indigo 

y^iJ nllufar European white water lily, 
nenuphar 

b^Lj nailon, nilon nylon 



oJ nlna mother 

<Lj see ^jj 

OjjjJ niyutron pi. -at neutron (phys.) 

LX\jjJ niyuraljiya neuralgia 

IjG*>\j j^J niyuzilanda, o-JJ"^jJ_jJ New Zealand 

UjJ niyon, niyun neon (chem,); neon illtinii- 
nation 

JjJ *jj> dau niyonl neon light 
iSj^ijJ niyuyork New York 



a abbreviation of \j^ hijrlya (foil, a date) 
after the Hegira, i.e., in Moslem chro- 
nology 

U Ad ha! look! there! y> U ha huioa look, 
there he is! Z\ U ha antum you there! 

— as a prefix (mostly written defectively) : 
IJLft hada (dem. pron.), f. a A* hddihi, ^X* 
hddi, <uU hatihi, pi. »Vj* haulai, du. m. 
jlJu hddani, f. jUU hatani this one, this; 
see also 1-U alphabetically; — iJI-i* hdddka, 
f. <i-LoU Adtfifca pi. ciUVj* hSulaikot, that 
one, that; — U&t hdkadd so, thus, in 
this way, in this manner; \JSUj wa- 
hdkadd and so forth ; — L*L» hdhund here ; 

— 1Jl;*U, IJUU haanadd, f. ^S Ul U, 
li c-jl U, IJLjIa haantadd, f. <jji <iJl U Ad 
anft d£, iS_^ U, f. ^i ^ U, #Mjl J 5 ^ L* 
etc.: I (emphatically), you there, this 
one, that one, that, we here, etc. ; here I 
am! there you are! etc.; — with suffix: 
iSU hdka pi. f"L» hdkum here, take it! 
there you are ! there you have . . . ! 
following (below) is (are) . . .; aS'La hdkahu 
there he is 



»U /id' pi. -d£ name of the letter * 

J~jU habil 2 Abel 

oU Ad^ pi. l^U hdiu give me (us) ...! bring 
me (us) . . . ! let me (us) have . . . ! 

oUU, 4jU and c£-LjU see U 

jjjU Adfor Hator, the third month of the 
Coptic calendar 

^jU (Engl.) harb harp (musical instrument) 

^U see «£a 

^iUi al-hdvir Le Havre (seaport in N France) 

fJU, TLa and <cTLa see U 

6i* hdl see 2 Jj> 

» VJa see U 

IJLjU, IJJ#U and tJbil* see U 



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<U Mnim pi. r\j* haimnim (eg.) lady, 
woman ; (as a form of address to ladies of 
high society:) f*U L, madame! (foil, the 
name:) f*U *ijjj Lady Zanniiba 

^\y> haxvdniml ladylike 

IaU ha' ha* a to burst into laughter 

LaU see I* 

^!jU howdy Hawaii 

jjU hdwun, OjjU hdivun pi. ^j'^a hawdwin 2 , 
b\y>\ ahwdn mortar (vessel) ] djl$Ji £»-U 
midfa r al-h. mortar (m*7.) 

^U Aai/ili, ftaift Haiti 

1 u r Jt Aa& (imp.) and 4-a At&a see ^j 

2 (_jt &a&6a tt (habb) to get in motion, start 
moving; to depart, set out (J I to go 
to see s.o.); to approach, attack, tackle 
(Jl or J s.th.), embark (Jl or J upon), 
begin (Jl or J with), start doing s.th. 
(Jl or J); (with foil, imperf.) to proceed 
abruptly to do s.th., set out to do s.th.; 
to rush, fly (Ji at s.o.); to wake up; to 
rise, get up (j* from, esp., from sleep); 
to revolt, rebel, rise (Jp against s.o.); — 
(habb, v->j*a hubub, *-^^ habib) to blow 
(wind); to rage (storm); to break out 
(fire); to waft, drift (Jp in s.o.'s direction; 
of a scent), meet (J* s.o.; of a pleasant 
smell) | (_jj^ ^ (harb) to take up arms, 
enter the war; *.jUJJ «_**> (muqdwama) 
to take up arms in opposition, rise in 
arms; Ustj (_-* (wdqifan) to stand up, 
rise to one's feet; *£j £~* (rihuhu) he 
is in clover, he is in luck's way, he has 
a lucky hand with everything; 4J <_-* 
^JSCJI (halb) the dog attacked him, fell 



upon him; «_j3j ^ ^ J£* (man, dabba) 
everybody and his brother, every Tom, 
Dick and Harry II to tear, rend (a s.th.) ; 
to blacken with soot (* s.th.); to besmut 
(a s.th.); to botch, bungle, do in slipshod 
manner (a s.th.) IV to wake up, awaken, 
rouse (j* * s.o. from sleep) V to be torn 

i*» habba (n.vic.) gust, squall; breeze 

uU habdb fine dust 

*->La kibdb soot, smut 

w-^ hubub strong wind, gale 

^_^ hubub blowing (of the wind) 

L^+* mahabb pi. vW-* mahdbb 2 place 
where or from which the wind blows; 
windy side, weather side, direction of 
the wind; blowing of the wind; draft | 

r-\jjM t-^ (i storm-swept, exposed to 

storms, threatened by storms 

^~4* muhabbab sooty 



C--& kabata i (habt) to knock out, fell, throw 
to the ground (* s.o.); pass, hubita to be 
despondent, faint-hearted; to be dim- 
witted 

C-u* habit despondent, faint-hearted, 
cowardly; dim-witted 

j^ habara u (habr) to mangle (with the 
teeth; a s.o.); to carve into large pieces 
(a meat) 

j& habr boned meat 

Ijjn habra piece or slice of meat 

o^-a hubaira hyena | oj^s> y\ abu k, 
frog 

J^ habasa i (habs) to gather up, gather, 
collect (a s.th.); to seize, grab, clutch 
(«_; with the hand or with the claws) 



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iauA habata u i (^»j^ hubut) to descend, go 
down, come down; to fall down, drop; to 
settle down; to sink; to dip, slope down; 
to fall to the ground; to fall in, come 
down, collapse (roof); to set down (Jp 
on the runway; airplane); to land, 
alight (airplane, travelers, a in a country) ; 
to lose weight, become lean (body); to 
abate, subside, let up, stop, die down 
(wind, fire, etc.); to fall, drop, slump 
(prices); to go, come (a to a place); — u 
(habt) and IV to cause to sink or de- 
scend, lower, let down, bring down, take 
down, send down, fling down, throw 
down (a, * s.o., s.th.); to lower, cut down, 
reduce (a the price) 

Ja-A habt reduction, lowering; decrease, 
diminution 

iL-A habta descent, decline, fall, drop; 
depression (geogr.) 

J?_j-a hvbut sinking; fall, drop, decline, 
descent; caving in (of the ground); 
breakdown; collapse (also med.); landing 
(of an airplane, of travelers) ; diminution, 
lessening, lowering, reduction (of the 
price); decrease; weakness, feebleness; 
slump (on the stock market) ; abatement, 
subsidence | <jj\J&J>\ \»y* (idtirari) 
emergency landing; «*-J\ J*^* A. <w- 
rahim prolapse of the uterus, hysteropto- 
sis (med.) i ^JUJl j ijji (qalb) heart col- 
lapse {med.) 

.Uj^a habut slope, declivity, drop, cliff, 
bluff 

JL-* habit emaciated, skinny, enervat- 
ed, worn out 

O ^*^a1 uhbuta pi. Ja-jUl ahablf 
parachute 

■W.$» mahbit pi. Jajl^. mahabif place of 
a fall, of descent ; landing place, airstrip, 



runway; falling, fall, drop; place of ori- 
gin, birth place, cradle (fig.); O cathode 
(el.) | ij-J>\ -U^f m. al-wahy the cradle of 
Islam; <-?jjd\ Ja*^. j at (the time of) 
sunset 

JajU habit descending, falling, drop- 
ping, sinking | O «-»yi "*&&{ J*jU (mi* 
zalla, wdqiya) paratrooper 

J*>^* mahbut emaciated, skinny, en- 
ervated, worn out 

J-a habila a (habal) to be bereaved of her son 
(mother) V to take a vapor bath VIII to 
avail o.s., take advantage (a of an op- 
portunity); to intrigue, scheme | J«aI 
^ILa ihtabil habalaka watch out for your 
own interests! take care of your own 
affairs! mind your own business! 

J-a hubal Hubal, name of an ancient 
Arabian god 

J^a hiball a tall, husky man 

J-a habil dolt, fool 

J-aI ahbal 2 , f. >*&j> habla' 2 , pi. J*a hubl 
dim-witted, weak-minded, imbecilic, idi- 
otic 

J*^. mahbal, mahbil pi. Jjl^ rnahabU 2 
vagina 

J-^. mahbali vaginal 

J-^. mihbal nimble 

Jj r ^. mahbvl stupid, imbecilic, idiotic; 
dolt, dunce, fool 

(^-a habhaba to bark, bay 

t-jl^-A habhab mirage, fata morgana; 
swift, nimble 

(^j-a) La habd u (j-n hubuw) to rise in the air 
(dust, smoke) ; to run away, bolt, take to 
flight 



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1193 



dJL* 



lyA habwa pi. habawdt swirl of dust 

»L» haba* pi. »L*1 a&fca* fine dust; dust 
particles floating in the air | jjz* »L* 
atoms scattered in all directions; *L* t-jb i 
(habaan) to vanish, dissolve into nothing, 
end in smoke; lj_^« »L* u-j«o {habcban) 
or ij^i- »L* *L# (rfa'a) to go up in 
smoke, fall through, come to nought, 
dissolve into nothing ; *La <u «_jto (habd'an) 
to ruin, thwart s.th.; to scatter s.th. in 
all directions 

1*La habd'a {n. un.) dust particle; mote 



l s* hatara i (hatr) to tear to pieces {* s.th.) 
Ill to ahuse, revile, insult, call names 
{» s.o.) IV {also pass, uhtira) to become 
feeble-minded, childish (old man) VI to 
revile each other, fling accusations at 
each other; to be contradictory, con- 
flicting (testimonies; Isl. Law) X to be 
negligent and careless; to act in a reckless, 
irresponsible manner; to make light (uj 
of s.th.), attach little importance (l-> to), 
slight, disdain, despise (u-> s.th.); to 
jeer, scoff (^ at s.o.), deride, ridicule, 
mock (<y s.o.); pass, ustuhtira to be 
infatuated ( v with), dote (^ on) 

j& hitr pi. j\taI ahtar drivel, twaddle, 
childish talk; lie, untruth, falsity, false- 
hood 

j*» hutr feeble-mindedness, dotage 

•J"l.f» muhdtara abuse, revilement, 
vituperation, insult; pi. -at wrangle, 
bickering 

J[£ tahatur confrontation of similar 
evidence (IsL Law) 

jU$— -I istiht&r recklessness, thought- 
lessness; wantonness, unrestraint, licen- 
tiousness; disdain, scorn 



jfa muhtar driveling, twaddling, rav- 
ing; childish old man 



mustahtir heedless, 
reckless, thoughtless, irresponsible; wan- 
ton, unrestrained, uninhibited 

j^Uw mustahtar blindly devoted (t-j 
to), infatuated (lj with), doting (^ on) 

2 j^jU look up alphabetically 

(Jix* hatafa i (hatf) to coo (pigeons); — {J>b* 
hutdf) to shout; to rejoice, shout with 
joy; to acclaim, hail, cheer, applaud (J 
or i^> s.o.); to jeer, boo (XJ> s.o.); to praise 
highly, extol (^ s.th.); (alg.) to call up 
(on the telephone) | *j Jc* to call out 
to s.o.; iJuU aj i_jcji> (lidtifun) a voice 
called out to him, an invisible force told 
him, made him (do s.th.); 4jLj£ <_J£a (6t- 
hayatihl) to cheer s.o.; t»*>tf *j£* (talatan) 
to give (J s.o.) three cheers VI to shout 
encouragement to one another, encourage 
one another (J* to do s.th.) 

Xou* l\ai\a shout, cry, call 

«J»b* hutdf pi. -at shout, cry, call; 
exclamation of joy; hurrah; acclamation, 
acclaim, applause; cheer (j to s.o.); 
booing, shouting down | <-jJL\ uilx* h, 
al-harb battle cry, war cry; <y 4JL#U 
J* \^\ storm of applause, thundering 
applause 

<Jl : Ia hatif shouting, calling loudly; 
(in earlier Sufism) invisible caller, voice; 
(pi. cJJiy* hawatif 2 ) telephone; O loud- 
speaker; pi. <Jal_j* exclamations, shouts, 
cries, calls | ^JuJl i_>uU h t al-qalb inner 
voice; iJJl^Ib by telephone; JT tJtfU 
automated telephony, telephone connec- 
tion with direct dialing; J\yt «JwU h. 
haivai radio telephone, police radio 

jjjb h&tifi telephonic, telephone- (in 
compounds) | UuU <u J^aJl (iUa$ala) he 
got in touch with him by phone 

z* hataka i (hath) to tear apart, rip apart 



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1194 



(a s.th., esp., a curtain, a veil); to unveil, 
uncover, discover, disclose, reveal (a 
s.th.); to disgrace, rape, ravish (U a 
woman) | <J>jc* diz* Cirdahu) to dis- 
grace s.o. II to tear to shreds, rip to 
pieces, tatter (a s.th.) V to get torn; to 
be exposed, shown up, discredited, dis- 
graced, dishonored, ravished, raped; to 
give o.s. over (j to s.th. disgraceful); to 
be disgraceful, dishonorable, shameless, 
impudent VIII pass, of hataka 

viiiA hath tearing, rending, ripping 
apart; disclosure, exposure, expose; dis- 
honoring, disgracing, degradation, de- 
basement, rape, ravishing | jlz-Vl tiiz* 
disclosure, uncovering of s.th. hidden 

4&a hutka dishonoring, disgracing, 
degradation, debasement 

4SL1A hatlka disgrace, scandal 

tiJb^j tahattuk shamelessness, immorali- 
ty; impudence, insolence 

dJU^u mutahattik insolent, impudent; 
shameless, dishonorable 

tfJU^L*. mustahtik insolent, impudent; 
shame? ess, dishonorable 

Jca II tahatlara to behave like, or imitate, 
Hitler 

i»b& hutama s.th. broken off, fragment, 
breakage 

1*1 ahtam 2 , f. *\^> hatma? 2 , pi. Ia 
hutm having no front teeth; toothless 

Ij+za Imtmara garrulity, loquacity; O abnor- 
mal speech flow, logorrhea (path.) 

JZ& hatana i (hatn t dj& hutun) to discharge 
a pouring rain (sky) 

OjZ* hatun rain-fraught, heavy with 
rain (cloud) 



«a hajja u (^.£ hajlj) to burn, be on fire, 
be aflame; to flame, blaze, be ablaze 

II to set ablaze, stir up, stoke (a the fire) 

Uf- haja'a a (•-» haf , *jJ~ huju) to be ap- 
peased (hunger) IV <lc^- L£( (ju'ahu) to 
appease s.o.'s hunger 

-l£ hajada u (ij£ hujud) and Y to stay 
awake at night, keep a night vigil; to 
spend the night in prayer 

j£ ha jam u (hajr> o\j£ hijran) to emigrate; 
to dissociate o.s., separate, part, secede, 
keep away (a, » from), part company (» 
with ) ; to give up, renounce, forgo, avoid 
(a s.th.); to abandon, surrender, leave 
behind ( Jl a s.th. to s.o.), relinquish, leave, 
give up, vacate (a s.th., Ji in favor of 
s.o.) II to induce (• s.o.) to emigrate 

III to emigrate; to migrate, drift away 
{j* from an area); (leb.) to be carried 
away, be in ecstasy, be out of this world 
( j because of, by) IV to leave, abandon, 
give up (a s.th.); to talk nonsense, talk 
through one's hat VI to desert one an- 
other, part company, separate, break up 

jjft hajr abandonment, forsaking, leav- 
ing, separation; avoidance, abstention; 
separation from the beloved one ; hottest 
time of the day 

j£ hujr obscene language 

lj£ hijra departure, exit; emigration, 
exodus; immigration (Jl to); abandon- 
ment, giving up (of s.th.), renunciation 
(of); S^^l the Hegira, the emigration of 
the Prophet Mohammed from Mecca to 
Medina in 622 A.D. | «j*^if\ j^ epithet 
of Medina; <JuJ\ j* »^W' (**/) rural 
exodus, migration from rural areas 

(_sy~ hijrl of the. Hegira, pertaining 
to Mohammed's emigration | \j£ <~* 
(sana) a year of the Hegira, a year of the 



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Muslim era (beginning with Mohammed's 
emigration) 

lj~ hujra, hijra pi. j£ hujar, hijar 
agricultural settlement of the Wahabi 
Ikhwan in Nejd 

*\j& hajrd' 2 obscene language 

jj~ hajlr midday heat 

IjJt hajira midday heat, midday, noon 

j*^a mahjar pi. j>-\-&* makajir 2 place 
of emigration, retreat, refuge, sanctuary ; 
emigration; settlement, colony ; j^\ the 
Mahjar, the Arab diaspora, Arabs living 
abroad, specif., in the New World 

6j>+4* maty®™ living in exile, exile (in 
compounds) ; pertaining to the Mahjar 

^l^ makajir 2 obscenities 

j^ tahjir displacement (of persons); 
evacuation, relocation {of population) 

»j»-lf> muhajara emigration 

Sjs^U hajira pi. ^y> hawajir 2 midday 
heat, midday, noon | *j>-^ ■>**- S°# 
al-h. meridian {geogr.); — (pi. -at, jr^j* 
hawajir 2 ) obscene language, obscenity 

i£/»-U hajirl midday (adj.); meridional 
{geogr.); excellent, outstanding 

jy*4* mahjur abandoned, forsaken, 
deserted; empty; lonely, lonesome; in 
disuse, out of use; obsolete (word); anti- 
quated, archaic 

j*-lf» muhdjir pi. -un emigrant, emigre; 
Ojj»-l$i1 (histor.) the Meccans who emi- 
grated with Mohammed to Medina 

^ hajam u i (Jiajs) to occur all of a 
sudden («u-ij j to s.o.), come to s.o.'s 
mind (<^Jj j); to mumble, mutter, talk 
to o.s. V to fear (* s.th., ^ from s.o.), 
suspect that s.o. (&*) might do s.th. (*) 

^Jb hajs idea, thought; foolish talk 



L-jfi hajsa pi. hajasat idea, thought; 
notion, concept; fear, apprehension, 
anxiety, concern, misgiving, scruple; pi. 
fixed ideas, apprehensions, misgivings 

^Lfi hajjds braggart, boaster, show- 
off 

^^U hdjis pi. <j~>-iy> hawajis 2 idea, 
thought; notion, concept; fear, apprehen- 
sion, anxiety, concern, misgiving, scruple ; 
pi. fixed ideas, apprehensions, misgiv- 
ings 

^^ (eg.) hagas mischief, nuisance, horse- 
play 

*£ hajaa a (9j£ huju) to sleep peacefully; 
to be or become calm, quiet, still; to be 
silenced, calm down, subside (uproar, 
excitement, and the like); — (haj") to 
appease (* the hunger)